T G Andreadis

Summary

Affiliation: The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus
    Michael J Turell
    Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:57-62. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Epizootiology of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) infections in field populations of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae): a three-year investigation
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Invertebr Pathol 81:114-21. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA
    T G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 38:774-9. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Infectivity and pathogenicity of a novel baculovirus, CuniNPV from Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) for thirteen species and four genera of mosquitoes
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:512-7. 2003
  5. pmc Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura
    T G Andreadis
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:670-4. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Life cycle, ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), a parasite of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae)
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 49:350-64. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003
    Theodore G Andreadis
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:360-78. 2004
  8. doi request reprint Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:175-88. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary strategies and adaptations for survival between mosquito-parasitic microsporidia and their intermediate copepod hosts: a comparative examination of Amblyospora connecticus and Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae)
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 52:23-35. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut
    J F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Post Office Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Science 286:2331-3. 1999

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus
    Michael J Turell
    Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:57-62. 2005
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Epizootiology of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) infections in field populations of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae): a three-year investigation
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Invertebr Pathol 81:114-21. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA
    T G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 38:774-9. 2001
    ..Because of the ability of Oc. japonicus to transmit West Nile virus, and because of the recent detection of this virus in field-collected specimens, the introduction of Oc. japonicus is considered a significant public health development...
  4. ncbi request reprint Infectivity and pathogenicity of a novel baculovirus, CuniNPV from Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) for thirteen species and four genera of mosquitoes
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:512-7. 2003
    ..The high infectivity and pathogenicity of CuniNPV for the principal vectors of West Nile virus in North America make CuniNPV an attractive candidate for future development as a biopesticide...
  5. pmc Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura
    T G Andreadis
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:670-4. 2001
    ..Cs. melanura could be important in the circulation of WN virus among birds in sylvan environments; Cx. salinarius is a suspected vector of WN virus to humans and horses...
  6. ncbi request reprint Life cycle, ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), a parasite of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae)
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 49:350-64. 2002
    ..Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with closely related microsporidia from mosquitoes. Hyalinocysta chapmani did not cluster within described Amblyospora species and can be considered a sister group, warranting separate genus status...
  7. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003
    Theodore G Andreadis
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:360-78. 2004
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:175-88. 2008
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary strategies and adaptations for survival between mosquito-parasitic microsporidia and their intermediate copepod hosts: a comparative examination of Amblyospora connecticus and Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae)
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 52:23-35. 2005
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut
    J F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Post Office Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Science 286:2331-3. 1999
    ..8 and 3.6 percent difference). If established in North America, WN virus will likely have severe effects on human health and on the health of populations of birds...
  11. ncbi request reprint Modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in Connecticut, USA
    Maria A Diuk-Wasser
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8034, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:283-95. 2006
    ..salinarius, 62.5% for Ae. vexans, and 75.0% for Cs. melanura. Continuous surface maps of habitat suitability were generated for each species for both counties, which could contribute to future surveillance and intervention activities...
  12. ncbi request reprint Verification of intermediate hosts in the life cycles of microsporidia by small subunit rDNA sequencing
    C R Vossbrinck
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 45:290-2. 1998
    ..Unlike laboratory transmission tests, which can take months or years to complete, this technique can be completed in days and can be performed on a single infected organism...
  13. pmc A phylogenetic approach to following West Nile virus in Connecticut
    J F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12885-9. 2001
    ..We conclude that this portion of the viral genome will enable us to follow the geographical and temporal movement of variant WN virus strains as they adapt to North America...
  14. ncbi request reprint Isolations of Potosi virus from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Connecticut
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington St, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:875-81. 2005
    ..This finding represents the first detection of POTV in the northeastern United States where it infects a diverse array of mosquito species...
  15. ncbi request reprint Host range tests with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporida: Culicosporidae) against northern Nearctic mosquitoes
    T G Andreadis
    Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 06504
    J Invertebr Pathol 64:46-51. 1994
    ..aegypti. Since E. aedis can not complete its normal life cycle through two successive host generations in alternate host mosquitoes, its potential as a biological control agent would appear to be limited to Ae. aegypti...
  16. ncbi request reprint Epizootiology of Amblyospora stimuli (Microsporidiida: Amblyosporidae) infections in field populations of a univoltine mosquito, Aedes stimulans (Diptera: Culicidae), inhabiting a temporary vernal pool
    T G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    J Invertebr Pathol 74:198-205. 1999
    ..stimuli in Ae. stimulans populations at this locale. Results support the view that host-parasite cospeciation is an important mechanism of evolution in this group of mosquito/copepod microsporidia...
  17. ncbi request reprint West Nile virus from female and male mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in subterranean, ground, and canopy habitats in Connecticut
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504 1106, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:1010-9. 2006
    ..The placement of traps in tree canopies and in catch basins can be used to augment current practices of placement of traps near the ground for surveillance of mosquitoes infected with WNV and for studies of the ecology of WNV...
  18. ncbi request reprint Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, U.S.A
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:1088-93. 2006
    ..vexans is likely to be a relatively important "bridge vector" to large mammals, including deer and horse, whereas Cs. melanura likely plays a secondary role in enzootic transmission of WNV among free-ranging birds in more rural environs...
  19. ncbi request reprint Host feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and its role in transmission of West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:73-81. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Nocturnal activity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a West Nile virus focus in Connecticut
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06405, USA
    J Med Entomol 44:1102-8. 2007
    ..In total, 39 isolations of WNV were made from seven species collected primarily during periods of total darkness. Humans are at risk of being bitten by infected mosquitoes throughout the night...
  21. pmc Avian communal roosts as amplification foci for West Nile virus in urban areas in northeastern United States
    Maria A Diuk-Wasser
    Division of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:337-43. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that communal roosts act as late-season amplification foci facilitating transmission to humans because of high infection rates, high abundance, and feeding patterns of enzootic and bridge vectors...
  22. ncbi request reprint Genetic relationships of Jamestown Canyon virus strains infecting mosquitoes collected in Connecticut
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:1157-62. 2007
    ..These results suggest that JCV variants are stably maintained in Connecticut where they infect a wide diversity of mosquito species...
  23. pmc Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials
    Jennifer E Simpson
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7861. 2009
    ..Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission...
  24. ncbi request reprint Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:291-6. 2008
    ..These results provide additional evidence for independent episodes of EEEV overwintering in northern foci...
  25. ncbi request reprint Genetic insights into the population structure of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Northeastern United States by using microsatellite analysis
    Shaoming Huang
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:518-27. 2008
    ..pipiens form molestus from Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations, indicating that Cx. pipiens form molestus was genetically distinct from any of the Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations examined during this study...
  26. doi request reprint Genetic variation associated with mammalian feeding in Culex pipiens from a West Nile virus epidemic region in Chicago, Illinois
    Shaoming Huang
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:637-42. 2009
    ..pipiens f. molestus may predispose mosquitoes to feed more readily on mammals; however, the genetic mechanisms are unknown...
  27. ncbi request reprint Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, U.S.A.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntingon St, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:1143-51. 2008
    ..Occasional feeding on avian hosts suggests that some of these mosquito species, such as Cq. perturbans, also could facilitate transmission of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses from viremic birds to mammalian hosts...
  28. ncbi request reprint A new genetic variant of La Crosse virus (bunyaviridae) isolated from New England
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:491-6. 2006
    ..This represents the first isolation of LACV in New England to our knowledge and suggests long-term independent evolution of the CT isolate...
  29. ncbi request reprint Transstadial transfer of West Nile virus by three species of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:528-33. 2003
    ..Three species of ixodid ticks acquired WN virus from viremic hosts and transstadially passed the virus, but vector competency was not demonstrated...
  30. ncbi request reprint Molecular phylogeny and evolution of mosquito parasitic Microsporidia (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae)
    Charles R Vossbrinck
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:88-95. 2004
    ..Hazardia, Berwaldia, Larssonia, Trichotuzetia, and Gurleya are members of a sister group to the Amblyospora clades infecting mosquitoes, and may be representatives of a large group of aquatic parasites...
  31. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of West Nile virus in tree canopy-inhabiting Culex pipiens and associated mosquitoes
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:112-9. 2004
    ..The significantly larger numbers of WNV isolates from Cx. pipiens captured in the canopy are attributed to the significantly larger numbers of Cx. pipiens captured in the canopy in comparison to those captured in traps near the ground...
  32. ncbi request reprint Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:1140-7. 2006
    ..We report the first isolation of arboviruses from mosquito vectors concomitant with the identifications of their blood meal sources...
  33. pmc Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:468-74. 2006
    ..salinarius and 1 Cx. pipiens. Results suggest that Cx. salinarius is an important bridge vector to humans, while Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans are more efficient enzootic vectors in the northeastern United States...
  34. ncbi request reprint Studies on hibernating populations of Culex pipiens from a West Nile virus endemic focus in New York City: parity rates and isolation of West Nile virus
    Theodore G Andreadis
    Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26:257-64. 2010
    ..p. pipiens, albeit at very low rates, consistent with the paucity of WNV-positive mosquitoes detected in June and early July despite the emergence of females from hibernacula in early May in this region...
  35. ncbi request reprint A two-year evaluation of elevated canopy trapping for Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus in an operational surveillance program in the northeastern United States
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23:137-48. 2007
    ..restuans collected in traps placed in the canopy rather than at ground level in 2004. Results support the view that ground-based light traps are more effective for detection of WNV in Cx. salinarius...
  36. ncbi request reprint Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the northeastern United States based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences
    John J Shepard
    Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:443-54. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Failure of Aedes albopictus to overwinter following introduction and seasonal establishment at a tire recycling plant in the northeastern USA
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 25:25-31. 2009
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Identification of bloodmeals in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern U.S.A
    G Molaei
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Med Vet Entomol 23:350-6. 2009
    ..An isolate of EEEv was recovered from the head and thorax of an An. punctipennis mosquito collected in NY...
  39. ncbi request reprint Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon virus infection in white-tailed deer populations from Connecticut
    J M Zamparo
    Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Wildl Dis 33:623-7. 1997
    ..We conclude from this investigation and previous isolations of JC virus from mosquitoes in the state that JC virus occurs enzootically in Connecticut...
  40. ncbi request reprint Evidence for reduction of native mosquitoes with increased expansion of invasive Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 47:43-52. 2010
    ..japonicus from warm water pools further suggests that a temperature barrier may exist for Oc. j. japonicus and that populations may not be able to colonize southern regions of the United States with relatively high summer temperatures...
  41. ncbi request reprint A checklist of the mosquitoes of Connecticut with new state records
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19:79-81. 2003
    ..This brings to 48 the number of recognized species from 11 genera in Connecticut. Also, an updated checklist of the mosquitoes of Connecticut that reflects the recent elevation of the subgenus Ochlerotatus to generic rank is presented...
  42. ncbi request reprint The phylogenetic position of Ovavesicula popilliae (Microsporidia) and its relationship to Antonospora and Paranosema based on small subunit rDNA analysis
    Charles R Vossbrinck
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Invertebr Pathol 96:270-3. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Human bloodfeeding by the recently introduced mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, and public health implications
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 25:210-4. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint In vitro cultivation of Wolbachia pipientis in an Aedes albopictus cell line
    S L O'Neill
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8034, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 6:33-9. 1997
    ..The development of an in vitro culture system for this fastidious microorganism should facilitate molecular analysis of the reproduction distorting phenotypes it induces in natural arthropod hosts...
  45. ncbi request reprint Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes
    Theodore G Andreadis
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23:3-29. 2007
  46. ncbi request reprint Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium
    Allison D Tuttle
    Department of Research and Veterinary Services, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2059-62, 2003. 2005
    ..An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported...
  47. ncbi request reprint Detection of West Nile virus RNA from the louse fly Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae)
    Ary Farajollahi
    Mosquito Research and Control, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21:474-6. 2005
    ....