George F Koob

Summary

Affiliation: The Scripps Research Institute
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropharmacology 56:18-31. 2009
  2. pmc Corticotropin releasing factor-induced amygdala gamma-aminobutyric Acid release plays a key role in alcohol dependence
    Marisa Roberto
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:831-9. 2010
  3. pmc CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating
    Pietro Cottone
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, Harold L Dorris Neurological Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20016-20. 2009
  4. pmc MPZP: a novel small molecule corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist
    Heather N Richardson
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037 California, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 88:497-510. 2008
  5. pmc CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats
    Olivier George
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17198-203. 2007
  6. pmc Varied access to intravenous methamphetamine self-administration differentially alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Chitra D Mandyam
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:958-65. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Unlimited access to heroin self-administration: independent motivational markers of opiate dependence
    Scott A Chen
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2692-707. 2006
  8. pmc A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin
    G Neil Stowe
    Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Med Chem 54:5195-204. 2011
  9. pmc The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking
    Valentina Sabino
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1482-93. 2009
  10. pmc Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependence
    Marisa Roberto
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5762-71. 2008

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. pmc Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropharmacology 56:18-31. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc Corticotropin releasing factor-induced amygdala gamma-aminobutyric Acid release plays a key role in alcohol dependence
    Marisa Roberto
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:831-9. 2010
    ..Ethanol augments CeA GABA release in ethanol-naive rats and mice...
  3. pmc CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating
    Pietro Cottone
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, Harold L Dorris Neurological Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20016-20. 2009
    ....
  4. pmc MPZP: a novel small molecule corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist
    Heather N Richardson
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037 California, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 88:497-510. 2008
    ....
  5. pmc CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats
    Olivier George
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17198-203. 2007
    ..Overactivation of the CRF-CRF(1) system may contribute to nicotine dependence and may represent a prominent target for investigating the vulnerability to tobacco addiction...
  6. pmc Varied access to intravenous methamphetamine self-administration differentially alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Chitra D Mandyam
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:958-65. 2008
    ..We examined how intravenous methamphetamine self-administration modulates active division, proliferation of late progenitors, differentiation, maturation, survival, and mature phenotype of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) progenitors...
  7. ncbi request reprint Unlimited access to heroin self-administration: independent motivational markers of opiate dependence
    Scott A Chen
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2692-707. 2006
    ..showed a dose-dependent reduction in heroin intake. Changes in the pattern of drug and food intake in the present unlimited heroin access model may serve as independent motivational markers for the transition to a drug-dependent state...
  8. pmc A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin
    G Neil Stowe
    Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Med Chem 54:5195-204. 2011
    ..Importantly, both the antinociceptive effects of heroin and acquisition of heroin self-administration were blocked in rats vaccinated using the heroin-like hapten...
  9. pmc The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking
    Valentina Sabino
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1482-93. 2009
    ....
  10. pmc Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependence
    Marisa Roberto
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5762-71. 2008
    ....
  11. pmc Delayed satiety-like actions and altered feeding microstructure by a selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist in rats: intra-hypothalamic urocortin 3 administration reduces food intake by prolonging the post-meal interval
    Eva M Fekete
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1052-68. 2007
    ..The results implicate the VMN and PVN of the hypothalamus as sites for Ucn 3-CRF(2) control of food intake...
  12. pmc Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats
    Leandro F Vendruscolo
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 32:7563-71. 2012
    ..Thus, the GR system appears to be involved in the development of alcohol dependence and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism...
  13. pmc The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration
    Thomas N Greenwell
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:295-302. 2009
    ..The data suggest that the alpha1 adrenergic system may contribute to mechanisms that promote dependence in rats with extended access...
  14. pmc Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats
    Annika Thorsell
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain 130:1330-7. 2007
    ..Repeated withdrawal in combination with a history of alcohol consumption significantly elevated alcohol intake, and the amygdala may mediate the transition to high-drinking states in this model...
  15. pmc The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access
    Laura Orio
    The Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Addict Biol 15:312-23. 2010
    ....
  16. pmc Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats
    Thomas N Greenwell
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, USA
    Addict Biol 14:130-43. 2009
    ..The results demonstrate that blockade of the CRF-CRF(1) receptor system attenuates the increased heroin intake of rats with extended access to the drug...
  17. pmc Effects of CRF1-receptor and opioid-receptor antagonists on dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1535-42. 2008
    ....
  18. pmc Extended access to cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory impairments
    Olivier George
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2474-82. 2008
    ....
  19. pmc Novel cocaine vaccine linked to a disrupted adenovirus gene transfer vector blocks cocaine psychostimulant and reinforcing effects
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1083-91. 2012
    ..These data strongly suggest that our dAd5GNE vector-based vaccine may be effective in treating cocaine abuse and addiction...
  20. pmc Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism
    Scott Edwards
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neuropharmacology 62:1142-51. 2012
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'...
  21. pmc Operant behavior and alcohol levels in blood and brain of alcohol-dependent rats
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:2113-23. 2009
    ..The purpose of the present investigation was to more clearly define blood-alcohol parameters associated with alcohol dependence produced by alcohol vapor inhalation and alcohol-containing liquid diet...
  22. pmc Alcohol self-administration acutely stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but alcohol dependence leads to a dampened neuroendocrine state
    Heather N Richardson
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:1641-53. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Dissociation between opioid and CRF1 antagonist sensitive drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats
    Valentina Sabino
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:175-86. 2006
    ..The role of positive vs negative ethanol reinforcement in ethanol intake of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats is unclear...
  24. pmc Dynamic vaccine blocks relapse to compulsive intake of heroin
    Joel E Schlosburg
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9036-41. 2013
    ..Thus, our vaccine represents a promising adjunct therapy for heroin addiction, providing continuous heroin antagonism, requiring minimal medical monitoring and patient compliance...
  25. pmc Developing a vaccine against multiple psychoactive targets: a case study of heroin
    G Neilm Stowe
    Departments of Chemistry and Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and Worm Institute of Research and Medicine WIRM, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 10:865-75. 2011
    ..In addition, we detail different strategies employed in the design of immunoconjugates for a vaccine-based therapy for heroin addiction treatment...
  26. pmc Pharmacological evidence for a motivational role of kappa-opioid systems in ethanol dependence
    Brendan M Walker
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:643-52. 2008
    ....
  27. pmc CRF(1) receptor antagonists attenuate escalated cocaine self-administration in rats
    Sheila E Specio
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:473-82. 2008
    ..However, the involvement of activation of CRF(1) receptors in rats self-administering cocaine with extended access is unknown...
  28. ncbi request reprint Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: Circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats
    Scott A Chen
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:180-93. 2007
    ..The results demonstrate that rats will self-administer nicotine to the point of producing dependence, as measured by somatic signs, resistance to extinction, and measures of food intake...
  29. pmc Permanent impairment of birth and survival of cortical and hippocampal proliferating cells following excessive drinking during alcohol dependence
    Heather N Richardson
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 36:1-10. 2009
    ..Increased hippocampal apoptosis and neuronal degeneration following alcohol exposure suggest a loss in neuronal turnover and indicate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche is highly vulnerable to alcohol...
  30. pmc Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats
    Paula E Park
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 16:1867-75. 2013
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Diminished nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats: implications for vulnerability to addiction
    Laura E O'Dell
    Molecular and Integrative Neuroscience Department, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:612-9. 2006
    ..Enhanced reinforcing effects of nicotine during adolescence appear to contribute to the rapid development of dependence in this age group. However, the contribution of nicotine withdrawal to dependence in adolescents is unclear...
  32. ncbi request reprint Neurobiological mechanisms in the transition from drug use to drug dependence
    George F Koob
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:739-49. 2004
    ....
  33. pmc Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
    Walter Francesconi
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 29:5389-401. 2009
    ..Thus, changes in the intrinsic properties of jcBNST neurons mediated by chronic activation of the CRF system may contribute to the persistent emotional dysregulation associated with protracted withdrawal...
  34. ncbi request reprint Corticotropin-releasing factor within the central nucleus of the amygdala mediates enhanced ethanol self-administration in withdrawn, ethanol-dependent rats
    Cindy K Funk
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 26:11324-32. 2006
    ..There was no change in CRF immunoreactivity in the BNST or NAcSh. These results indicate that CRF, specifically within the CeA, plays a role in mediating excessive ethanol consumption in ethanol-dependent animals...
  35. pmc Effect of aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged session duration
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorder, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2238-47. 2007
    ..However, mechanisms other than downregulation of D(2) DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum may be responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dopaminergic function in LgA rats...
  36. pmc Intrinsic neuronal plasticity in the juxtacapsular nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (jcBNST)
    Walter Francesconi
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:1347-55. 2009
    ..These results provide a novel neurobiological target for vulnerability to alcohol and drug dependence...
  37. pmc Effects of naltrexone, duloxetine, and a corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor antagonist on binge-like alcohol drinking in rats
    Dong Ji
    Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:1-12. 2008
    ..MPZP did not affect alcohol or supersac consumption. Different profiles for drugs that suppress binge-like alcohol drinking compared with dependence-induced drinking provide a heuristic foundation for future medications development...
  38. pmc Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration
    Patrick Recinto
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1275-87. 2012
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Conditioned withdrawal drives heroin consumption and decreases reward sensitivity
    Paul J Kenny
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 26:5894-900. 2006
    ..Thus, conditioned stimuli predicting the onset of heroin withdrawal, and hence the reward deficits coupled with this state, may play a critical role in provoking craving and relapse in human opiate addicts...
  40. pmc Neuropeptide Y opposes alcohol effects on gamma-aminobutyric acid release in amygdala and blocks the transition to alcohol dependence
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 69:1091-9. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Conditioned opioid withdrawal decreases nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in the frontal cortex and olfactory tubercle
    John R Walker
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:203-11. 2002
    ..These results shed light on adaptations of endogenous opioid systems to conditioned cues, stress, and withdrawal, all factors that play a role in motivating drug intake...
  42. pmc Extended access cocaine self-administration differentially activates dorsal raphe and amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor systems in rats
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Addict Biol 17:300-8. 2012
    ..Increased availability of cocaine promotes greater tissue CRF levels in these extrahypothalamic brain regions, changes associated here with a model of cocaine dependence...
  43. pmc Activation of σ-receptors induces binge-like drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats
    Valentina Sabino
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1207-18. 2011
    ..These results suggest a key facilitatory role for σ-receptors in the reinforcing effects of alcohol and identify a potential mechanism that contributes to binge-like and excessive drinking...
  44. pmc Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout
    Kathleen Chu
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, SV 142, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92036, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:813-21. 2007
    ..In addition, a model is presented that may be useful for studies examining underlying mechanisms of the ethanol addiction process as well as for testing potential therapeutics...
  45. pmc Systemic κ-opioid receptor antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine reduces dependence-induced excessive alcohol self-administration in rats
    Brendan M Walker
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Addict Biol 16:116-9. 2011
    ..Nor-BNI decreased ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent animals, with no effect in nondependent animals. Thus, the κ-opioid/dynorphin system is a viable pharmacotherapeutic target for the treatment of alcoholism...
  46. pmc Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Drug Discov Today 15:371-83. 2010
    ..The therapeutic utility of CRF(1) antagonists should soon be clearer: several small molecules are currently in Phase II/III clinical trials for depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome...
  47. pmc Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonists selectively reduce ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats
    Cindy K Funk
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:78-86. 2007
    ..Here, we used an animal model of ethanol dependence to test the effects of CRF(1) receptor antagonists on excessive ethanol self-administration in dependent rats...
  48. ncbi request reprint Antagonism of corticotropin-releasing factor attenuates the enhanced responsiveness to stress observed during protracted ethanol abstinence
    Glenn R Valdez
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Alcohol 29:55-60. 2003
    ..Results of the current experiment demonstrated that continuous exposure to ethanol over a 3-week period leads to an increased behavioral responsiveness to stress, which seems to be regulated by CRF...
  49. pmc Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    Curr Protoc Neurosci . 2008
    ..This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each...
  50. ncbi request reprint Human urocortin 2, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)2 agonist, and ovine CRF, a CRF1 agonist, differentially alter feeding and motor activity
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1027-34. 2004
    ..The results suggest the existence of distinct forms of CRF1- and CRF2-mediated anorexia...
  51. pmc A CRF(2) agonist administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats
    Cindy K Funk
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 1155:172-8. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate an opposing role of the CRF(2) receptor subtype within the CeA in mediating ethanol self-administration in withdrawn, dependent and nondependent rats...
  52. ncbi request reprint Addiction and the brain antireward system
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 59:29-53. 2008
    ..Vulnerability to addiction may involve genetic comorbidity and developmental factors at the molecular, cellular, or neurocircuitry levels that sensitize the brain antireward systems...
  53. ncbi request reprint Measuring meals: structure of prandial food and water intake of rats
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R1450-67. 2005
    ..Thus log-survivorship analysis is not appropriate for identifying meal breakpoints, and the consideration of drinking in meal definitions can provide a better estimate of meal structure...
  54. pmc Probing active cocaine vaccination performance through catalytic and noncatalytic hapten design
    Xiaoqing Cai
    Departments of Chemistry and Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, the Worm Institute of Research and Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States
    J Med Chem 56:3701-9. 2013
    ..In depth kinetic analysis suggested that loss of catalytic activity was due to antibody modification by cocaine. The work provides new insights for the development of active vaccines for the treatment of cocaine abuse...
  55. pmc Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking
    Olivier George
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:18156-61. 2012
    ....
  56. pmc A combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone blocks compulsive cocaine intake in rodents without producing dependence
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:146ra110. 2012
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Impairment of dopaminergic system function after chronic treatment with corticotropin-releasing factor
    Emanuela Izzo
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 12, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, California, CA 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:701-8. 2005
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Reduction of anxiety after restricted feeding in the rat: implication for eating disorders
    Koki Inoue
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:1075-81. 2004
    ..Eating-disorder patients exhibit not only abnormal eating attitudes but also pathologic anxiety-like behaviors. The specific nature of the relationship between dieting and anxiety-like behavior is unknown...
  59. ncbi request reprint Increased anxiety-like behavior and ethanol self-administration in dependent rats: reversal via corticotropin-releasing factor-2 receptor activation
    Glenn R Valdez
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:865-72. 2004
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Locomotor suppressive and anxiolytic-like effects of urocortin 3, a highly selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist
    Glenn R Valdez
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN7, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 980:206-12. 2003
    ....
  61. pmc Review. Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3113-23. 2008
    ....
  62. pmc Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on alcohol drinking by alcohol-dependent rats
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, SP30 2400 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:431-9. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor blockade may attenuate cocaine self-administration by decreasing brain reward function in rats
    Paul J Kenny
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:247-54. 2005
    ..Evidence is accumulating that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors play an important role in regulating the reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse...
  64. pmc Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:475-80. 2008
    ..These results indicate that NPY abolishes dependence-induced elevations in alcohol drinking and implicate the recruitment of limbic NPY systems in the motivational drive to consume alcohol following the transition to dependence...
  65. pmc Alpha 1-noradrenergic system role in increased motivation for cocaine intake in rats with prolonged access
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 18:303-11. 2008
    ..The data suggest that activation of the alpha 1-noradrenergic system, perhaps in the BNST, is associated with increased motivation for cocaine in rats with extended access...
  66. ncbi request reprint Leptin and post-prandial satiety: acute central leptin more potently reduces meal frequency than meal size in the rat
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 177:324-35. 2005
    ..Many attempts to understand ingestion have sought to clarify the control of meals. Little is known about the effects of the anorexogenic hormone leptin on meal patterning...
  67. pmc alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol
    Brendan M Walker
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Alcohol 42:91-7. 2008
    ..None of the doses tested reliably affected concurrent water self-administration. These results suggest the involvement of the noradrenergic system in the excessive alcohol drinking seen during acute withdrawal in ethanol-dependent rats...
  68. pmc The role of CRF and CRF-related peptides in the dark side of addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400 La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 1314:3-14. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc Inhibition of kappa opioid receptors attenuated increased cocaine intake in rats with extended access to cocaine
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:565-75. 2009
    ..In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increased cocaine self-administration with extended access was associated with increased activity of the kappa opioid system in rats...
  70. pmc A role for the endocannabinoid system in the increased motivation for cocaine in extended-access conditions
    Laura Orio
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 29:4846-57. 2009
    ..These results suggest that neuroadaptations in the endogenous cannabinoid system may be part of the neuroplasticity associated with the development of cocaine addiction...
  71. pmc Brain stress systems in the amygdala and addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 1293:61-75. 2009
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Mice deficient for both corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and CRFR2 have an impaired stress response and display sexually dichotomous anxiety-like behavior
    Tracy L Bale
    Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 22:193-9. 2002
    ..These results indicate that both CRFR1 and CRFR2 have critical roles in gene regulation and the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress...
  73. pmc Escalation patterns of varying periods of heroin access
    Leandro F Vendruscolo
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:570-4. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that 12h heroin access per day may be the optimal access time for producing escalation of heroin intake. The advantages of this model and the potential relevance for studying drug addiction are discussed...
  74. pmc The role of the dynorphin-kappa opioid system in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:121-35. 2010
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Nicotine withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats
    Laura E O'Dell
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:167-74. 2004
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint A role for GABA mechanisms in the motivational effects of alcohol
    George F Koob
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 1055 North Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:1515-25. 2004
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Escalation of cocaine self-administration does not depend on altered cocaine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine levels
    Serge H Ahmed
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Neurochem 86:102-13. 2003
    ..These findings show that changes in cocaine efficacy or pharmacokinetics do not play a critical role in cocaine intake escalation...
  78. ncbi request reprint Neural plasticity and addiction: PI3-kinase and cocaine behavioral sensitization
    Emanuela Izzo
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, CVN12, La Jolla, California 92103, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:1263-4. 2002
    ..Our results show that PI3K is required for the expression, but not the induction, of behavioral sensitization to cocaine...
  79. ncbi request reprint Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis reduces responding for cocaine self-administration during extinction and reinstatement
    Cristina Orsini
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 925:133-40. 2002
    ..These observations lend further support to the hypothesis of the involvement of nitric oxide in cocaine addiction and extend previous findings to components of the cocaine addictive cycle associated with relapse...
  80. ncbi request reprint Chronic opioid exposure produces increased heroin self-administration in rats
    John R Walker
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, CVN 7, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:349-54. 2003
    ..These results suggest that passive administration of morphine sufficient to produce and maintain dependence facilitates escalation in heroin intake...
  81. ncbi request reprint Low dose cocaine self-administration transiently increases but high dose cocaine persistently decreases brain reward function in rats
    Paul J Kenny
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 17:191-5. 2003
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Effects of terguride, ropinirole, and acetyl-L-carnitine on methamphetamine withdrawal in the rat
    Michael E Hoefer
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 83:403-9. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Allostasis and dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y systems: implications for the development of alcoholism
    Glenn R Valdez
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:671-89. 2004
    ....
  84. pmc Gene expression evidence for remodeling of lateral hypothalamic circuitry in cocaine addiction
    Serge H Ahmed
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92103, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11533-8. 2005
    ..Results also support the value of using multiple analysis strategies to identify the most robust changes in gene expression and to compensate for the biases that affect each strategy...
  85. ncbi request reprint Nibbling at CRF receptor control of feeding and gastrocolonic motility
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:421-7. 2003
    ..These findings have important physiological implications and suggest targeted approaches for the pharmacotherapy of obesity and stress-related functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders...
  86. pmc Exposure to chronic intermittent nicotine vapor induces nicotine dependence
    Olivier George
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:104-7. 2010
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Effects of antalarmin, a CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and motor activation in the rat
    Eric P Zorrilla
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Brain Res 952:188-99. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint The neurobiology of addiction: a neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis
    George F Koob
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Addiction 101:23-30. 2006
    ..The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of addiction relevant for the diagnosis of addiction...
  89. pmc The gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptor agonist baclofen attenuates responding for ethanol in ethanol-dependent rats
    Brendan M Walker
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:11-8. 2007
    ..However, little work has focused on the effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists on self-administration of ethanol in dependent animals...
  90. pmc Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta stone approach
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400 La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:500-15. 2009
    ..This approach will promote translational research and provide a heuristic framework for developing efficient and effective pharmacotherapies for addiction...
  91. pmc Neurocircuitry of addiction
    George F Koob
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:217-38. 2010
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Animal models of motivation for drinking in rodents with a focus on opioid receptor neuropharmacology
    George F Koob
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Recent Dev Alcohol 16:263-81. 2003
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond
    George F Koob
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:232-43. 2003
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Neuroadaptive mechanisms of addiction: studies on the extended amygdala
    George F Koob
    Division of Psychopharmacology, Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, CVN 7, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13:442-52. 2003
    ....
  95. pmc Neurobiological mechanisms of addiction: focus on corticotropin-releasing factor
    George F Koob
    The Scripps Research Institute, Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, SP30 2400, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 11:63-71. 2010
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in rats: a dose-effect function
    Osamu Kitamura
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:48-53. 2006
    ..The transition from stable to escalated drug intake has been demonstrated in rats self-administrating cocaine and heroin using a single dose of drug...
  97. pmc Effects of dose and session duration on cocaine self-administration in rats
    Sunmee Wee
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, SP30 2400, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:1134-43. 2007
    ..Therefore, high doses or prolonged access to cocaine are more likely to result in a pattern of cocaine intake that reflects compulsive use...