K B Arbogast

Summary

Affiliation: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 56:443-67. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Cognitive rest and school-based recommendations following pediatric concussion: the need for primary care support tools
    Kristy B Arbogast
    1The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 52:397-402. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Head impact contact points for restrained child occupants
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention at The Children sHospital of Philadelphia, 34th and CivicCenter Blvd, Suite 1150, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 13:172-81. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Field investigation of child restraints in side impact crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    TraumaLink, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, 3535 TraumaLink 10th floor, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 6:351-60. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of abdominal organ injury in seat belt-restrained children
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Trauma 62:1473-80. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of the effectiveness of forward facing child restraint systems
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, 3535 TraumaLink, 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 36:585-9. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Normal cervical spine range of motion in children 3-12 years old
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:E309-15. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Anterior-posterior thoracic force-deflection characteristics measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison to post-mortem human subject data
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, Suite 1024, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 50:131-45. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Field use patterns and performance of child restraints secured by lower anchors and tethers for children (LATCH)
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 39:530-5. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Injury risk to restrained children exposed to deployed first- and second-generation air bags in frontal crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:342-6. 2005

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 56:443-67. 2012
    ..These results can serve as a data set for validating the responses of restrained ATDs and computational human models to low severity far side collisions, in particular the interaction between the torso and the shoulder belt...
  2. doi request reprint Cognitive rest and school-based recommendations following pediatric concussion: the need for primary care support tools
    Kristy B Arbogast
    1The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 52:397-402. 2013
    ..Conclusions. Although the majority of pediatric providers identified cognitive rest as important in pediatric concussion management, few provided written recommendations in the EMR...
  3. doi request reprint Head impact contact points for restrained child occupants
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention at The Children sHospital of Philadelphia, 34th and CivicCenter Blvd, Suite 1150, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 13:172-81. 2012
    ..Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a contact map of the vehicle interior for head and face injuries to rear-seated restrained children in front crashes...
  4. ncbi request reprint Field investigation of child restraints in side impact crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    TraumaLink, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, 3535 TraumaLink 10th floor, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 6:351-60. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of abdominal organ injury in seat belt-restrained children
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Trauma 62:1473-80. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint An evaluation of the effectiveness of forward facing child restraint systems
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, 3535 TraumaLink, 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 36:585-9. 2004
    ..These results provide those educating parents and caregivers population-based data on the importance of child restraint use...
  7. ncbi request reprint Normal cervical spine range of motion in children 3-12 years old
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:E309-15. 2007
    ..This study measured active cervical spine range of motion (ROM) in children ages 3-12 years using 2 methodologies: (1) a cervical spine ROM instrument, and (2) a digital videography based technique...
  8. ncbi request reprint Anterior-posterior thoracic force-deflection characteristics measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison to post-mortem human subject data
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, Suite 1024, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 50:131-45. 2006
    ..We contend that the thoracic compliance measured during CPR may continue to offer important force-deflection estimates in the future...
  9. ncbi request reprint Field use patterns and performance of child restraints secured by lower anchors and tethers for children (LATCH)
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 39:530-5. 2007
    ..This subset of cases demonstrates that consumers are using the LATCH technology, at times with significant misuse and that significant injury still may occur, despite use of LATCH...
  10. ncbi request reprint Injury risk to restrained children exposed to deployed first- and second-generation air bags in frontal crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:342-6. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Initial neurologic presentation in young children sustaining inflicted and unintentional fatal head injuries
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    Pediatrics 116:180-4. 2005
    ..This issue has legal implications in child abuse, for which understanding the clinical course affects perpetrator identification...
  12. doi request reprint Front versus rear seat injury risk for child passengers: evaluation of newer model year vehicles
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 10:297-301. 2009
    ..Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association between seating row (front vs. rear) and risk of injury to children in newer model year vehicles...
  13. doi request reprint Expert clinical assessment of thorax stiffness of infants and children during chest compressions
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Resuscitation 80:1187-91. 2009
    ..Similarity of manikin chest compression characteristics to real children is desirable. Little data exists on thorax stiffness in infants and children to guide manikin construction...
  14. ncbi request reprint Factors influencing pediatric injury in side impact collisions
    K B Arbogast
    3535 TraumaLink 10th floor, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Trauma 51:469-77. 2001
    ..Side impact collisions pose a great risk to children in crashes, but information about the injury mechanisms is limited...
  15. doi request reprint Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 124:1281-6. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster (BPB) seats compared with seat belts alone in reducing the risk for injury for children aged 4 to 8 years...
  16. ncbi request reprint Comparison of kinematic responses of the head and spine for children and adults in low-speed frontal sled tests
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th and Civic Center Blvd, Suite 1150, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 53:329-72. 2009
    ..These results can serve as a data set for validating the responses of restrained ATDs and computational human models to low severity frontal collisions...
  17. ncbi request reprint Protecting the child's abdomen: a retractable bicycle handlebar
    K B Arbogast
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 33:753-7. 2001
    ..A unique methodology of translating research findings into product design produced a novel handlebar that absorbs significant energy that otherwise would be transferred to the child's abdomen when impacting the handlebar...
  18. doi request reprint Protection of children restrained in child safety seats in side impact crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Trauma 69:913-23. 2010
    ..Therefore, the objective was to delineate injury causation scenarios for CRS-restrained children in side impacts and document probable contact points in the vehicle interior...
  19. ncbi request reprint The role of restraint and seat position in pediatric facial fractures
    Kristy B Arbogast
    TraumaLink and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Trauma 52:693-8. 2002
    ..Recently, head and brain injuries were identified as consequences of the inappropriate use of seat belts by children. The proposed mechanism of these injuries might also place a child at risk for facial fracture...
  20. ncbi request reprint The effect of seating position on risk of injury for children in side impact collisions
    D R Durbin
    Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 45:61-72. 2001
    ..These results highlight the importance of evaluating the safety performance of both vehicles and restraint systems for children in side impact crashes...
  21. pmc Injury risk for children in rear impacts: role of the front seat occupant
    Jessica Steps Jermakian
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Ann Adv Automot Med 52:109-16. 2008
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Non-fatal and fatal crash injury risk for children in minivans compared with children in sport utility vehicles
    M J Kallan
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Inj Prev 15:8-12. 2009
    ..To compare the fatal and non-fatal crash injury risk for children in minivans compared with midsize and large sport utility vehicles (SUVs)...
  23. ncbi request reprint Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags
    Dennis R Durbin
    Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 4:58-63. 2003
    ..3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.4). Exposure to PABs increased the risk of both minor injuries, including facial and chest abrasions, and more serious injuries, particularly upper extremity fractures...
  24. ncbi request reprint Suboptimal restraint affects the pattern of abdominal injuries in children involved in motor vehicle crashes
    Nicolas Lutz
    Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 38:919-23. 2003
    ..The relationship between the types of restraint used and the pattern of abdominal injury is unknown...
  25. pmc Assessing child restraint misuse by parental survey
    K B Arbogast
    Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Inj Prev 6:145-7. 2000
    ..To determine the extent to which child restraint system (CRS) misuse can be evaluated by parental survey...
  26. ncbi request reprint Seat belt syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature
    D R Durbin
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 17:474-7. 2001
    ..Emergency physicians must consider these seat belt-related injuries in the initial evaluation of any child involved in a motor vehicle crash who was restrained with the vehicle seat belt...
  27. pmc Effect of vehicle incompatibility on child occupant injury risk
    Michael J Kallan
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 49:279-92. 2005
    ..Though smaller in magnitude, this trend was also present in offside and rear crashes as well...
  28. pmc Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 47:85-99. 2003
    ..However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs...
  29. pmc Effect of model year and vehicle type on rollover crashes and associated injuries to children
    Michael J Kallan
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 50:171-84. 2006
    ..Even with this decline in SUV rollover risk, similarly aged passenger cars and minivans still exhibited a rollover risk approximately half that of their SUV counterparts...
  30. ncbi request reprint Incidence and clinical significance of abdominal wall bruising in restrained children involved in motor vehicle crashes
    Nicolas Lutz
    Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 39:972-5. 2004
    ..Children involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) can sustain bruising of the abdominal wall associated with seat belt restraint. The incidence of bruising and its relationship with significant intraabdominal injuries are not known...
  31. pmc Misuse of booster seats
    S D Morris
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Inj Prev 6:281-4. 2000
    ..To describe several aspects of booster seat use and misuse in a sample of children attending child safety seat clinics...
  32. pmc Effect of increased rear row occupancy on injury to seat belt restrained children in side impact crashes
    Matthew R Maltese
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 49:229-43. 2005
    ..Occupants are at an increased risk of injury if they sit alone on their row as compared to sitting with other occupants. Patterns of injuries distinct to each seat position were delineated...
  33. doi request reprint "Rolling Refreshers": a novel approach to maintain CPR psychomotor skill competence
    Dana Niles
    Center for Simulation, Advanced Education and Innovation, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Resuscitation 80:909-12. 2009
    ..High quality CPR skill retention is poor. We hypothesized that "just-in-time" and "just-in-place" training programs would be effective and well-accepted to maintain CPR skills among PICU staff...
  34. doi request reprint Quantitative analysis of CPR quality during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents
    Robert M Sutton
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 124:494-9. 2009
    ..This study is the first to evaluate actual in-hospital pediatric CPR. We hypothesized that with bedside CPR training and corrective feedback, CPR quality can approach American Heart Association (AHA) targets...
  35. doi request reprint Pediatric CPR quality monitoring: analysis of thoracic anthropometric data
    Robert M Sutton
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States
    Resuscitation 80:1137-41. 2009
    ..Extension to pediatric patients is desirable; however, the anthropometric measurements of the pediatric chest pertinent to guide the development of pediatric-specific CPR monitoring systems are largely unknown...
  36. pmc Delta V as a predictor of significant injury for children involved in frontal motor vehicle crashes
    Michael L Nance
    Surgery, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Ann Surg 243:121-5. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the association between delta V and risk of injury to children involved in frontal motor vehicle crashes...
  37. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of a child with pre-existing disabilities after a traumatic event
    Shannon D Morris
    TraumaLink, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 18:197-9. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint Methods for determining pediatric thoracic force-deflection characteristics from cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    Matthew R Maltese
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market Street, 11th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 52:83-105. 2008
    ..Future studies will expand the sample size and age range of data collected to further explore the age-related changes in thoracic mechanics...
  39. ncbi request reprint Injury causation scenarios in belt-restrained nearside child occupants
    Matthew R Maltese
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 51:299-311. 2007
    ..These data provide important guidance for the development of rear row safety systems for belt-restrained children with no side airbags in nearside crashes...
  40. doi request reprint Quantitative analysis of chest compression interruptions during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents
    Robert M Sutton
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Resuscitation 80:1259-63. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that CPR error will be more likely after a chest compression provider change compared to other causes for pauses...
  41. ncbi request reprint Recent trends in child restraint practices in the United States
    Flaura K Winston
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 113:e458-64. 2004
    ..To assess the success of recent outreach activities to promote appropriate child restraint in motor vehicles by examining trends in restraint types used by children under age 9 in 3 large regions of the United States...
  42. pmc Optimal restraint reduces the risk of abdominal injury in children involved in motor vehicle crashes
    Michael L Nance
    Department of Surgery, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Ann Surg 239:127-31. 2004
    ..While optimal restraint has been shown to reduce the risk of injuries overall, its effect on specific types of injuries, in particular abdominal injuries, has not been demonstrated...
  43. pmc The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment
    Kristy B Arbogast
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:245-59. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Lower extremity injuries in children seated in forward facing child restraint systems
    Jessica S Jermakian
    Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 8:171-9. 2007
    ..Therefore, the objective of this study was to document location, source, and crash circumstances of lower extremity injuries in children seated in FFCRS...
  45. doi request reprint Factors associated with clinically significant head injury in children involved in motor vehicle crashes
    Michael L Nance
    Department of Surgery and the Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 11:600-5. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of, and risk factors for, clinically significant head injury (CSHI) in child occupants in MVCs...
  46. pmc Shifts in child restraint use according to child weight in the United States from 1999 to 2002
    Flaura K Winston
    TraumaLink The Interdisciplinary Pediatric Injury Control Research Center, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 47:313-28. 2003
    ..Despite progress, substantial inappropriate restraint still remains and continued investment in outreach efforts is necessary. The risk of injury for heavier children in child restraints with harnesses should be monitored...
  47. doi request reprint Passenger compartment intrusion as a predictor of significant injury for children in motor vehicle crashes
    Susan L Evans
    Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Trauma 66:504-7. 2009
    ..Data to support intrusion as a proxy for injury severity in child occupants are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intrusion and injury to children in motor vehicle crashes...
  48. ncbi request reprint Injuries to children in forward facing child restraints
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:213-30. 2002
    ..These results have implications for the current efforts to upgrade the current FMVSS 213 and better protect child passengers...
  49. ncbi request reprint Risk of injury to child passengers in sport utility vehicles
    Lauren Daly
    Department of Pediatrics, A I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19899, USA
    Pediatrics 117:9-14. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk of injury to children involved in crashes in SUVs, compared with those in passenger cars...
  50. ncbi request reprint Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger airbags
    Dennis R Durbin
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:15-25. 2002
    ..These real-world data may be of use to vehicle manufacturers and restraint suppliers as they face design decisions with regard to child passengers...
  51. ncbi request reprint The influence of harness type on child restraint system misuse
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:261-9. 2002
    ..The data further suggest specific design improvements for each harness design based on the particular pattern of misuse...
  52. pmc Differential risk of injury to child occupants by SUV size
    Michael J Kallan
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 48:87-100. 2004
    ..There is an increased risk in both Small and Midsize SUVs when compared to Large SUVs. Parents who are purchasing a SUV should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness...
  53. doi request reprint Seating patterns and corresponding risk of injury among 0- to 3-year-old children in child safety seats
    Michael J Kallan
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 523 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Dr, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 121:e1342-7. 2008
    ..In addition, we determined the association between rear row seating location and risk of injury...
  54. pmc Evaluation of pediatric use patterns and performance of lap shoulder belt systems in the center rear
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 48:57-72. 2004
    ..The data suggest that by requiring lap shoulder belts in the center rear, benefits would be realized to belted children, specifically the 4-8 year old group...
  55. ncbi request reprint Accuracy of self-reported data for estimating crash severity
    Michael R Elliott
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 612 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 35:833-40. 2003
    ..This "self-reported" delta-V measure, however, is a substantial improvement over use of estimated traveling speed or speed limit only...
  56. ncbi request reprint Biomechanical response of the pediatric abdomen, part 1: development of an experimental model and quantification of structural response to dynamic belt loading
    Richard Kent
    Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, VA, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 50:1-26. 2006
    ..The structural corridors developed here should lead to the development of both mechanical (i.e., crash dummies) and computational pediatric models that are more useful for assessing injurious levels of belt penetration into the abdomen...
  57. pmc Effectiveness of high back and backless belt-positioning booster seats in side impact crashes
    Kristy B Arbogast
    The Department of Pediatrics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 49:201-213. 2005
    ..This differential performance of the two types of BPB provides direction for future research into the design and performance of these restraints...