Ramkumar Menon

Summary

Affiliation: The Perinatal Research Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Racial disparity in pathophysiologic pathways of preterm birth based on genetic variants
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 7:62. 2009
  2. ncbi Amniotic fluid concentrations of collagenase-1 and collagenase-3 are increased in polyhydramnios
    Stephen J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center, The Centennial Women s Hospital, Patterson, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Perinat Med 32:122-5. 2004
  3. ncbi Differences in the placental membrane cytokine response: a possible explanation for the racial disparity in preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 56:112-8. 2006
  4. ncbi Ethnic differences in key candidate genes for spontaneous preterm birth: TNF-alpha and its receptors
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Hum Hered 62:107-18. 2006
  5. ncbi Amniotic fluid interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 concentrations: racial disparity in preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 14:253-9. 2007
  6. doi Spontaneous preterm birth, a clinical dilemma: etiologic, pathophysiologic and genetic heterogeneities and racial disparity
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women s Hospital, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87:590-600. 2008
  7. doi Corticotrophin-releasing hormone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated term fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from term and preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:477-83. 2008
  8. doi Genetic regulation of amniotic fluid TNF-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations affected by race and preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Hum Genet 124:243-53. 2008
  9. doi Induction of triggering receptors of myeloid cell (TREM-1) expression in fetal membranes and higher concentration of soluble TREM-1 in amniotic fluid with spontaneous preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:825-30. 2008
  10. ncbi IL-1 beta is a better inducer of apoptosis in human fetal membranes than IL-6
    S J Fortunato
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation and Aquinas College, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Placenta 24:922-8. 2003

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. pmc Racial disparity in pathophysiologic pathways of preterm birth based on genetic variants
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 7:62. 2009
    ..To study pathophysiologic pathways in spontaneous preterm birth and possibly the racial disparity associating with maternal and fetal genetic variations, using bioinformatics tools...
  2. ncbi Amniotic fluid concentrations of collagenase-1 and collagenase-3 are increased in polyhydramnios
    Stephen J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center, The Centennial Women s Hospital, Patterson, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Perinat Med 32:122-5. 2004
    ..Herein we use polyhydramnios as a model to study the association of the collagenase class of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with tissue remodeling during pregnancy...
  3. ncbi Differences in the placental membrane cytokine response: a possible explanation for the racial disparity in preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 56:112-8. 2006
    ....
  4. ncbi Ethnic differences in key candidate genes for spontaneous preterm birth: TNF-alpha and its receptors
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Hum Hered 62:107-18. 2006
    ..The objective of this study is to examine genetic differences between African-Americans and European Americans for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for PTB...
  5. ncbi Amniotic fluid interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 concentrations: racial disparity in preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 14:253-9. 2007
    ..These differences in the amniotic fluid cytokine concentration might not explain the racial disparity in the PTB rate, but they are suggestive of different processes of PTB in whites and blacks...
  6. doi Spontaneous preterm birth, a clinical dilemma: etiologic, pathophysiologic and genetic heterogeneities and racial disparity
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women s Hospital, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87:590-600. 2008
    ..Current strategies of high risk screening and intervention measures may not be generalized, and a more individualized approach may be required to understand PTB and its prevention...
  7. doi Corticotrophin-releasing hormone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated term fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from term and preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:477-83. 2008
    ..1). AF analysis did not document racial disparity in CRH concentrations in PTB. In fetal membranes, African Americans showed a higher expression and production of CRH in response to an in vitro stimulus...
  8. doi Genetic regulation of amniotic fluid TNF-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations affected by race and preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Hum Genet 124:243-53. 2008
    ..This does not appear to be the case in Caucasians. These findings may be important in understanding disparity in rates of PTB between the two populations...
  9. doi Induction of triggering receptors of myeloid cell (TREM-1) expression in fetal membranes and higher concentration of soluble TREM-1 in amniotic fluid with spontaneous preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:825-30. 2008
    ..To document triggering receptors of myeloid cells (TREM-1) expression in fetal membranes and to estimate soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) concentrations in the amniotic fluid (AF) from spontaneous preterm birth (PTB)...
  10. ncbi IL-1 beta is a better inducer of apoptosis in human fetal membranes than IL-6
    S J Fortunato
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation and Aquinas College, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Placenta 24:922-8. 2003
    ..DNA fragmentation was seen in greater numbers after IL-1 beta treatment than after IL-6 treatment. This study demonstrates that IL-1 beta is a better inducer of apoptosis in normal human fetal membranes than IL-6...
  11. ncbi Immunoreactivity of human fetal membranes to peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS): cytokine response
    S J Fortunato
    Maternal Fetal Medicine and Perinatal Research Center, Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Perinat Med 26:442-7. 1998
    ....
  12. ncbi MMP/TIMP imbalance in amniotic fluid during PROM: an indirect support for endogenous pathway to membrane rupture
    S J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center, Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Perinat Med 27:362-8. 1999
    ..This study examines the levels of the gelatinases and their natural inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-TIMPs) in the amniotic fluid during PROM, preterm labor (PTL) and at term...
  13. ncbi Amniochorion gelatinase-gelatinase inhibitor imbalance in vitro: a possible infectious pathway to rupture
    S J Fortunato
    Maternal Fetal Group and Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation and Aquinas College, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 95:240-4. 2000
    ..To estimate the effect of lipopolysaccharide on gelatinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (gelatinase inhibitor) balance in human fetal membranes...
  14. ncbi Stromelysins in placental membranes and amniotic fluid with premature rupture of membranes
    S J Fortunato
    Maternal Fetal Group, Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 94:435-40. 1999
    ..To determine the expression and site of production of stromelysins in fetal membranes and to measure stromelysin 1 levels in amniotic fluid and amniochorion culture media...
  15. ncbi Interleukin-10 inhibition of gelatinases in fetal membranes: therapeutic implications in preterm premature rupture of membranes
    S J Fortunato
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, The Maternal Fetal Group and Aquinas College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 98:284-8. 2001
    ..To examine the effect of interleukin-10 on production and regulation of gelatinases by amniochorion in an in vitro model of infection...
  16. pmc Screening of novel matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human fetal membranes
    Stephen J Fortunato
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    J Assist Reprod Genet 19:483-6. 2002
    ..The objective of this study is to document the expression pattern of most of the MMPs cloned and sequenced so far in amniochorion during preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM), at term not in labor and during term labor...
  17. ncbi Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor pathways
    Sephen J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1159-62. 2002
    ....
  18. ncbi Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in fetal membranes and amniotic fluid during pregnancy
    Stephen J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center, Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Aquinas College, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 49:120-5. 2003
    ..To examine the expression, site of production and a role of collagenase-3 in human fetal membranes and amniotic fluid (AF)...
  19. ncbi Racial disparity in membrane response to infectious stimuli: a possible explanation for observed differences in the incidence of prematurity. Community Award Paper
    Stephen J Fortunato
    The Perinatal Research Center of The Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, The Women s Hospital at Centennial Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:1557-62; discussion 1562-3. 2004
    ..This study compares the immune responsiveness of amniochorionic membranes (AC) derived from African American (AA) and white (C) women to an infectious stimulus ex vivo...
  20. doi Racial disparity in maternal-fetal genetic epistasis in spontaneous preterm birth
    Stephen J Fortunato
    Perinatal Research Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:666.e1-9; discussion 666.e9-10. 2008
    ..To understand the differences in genetic interactions among tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and their receptor gene variants between black and white patients in spontaneous preterm birth...
  21. doi Patterns of cytokine profiles differ with pregnancy outcome and ethnicity
    Digna R Velez
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Hum Reprod 23:1902-9. 2008
    ..Preterm birth (PTB) is hypothesized to be an inflammatory response disease. However, no single factor alone is likely to explain PTB risk. It is more probable that coordinated networks of cytokines affect risk...
  22. ncbi Multilocus interactions at maternal tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin-6 and interleukin-6 receptor genes predict spontaneous preterm labor in European-American women
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:1616-24. 2006
    ..In this study we examine the allelic and genotypic variations and the gene-gene interactions in the TNF-alpha, TNFRs, IL-6, and IL-6R genes in maternal DNA samples by using a case-control model...
  23. pmc An evolutionary genomic approach to identify genes involved in human birth timing
    Jevon Plunkett
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Monroe Carell Jr Children s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001365. 2011
    ..We anticipate other human accelerated genes will similarly be associated with preterm birth risk and elucidate essential pathways for human parturition...
  24. doi Racial disparity in amniotic fluid concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and soluble TNF receptors in spontaneous preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:533.e1-10. 2008
    ..The objective of this study is to examine the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) in the amniotic fluid of black and white women at delivery...
  25. doi Amniotic fluid interleukin-6 increase is an indicator of spontaneous preterm birth in white but not black Americans
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Women s Hospital at the Centennial Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:77.e1-7. 2008
    ..This study examined the differences in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and the immunoinhibitory cytokine IL-10 in the amniotic fluid of black and white women in spontaneous preterm birth...
  26. doi Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and receptor (IL6-R) gene haplotypes associate with amniotic fluid protein concentrations in preterm birth
    Digna R Velez
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 17:1619-30. 2008
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-6 AF concentration, in situations of PTB, result from variation in IL-6 and more importantly IL-6R...
  27. pmc Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth
    Kelli K Ryckman
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9040. 2010
    ....
  28. pmc Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants
    Digna R Velez
    Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3283. 2008
    ..001). These results support a role for genes in both the coagulation and inflammation pathways, and potentially different maternal and fetal genetic risks for PTB...
  29. ncbi Association of genetic variants, ethnicity and preterm birth with amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    Ann Hum Genet 74:165-83. 2010
    ..AF cytokine concentrations were associated with interactions between genotype and PTB in African Americans, but less so in Caucasians...
  30. ncbi Analysis of association between maternal tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter polymorphism (-308), tumor necrosis factor concentration, and preterm birth
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:1240-8. 2006
    ..In addition, association between this variant and TNF-alpha concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) in preterm birth was also investigated...
  31. ncbi Human fetal membrane expression of IL-19 and IL-20 and its differential effect on inflammatory cytokine production
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 19:209-14. 2006
    ..The effect of IL-19 and IL-20 in pregnancy will be dependent on their concentrations and other environmental factors such as infection...
  32. doi Diversity in cytokine response to bacteria associated with preterm birth by fetal membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women s Hospital, Nashville, TN, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:306.e1-6. 2009
    ..This study compared cytokine and prostaglandin (PG) responses by fetal membranes stimulated with 4 different bacterial species associated with preterm birth (PTB)...
  33. pmc Investigation of genetic risk factors for chronic adult diseases for association with preterm birth
    Nadia Falah
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Hum Genet 132:57-67. 2013
    ..Given the limited sample size in his study, we suggest larger studies to further investigate possible HLA genetic involvement in PTB...
  34. doi Distinct pathophysiologic pathways induced by in vitro infection and cigarette smoke in normal human fetal membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women s Hospital, 2300 Patterson St, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:334.e1-8. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to document distinct pathways that are initiated by lipopolysaccharide and cigarette smoke stimulation of normal term fetal membranes...
  35. ncbi Salivary proteinase activity: a potential biomarker for preterm premature rupture of the membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:1609-15; discussion 1615. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to design a method to identify patients at risk for preterm premature rupture of the membranes using a simple assay of salivary proteinase activity...
  36. pmc TNF-alpha promotes caspase activation and apoptosis in human fetal membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, The Women s Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Assist Reprod Genet 19:201-4. 2002
    ..We have noted increased apoptosis in membranes derived from women with PROM. This study examines the role of TNF in promoting fetal membrane apoptosis...
  37. doi The expression pattern of two novel cytokines (IL-24 and IL-29) in human fetal membranes
    Judith Nace
    The Perinatal Research Center, Centennial Women s Hospital, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Perinat Med 38:665-70. 2010
    ..The functions of these cytokines in the reproductive system are unknown. We examined the expression pattern of IL-24 and IL-29 in human fetal membranes from preterm and term births and in in vitro in response to microbial antigens...
  38. doi An overview of racial disparities in preterm birth rates: caused by infection or inflammatory response?
    Ramkumar Menon
    Department of Epidemiology, Women and Children s Center, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 90:1325-31. 2011
    ....
  39. doi Geographic ancestry and markers of preterm birth
    Scott M Williams
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 10:27-32. 2010
    ..An alternative is presented that, although not yet proven, may make it possible to use a common set of biomarkers and their relationships to assess risk...
  40. ncbi Mitochondrial DNA variant A4917G, smoking and spontaneous preterm birth
    Digna R Velez
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and Center for Human Genetics Research, 519 Light Hall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mitochondrion 8:130-5. 2008
    ..Our data, although preliminary, support the hypothesis that mitochondrial genome polymorphisms may play a significant role in PTB through an interaction with smoking...
  41. ncbi Genetic associations in preterm birth: a primer of marker selection, study design, and data analysis
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 13:531-41. 2006
    ..We also introduce how the concept of gene-gene interactions (biologic epistasis) and gene-environment interactions may affect the predisposition to PTB...
  42. ncbi Fetal membrane inflammatory cytokines: a switching mechanism between the preterm premature rupture of the membranes and preterm labor pathways
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center, Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, University of Phoenix, Nashville Campus, Nashville, TN 37203, U S A
    J Perinat Med 32:391-9. 2004
    ..Inflammatory cytokines are involved in both preterm labor and preterm premature of the membranes pathways; however, the interaction between TNF-alpha and its receptors may dictate the clinical outcome of pregnancy...
  43. pmc 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with preterm birth in African American and caucasian women
    Chandrasekhar Thota
    1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Women s Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA
    Reprod Sci 21:244-50. 2014
    ..These results suggest that low levels of serum 1,25-(OH)2 vit D are associated with PTB, and vit D can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic marker in the detection of PTB. ..
  44. pmc A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the fetal catechol-O-methyltransferase gene is associated with spontaneous preterm birth in African Americans
    Chandrasekhar Thota
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Women s Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    Reprod Sci 19:135-42. 2012
    ..01) association between rs4818 and PTB. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that a synonymous polymorphism, rs4818 in the fetal COMT gene, is associated with PTB in AA...
  45. pmc Common polymorphisms in human lysyl oxidase genes are not associated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotype
    Tracy L McGregor
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    BMC Med Genet 12:92. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that common polymorphisms in the five human lysyl oxidase genes (LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4) may be associated with the phenotype of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis...
  46. ncbi Infection and the role of inflammation in preterm premature rupture of the membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation, Centennial Medical Center, 2300 Patterson Street, Nashville, TN, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 21:467-78. 2007
    ....
  47. pmc Vitamin D elicits anti-inflammatory response, inhibits contractile-associated proteins, and modulates Toll-like receptors in human myometrial cells
    Chandrasekhar Thota
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Women s Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    Reprod Sci 20:463-75. 2013
    ..Our results suggest that vitamin D can potentially decrease infection-induced increases in cytokines and contractile-associated proteins in the myometrium...
  48. pmc Polymorphisms in maternal and fetal genes encoding for proteins involved in extracellular matrix metabolism alter the risk for small-for-gestational-age
    Digna R Velez Edwards
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Institute of Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 24:362-80. 2011
    ..To examine the association between maternal and fetal genetic variants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)...
  49. ncbi The role of matrix degrading enzymes and apoptosis in rupture of membranes
    Ramkumar Menon
    The Perinatal Research Center of the Women s Health Research and Education Foundation and The University of Phoenix, Nashville Campus, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 11:427-37. 2004
    ....
  50. pmc Primate-specific evolution of noncoding element insertion into PLA2G4C and human preterm birth
    Jevon Plunkett
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    BMC Med Genomics 3:62. 2010
    ..We hypothesize that higher primate-specific gene evolution may lead to these differences and target genes involved in human preterm birth, an area of global health significance...
  51. ncbi Proteinase activity in human and murine saliva as a biomarker for proteinase inhibitor efficacy
    Barbara Fingleton
    Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 771 PRB 2220 Pierce Avenue, Nashville, TN 37232 6840, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 10:7865-74. 2004
    ....
  52. pmc Quantitation and localization of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the lower uterine segment during cervical dilatation
    Birgit Kemp
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Technical University, Aachen, Germany
    J Assist Reprod Genet 19:215-9. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to localize the respective messenger RNA and to quantitate their protein levels during various stages of dilatation...
  53. doi Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human progesterone receptor gene and spontaneous preterm birth
    - Guoyang Luo
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:147-55. 2008
    ..5 kg/m(2) (relative risk, 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-82.6; P = .02). Maternal carriage of minor alleles of +331(G>A), +770(C>T), and +660(G> T) SNPs in the PR gene is not associated with spontaneous preterm birth...