T E Spencer

Summary

Affiliation: Texas A and M University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Progesterone and placental hormone actions on the uterus: insights from domestic animals
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:2-10. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) is expressed by stromal macrophages in cyclic and pregnant endometrium of mice, but is induced by estrogen in luminal epithelium during conceptus attachment for implantation
    Frankie J White
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Reproduction 132:919-29. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Fetal-maternal interactions during the establishment of pregnancy in ruminants
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Departments of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 64:379-96. 2007
  4. doi request reprint Enhanced focal adhesion assembly reflects increased mechanosensation and mechanotransduction at maternal-conceptus interface and uterine wall during ovine pregnancy
    Robert C Burghardt
    Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4458, USA
    Reproduction 137:567-82. 2009
  5. pmc Activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-B, during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the pig
    Jason W Ross
    Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 8:39. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Uterine and placental factors regulating conceptus growth in domestic animals
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    J Anim Sci 82:E4-13. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Anim Reprod Sci 82:537-50. 2004
  8. pmc Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2:49. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation in domestic ruminants: roles of progesterone, interferons and endogenous retroviruses
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology andGenomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 19:65-78. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification of genes in the ovine endometrium regulated by interferon tau independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
    Seokwoon Kim
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 144:5203-14. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Genetic Regulation of Postnatal Uterine Morphogenesis and Function
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2001
  3. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2004
  6. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas E Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications134 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Progesterone and placental hormone actions on the uterus: insights from domestic animals
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:2-10. 2004
    ..Strategic manipulation of these physiological mechanisms may offer therapeutic schemes to improve uterine capacity, conceptus survival, and reproductive health of domestic animals and humans...
  2. ncbi request reprint Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) is expressed by stromal macrophages in cyclic and pregnant endometrium of mice, but is induced by estrogen in luminal epithelium during conceptus attachment for implantation
    Frankie J White
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Reproduction 132:919-29. 2006
    ..We suggest that Spp1 at the apical surface of LE provides a mechanism to bridge conceptus to LE during implantation, and that Spp1-positive macrophages within the stroma may be involved in uterine remodeling for conceptus invasion...
  3. ncbi request reprint Fetal-maternal interactions during the establishment of pregnancy in ruminants
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Departments of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 64:379-96. 2007
    ..The interactive, coordinated and stage-specific effects of ovarian and placental hormones regulate endometrial events necessary for fetal-maternal interactions and successful establishment of pregnancy...
  4. doi request reprint Enhanced focal adhesion assembly reflects increased mechanosensation and mechanotransduction at maternal-conceptus interface and uterine wall during ovine pregnancy
    Robert C Burghardt
    Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4458, USA
    Reproduction 137:567-82. 2009
    ....
  5. pmc Activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-B, during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the pig
    Jason W Ross
    Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 8:39. 2010
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that NFKB activation may occur during the period of uterine receptivity in both the cyclic and pregnant endometrium...
  6. ncbi request reprint Uterine and placental factors regulating conceptus growth in domestic animals
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    J Anim Sci 82:E4-13. 2004
    ..Knowledge of the basic mechanisms regulating uterine development is expected to suggest means to increase uterine capacity, litter size, and neonatal survival, as well as ameliorate certain types of infertility...
  7. ncbi request reprint Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Anim Reprod Sci 82:537-50. 2004
    ..Strategic manipulation of these physiological mechanisms may improve uterine capacity, conceptus survival, and reproductive health...
  8. pmc Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2:49. 2004
    ..Strategic manipulation of these physiological mechanisms can offer therapeutic schemes to improve uterine capacity, conceptus survival and reproductive health...
  9. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation in domestic ruminants: roles of progesterone, interferons and endogenous retroviruses
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology andGenomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 19:65-78. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification of genes in the ovine endometrium regulated by interferon tau independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
    Seokwoon Kim
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 144:5203-14. 2003
    ..These IFNtau -stimulated genes may be important in establishment of uterine receptivity to the embryo and conceptus implantation given their stage-specificity in endometrium across diverse species...
  11. ncbi request reprint Implantation mechanisms: insights from the sheep
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Animal Science and Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Reproduction 128:657-68. 2004
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Genes involved in conceptus-endometrial interactions in ruminants: insights from reductionism and thoughts on holistic approaches
    Thomas E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Reproduction 135:165-79. 2008
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Endogenous retroviruses of sheep: a model system for understanding physiological adaptation to an evolving ruminant genome
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, USA
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 67:95-104. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Muc-1, integrin, and osteopontin expression during the implantation cascade in sheep
    G A Johnson
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 65:820-8. 2001
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus
    Y Choi
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 65:1038-49. 2001
    ..In the S and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely involves formation and actions of the transcription factors ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effects of recombinant ovine interferon tau, placental lactogen, and growth hormone on the ovine uterus
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 61:1409-18. 1999
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Expression of messenger ribonucleic acids for fibroblast growth factors 7 and 10, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in the neonatal ovine uterus
    K M Taylor
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:1236-46. 2001
    ..These results implicate FGF-7, FGF-10, HGF, IGF-I, IGF-II, and their epithelial receptors in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulating endometrial gland morphogenesis in the neonatal sheep uterus...
  18. ncbi request reprint Keratinocyte growth factor is up-regulated by estrogen in the porcine uterine endometrium and functions in trophectoderm cell proliferation and differentiation
    H Ka
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843-2471, USA
    Endocrinology 142:2303-10. 2001
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Neonatal ovine uterine development involves alterations in expression of receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin
    K M Taylor
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 63:1192-204. 2000
    ..Results support the hypothesis that neonatal ovine uterine development involves epithelial PRL-R and ER-alpha activation to stimulate and maintain endometrial gland genesis and branching morphogenesis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms regulating norgestomet inhibition of endometrial gland morphogenesis in the neonatal ovine uterus
    C A Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 57:67-78. 2000
    ..Likewise, these mechanisms are proposed to be important regulators of normal uterine gland morphogenesis in the neonate...
  21. ncbi request reprint Ovine uterine gland knock-out model: effects of gland ablation on the estrous cycle
    C Allison Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Albert B Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 62:448-56. 2000
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Cloning of the ovine estrogen receptor-alpha promoter and functional regulation by ovine interferon-tau
    J A Fleming
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Endocrinology 142:2879-87. 2001
    ..Overexpression of ovine IRF-2, but not IRF-1, inhibited transcriptional activity of several regions of the ovine ERalpha promoter containing an IRFE or an ISRE as well as some, but not all, regions lacking these elements...
  23. ncbi request reprint Progesterone modulation of osteopontin gene expression in the ovine uterus
    G A Johnson
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Center, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 62:1315-21. 2000
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Postpartum uterine involution in sheep: histoarchitecture and changes in endometrial gene expression
    C A Gray
    Centre for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Reproduction 125:185-98. 2003
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Effects of interferon-tau and progesterone on oestrogen-stimulated expression of receptors for oestrogen, progesterone and oxytocin in the endometrium of ovariectomized ewes
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 8:843-53. 1996
    ..These combined actions of IFN-tau and progesterone to suppress oestrogen-induced increases in endometrial OTR formation would prevent pulsatile production of luteolytic prostaglandin F2 alpha by the endometrium during early pregnancy...
  26. ncbi request reprint Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival and elongation
    C A Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Reproduction 124:289-300. 2002
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine endometrial epithelial cells
    D M Stewart
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, University College of Veterinary Medicine, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Endocrinology 142:98-107. 2001
    ..In contrast, the activity of an ISRE-driven promoter was increased at 3 and 24 h. These results indicate that IFNtau activates multiple STATs and has differential effects on ISRE- and GAS-driven gene transcription...
  28. ncbi request reprint Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -2 messenger ribonucleic acids in the ovine uterus: regulation by pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon-tau
    E Asselin
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:992-1000. 2001
    ..Endometrial production of MCPs by eosinophils during early pregnancy may play a role(s) in central implantation and/or placentation in ewes that is crucial for successful establishment of pregnancy...
  29. ncbi request reprint Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and interferon tau on 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase expression in the ovine uterus
    G A Johnson
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:1392-9. 2001
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that OAS expression in the endometrial S and GE of the early pregnant ovine uterus is directly regulated by IFNtau from conceptus and requires the presence of progesterone...
  30. ncbi request reprint Effects of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy on uterine expression of Mx protein in sheep (Ovis aries)
    T L Ott
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology, Institute of Biosciences andTechnology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 59:784-94. 1998
    ..e., IFNtau) and steroid hormones (i.e., progesterone)...
  31. ncbi request reprint Development and characterization of immortalized ovine endometrial cell lines
    G A Johnson
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Albert B Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 61:1324-30. 1999
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Discovery and characterization of endometrial epithelial messenger ribonucleic acids using the ovine uterine gland knockout model
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Albert B Alkek Institute of Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 140:4070-80. 1999
    ..Cloned cDNAs identified here are expressed sequence tags useful for comparative and physical genetic mapping and may be used to reveal new factors and pathways regulating endometrial function...
  33. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1-like protein expression in the ovine uterus
    T E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology, Albert B Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 60:241-50. 1999
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Interferon-tau and progesterone regulate ubiquitin cross-reactive protein expression in the ovine uterus
    G A Johnson
    Center for Animal Biotechnology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 62:622-7. 2000
    ..Results support the hypothesis that progesterone is required for IFNtau induction of type I IFN-responsive genes, such as UCRP, in the ruminant uterus...
  35. ncbi request reprint Endometrial glands are required for preimplantation conceptus elongation and survival
    C A Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:1608-13. 2001
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that endometrial glands and, by inference, their secretions are required for periimplantation conceptus survival and development...
  36. ncbi request reprint Ovine interferon-tau regulates expression of endometrial receptors for estrogen and oxytocin but not progesterone
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 53:732-45. 1995
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Ovarian regulation of endometrial gland morphogenesis and activin-follistatin system in the neonatal ovine uterus
    Karen D Carpenter
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 69:851-60. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Progesterone regulation of preimplantation conceptus growth and galectin 15 (LGALS15) in the ovine uterus
    M Carey Satterfield
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 75:289-96. 2006
    ..The advanced development of blastocysts in P4-treated ewes is hypothesized to involve early induction of specific genes in the endometrial epithelia, such as LGALS15, and undoubtedly components of uterine histotroph...
  39. ncbi request reprint Fibroblast growth factor-10: a stromal mediator of epithelial function in the ovine uterus
    C Chen
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 63:959-66. 2000
    ..The nonoverlapping spatial patterns of expression for FGF-10 and FGF-7 in ovine uterus and conceptus suggest independent roles in uterine function and conceptus development...
  40. ncbi request reprint Ovine osteopontin: II. Osteopontin and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression in the uterus and conceptus during the periimplantation period
    G A Johnson
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 61:892-9. 1999
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Biology of progesterone action during pregnancy recognition and maintenance of pregnancy
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Front Biosci 7:d1879-98. 2002
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Interferon-tau (IFNtau) regulation of IFN-stimulated gene expression in cell lines lacking specific IFN-signaling components
    M D Stewart
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Endocrinology 142:1786-94. 2001
    ..These data illustrate the importance of transcription factors composed of STAT1, STAT2, and ISGF3gamma in the signaling pathway mediating the effects of IFNtau on ISG expression...
  43. ncbi request reprint Conceptus-uterus interactions in pigs: endometrial gene expression in response to estrogens and interferons from conceptuses
    G A Johnson
    Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4458, USA
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:321-32. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Keratinocyte growth factor: expression by endometrial epithelia of the porcine uterus
    H Ka
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471
    Biol Reprod 62:1772-8. 2000
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Impacts of amino acid nutrition on pregnancy outcome in pigs: mechanisms and implications for swine production
    G Wu
    Departments of Animal Science and of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    J Anim Sci 88:E195-204. 2010
    ..By regulating syntheses of nitric oxide, polyamines, and proteins, functional AA stimulate placental growth and the transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo or fetus to promote conceptus survival, growth, and development...
  46. doi request reprint Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. VI. Expression of FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1 (FRAP1) and regulators and effectors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes in ovine uteri and conceptuses
    Haijun Gao
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 81:87-100. 2009
    ..These results suggest that the FRAP1 cell signaling pathway mediates interactions between the maternal uterus and peri-implantation conceptuses and that P4 and IFNT affect this pathway by regulating expression of RHEB and EIF4EBP1...
  47. doi request reprint Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. III. Cationic amino acid transporters in the ovine uterus and peri-implantation conceptuses
    Haijun Gao
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 80:602-9. 2009
    ..These results indicate that coordinate changes in SLC7A1, SLC7A2, and SLC7A3 expression in uterine endometria and conceptuses are likely important in transport of arginine that is critical to conceptus growth, development, and survival...
  48. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate RSAD2 and IFIH1 expression in the ovine uterus
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Reproduction 133:285-95. 2007
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Estrogen and antiestrogen effects on neonatal ovine uterine development
    Karen D Carpenter
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 69:708-17. 2003
    ..Ablation of endometrial gland genesis by EV indicates that postnatal uterine development is extremely sensitive to the detrimental effects of inappropriate steroid exposure...
  50. doi request reprint Proline metabolism in the conceptus: implications for fetal growth and development
    G Wu
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Amino Acids 35:691-702. 2008
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Developmental biology of uterine glands
    C A Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 65:1311-23. 2001
    ..Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors, epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and pathological lesions...
  52. ncbi request reprint WNTs in the ovine uterus: potential regulation of periimplantation ovine conceptus development
    K Hayashi
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 148:3496-506. 2007
    ..These results support the hypotheses that canonical and noncanonical WNT signaling pathways are conserved regulators of conceptus-endometrial interactions in mammals and regulate periimplantation ovine conceptus development...
  53. ncbi request reprint Ovine osteopontin: I. Cloning and expression of messenger ribonucleic acid in the uterus during the periimplantation period
    G A Johnson
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 61:884-91. 1999
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Temporal and spatial alterations in uterine estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor gene expression during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the ewe
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 53:1527-43. 1995
    ..Collectively, results suggest that uterine ER and PR gene expression is regulated in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy...
  55. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate major histocompatibility complex class I and beta2-microglobulin expression in the ovine uterus
    Youngsok Choi
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 68:1703-10. 2003
    ..The silencing of MHC class I alpha chain and beta2MG genes in the endometrial LE and sGE during pregnancy recognition and establishment may be a critical mechanism preventing immune rejection of the conceptus allograft...
  56. ncbi request reprint Expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-met in the ovine uterus
    C Chen
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 62:1844-50. 2000
    ..In the ovine uterus, HGF may stimulate epithelial morphogenesis and differentiated function required for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, conceptus implantation, and placentation...
  57. ncbi request reprint Ovine endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) and placental morphogenesis
    K A Dunlap
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Placenta 27:S135-40. 2006
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning and characterization of prostaglandin (PG) transporter in ovine endometrium: role for multiple cell signaling pathways in transport of PGF2alpha
    S K Banu
    Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4458, USA
    Endocrinology 149:219-31. 2008
    ..These are the first results to demonstrate a functional role for PGT in regulation of PGF(2alpha) efflux and influx in ovine endometrial cells that influence luteolytic mechanisms in ruminants...
  59. ncbi request reprint Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements
    Joann G W Fleming
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 147:899-911. 2006
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the antiluteolytic effects of IFNT are mediated by direct inhibition or silencing of ESR1 gene transcription, thereby precluding ESR1/SP1 from stimulating OXTR gene transcription...
  60. ncbi request reprint Estrogen disruption of neonatal ovine uterine development: effects on gene expression assessed by suppression subtraction hybridization
    Kanako Hayashi
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 73:752-60. 2005
    ..The SSH-identified, estrogen-disrupted genes represent new candidate regulators of postnatal endometrial adenogenesis...
  61. pmc Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in the ovine uterus: regulation by interferon tau and progesterone
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 79:376-86. 2008
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Identification of endometrial genes regulated by early pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon tau in the ovine uterus
    C Allison Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 74:383-94. 2006
    ..Identification and analysis of these hormonally responsive genes will help define endometrial pathways critical for uterine support of peri-implantation conceptus survival, growth, and implantation...
  63. doi request reprint Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. ii. glucose transporters in the uterus and peri-implantation conceptuses
    Haijun Gao
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Departments of Animal Science and Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 80:94-104. 2009
    ....
  64. doi request reprint Stanniocalcin 1 is a luminal epithelial marker for implantation in pigs regulated by progesterone and estradiol
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 150:936-45. 2009
    ..The temporal and cell type-specific expression of STC1 makes this gene a unique marker for implantation in pigs...
  65. ncbi request reprint Expression of porcine endometrial prostaglandin synthase during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following endocrine disruption of pregnancy
    Morgan D Ashworth
    Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA
    Biol Reprod 74:1007-15. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint The activin-follistatin system in the neonatal ovine uterus
    Kanako Hayashi
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 69:843-50. 2003
    ..Collectively, the present results indicate that components of the activin-follistatin system are expressed in the developing neonatal ovine uterus and are potential regulators of endometrial gland morphogenesis...
  67. doi request reprint Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. V. Nitric oxide synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase, and ornithine decarboxylase in ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses
    Haijun Gao
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 81:67-76. 2009
    ..Thus, biosynthesis of NO and polyamines in ovine uterine endometria and conceptuses is potentially regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels to favor conceptus development and implantation...
  68. doi request reprint Triennial Growth Symposium: important roles for L-glutamine in swine nutrition and production
    G Wu
    Department of Animal Science and of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843, USA
    J Anim Sci 89:2017-30. 2011
    ..Thus, adequate amounts of dietary Gln, a major nutrient, are necessary to support the maximum growth, development, and production performance of swine...
  69. ncbi request reprint Evidence for placental abnormality as the major cause of mortality in first-trimester somatic cell cloned bovine fetuses
    J R Hill
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 USA
    Biol Reprod 63:1787-94. 2000
    ..Our findings suggest that future research should focus on factors that promote placental and vascular growth and on fetomaternal interactions that promote placental attachment and villous formation...
  70. ncbi request reprint Effects of neonatal progestin exposure on female reproductive tract structure and function in the adult ewe
    C A Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and the Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:797-804. 2001
    ..The infertility of the UGKO ewes appears to result from a lack of endometrial glands and, by extension, of their secretions that are required to support growth and development of peri-implantation conceptuses...
  71. ncbi request reprint Progesterone and interferon-tau regulate cystatin C in the endometrium
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 147:3478-83. 2006
    ..These results indicate that CST3 is a novel P4-induced and IFNT-stimulated gene expressed only in the epithelial cells of the ovine endometrium and implicate CST3 in regulation of uterine cathepsin activity during conceptus implantation...
  72. ncbi request reprint Neonatal estrogen exposure disrupts uterine development in the postnatal sheep
    Kanako Hayashi
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 145:3247-57. 2004
    ..Transient exposure of the neonatal ewe to estrogens during critical periods specifically alters growth factor networks that perturb normal development of the uterus, leading to permanent alterations in uterine structure and function...
  73. doi request reprint Progesterone and interferon tau regulate leukemia inhibitory factor receptor and IL6ST in the ovine uterus during early pregnancy
    Gwonhwa Song
    Department of Animal Science, Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Reproduction 137:553-65. 2009
    ..Thus, LIF and STAT3 may have biological roles in endometrial function and trophectoderm growth and differentiation...
  74. doi request reprint Cathepsin B, cathepsin L, and cystatin C in the porcine uterus and placenta: potential roles in endometrial/placental remodeling and in fluid-phase transport of proteins secreted by uterine epithelia across placental areolae
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 82:854-64. 2010
    ..Cysteine proteases and their inhibitors may also specifically modify proteins for successful utilization and fluid-phase transport across uterine, placental, and neonatal gut epithelia...
  75. ncbi request reprint Prolactin regulation of neonatal ovine uterine gland morphogenesis
    Karen D Carpenter
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 144:110-20. 2003
    ..Collectively, results indicate that PRL regulates endometrial adenogenesis in the neonatal ovine uterus...
  76. ncbi request reprint Cathepsins in the ovine uterus: regulation by pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon tau
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 146:4825-33. 2005
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Ovine IFN-tau modulates the expression of MHC antigens on murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells and inhibits replication of Theiler's virus
    D K Tennakoon
    Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 21:785-92. 2001
    ..IFN-tau also inhibited the replication of Theiler's virus in CVE. These in vitro results suggest that IFN-tau may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of virus-induced demyelinating disease...
  78. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of ribosomal L31, Zis, gas-5 and mitochondrial mRNAs following oxidant induction of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypes
    K P Lu
    Center for Environmental and Rural Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX77843 4455, USA
    Atherosclerosis 160:273-80. 2002
    ..This is the first report linking expression of these genes to proliferative dysregulation during the course of experimentally-induced atherogenesis...
  79. ncbi request reprint Estrogen enhances endometrial estrogen receptor gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism in the ovariectomized ewe
    N H Ing
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 54:591-9. 1996
    ..25). These results suggest that a physiological dose of estradiol, similar to the preovulatory surge of estrogen, up-regulates endometrial estrogen receptor gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism...
  80. doi request reprint HSD11B1, HSD11B2, PTGS2, and NR3C1 expression in the peri-implantation ovine uterus: effects of pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon tau
    Rebecca M Simmons
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA
    Biol Reprod 82:35-43. 2010
    ....
  81. doi request reprint Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in the ruminant uterus: potential endometrial marker and regulator of conceptus elongation
    Rebecca M Simmons
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Endocrinology 150:4295-305. 2009
    ..These studies reveal that IGFBP1 is a common endometrial marker of conceptus elongation in sheep and cattle and most likely regulates conceptus elongation by stimulating migration and attachment of the trophectoderm...
  82. doi request reprint Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. IV. Expression of neutral and acidic amino acid transporters in ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses
    Haijun Gao
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 80:1196-208. 2009
    ..These results document coordinate changes in expression of transporters that are likely responsible for increases in amounts of neutral and acidic amino acids in the uterine lumen to support conceptus growth, development, and survival...
  83. doi request reprint Dietary supplementation with 0.8% L-arginine between days 0 and 25 of gestation reduces litter size in gilts
    Xilong Li
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    J Nutr 140:1111-6. 2010
    ..These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.8% L-arginine between d 0 and 25 of gestation, while increasing placental vascularity, adversely affects the reproductive performance of gilts...
  84. pmc Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) is expressed in the ovine uterus and functions as a transcriptional activator
    Jo Ann G W Fleming
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 299:252-60. 2009
    ..IRF6 is hypothesized to play critical roles in endometrial gene expression as well as in conceptus trophectoderm growth and differentiation...
  85. pmc Discovery and characterization of an epithelial-specific galectin in the endometrium that forms crystals in the trophectoderm
    C Allison Gray
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7982-7. 2004
    ..Galectins may be useful as cellular and molecular markers for endometrial function and receptivity, to enhance conceptus survival and development, and to evaluate and enhance fertility...
  86. doi request reprint Progesterone regulates FGF10, MET, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 in the endometrium of the ovine uterus
    M Carey Satterfield
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 79:1226-36. 2008
    ..Therefore, FGF10, MET, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 are P4-regulated factors within the endometrium of the ovine uterus that have potential effects on endometrial function and peri-implantation blastocyst growth and development...
  87. ncbi request reprint Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in the developing neonatal mouse uterus
    Jianbo Hu
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, 442 Kleberg Ceneter, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:1598-604. 2004
    ..These results support the hypothesis that MMPs and TIMPs regulate postnatal development of the mouse uterus...
  88. ncbi request reprint Stanniocalcin (STC) in the endometrial glands of the ovine uterus: regulation by progesterone and placental hormones
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 74:913-22. 2006
    ..The data suggest that STC1 secreted by the endometrial glands is transported into the fetal circulation and allantoic fluid, where it is hypothesized to regulate growth and differentiation of the fetus and placenta, by placental areolae...
  89. ncbi request reprint Developmental changes in polyamine levels and synthesis in the ovine conceptus
    Hyukjung Kwon
    Department of Animal Science and Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 69:1626-34. 2003
    ..Our findings may have important implications for both intrauterine growth retardation and fetal origins of diseases in adults...
  90. ncbi request reprint Sulfated glycoprotein-1 (SGP-1) expression in ovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 7:1053-60. 1995
    ..The presence of SGP-1 in the endometrium suggests intracellular and extracellular roles for this protein in glycosphingolipid metabolism or transport in the uterine environment...
  91. ncbi request reprint Ovine interferon tau suppresses transcription of the estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor genes in the ovine endometrium
    T E Spencer
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 137:1144-7. 1996
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of cathepsins and cystatin C in ovine uteroplacental tissues
    G Song
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, 442 Kleberg Center, 2471 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Placenta 28:1091-8. 2007
    ..These results support the working hypothesis that CTS and CST3 in uteroplacental tissues are involved in endometrial remodelling and placentation in sheep...
  93. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling of neonatal mouse uterine development
    Jianbo Hu
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Biol Reprod 70:1870-6. 2004
    ..The candidate genes and gene networks identified by transcriptional profiling provide an important foundation to discern and understand mechanisms regulating postnatal uterine morphogenesis...
  94. ncbi request reprint Interferon stimulated gene 15 conjugates to endometrial cytosolic proteins and is expressed at the uterine-placental interface throughout pregnancy in sheep
    Margaret M Joyce
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4458, USA
    Endocrinology 146:675-84. 2005
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces fat mass in Zucker diabetic fatty rats
    Wenjiang J Fu
    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    J Nutr 135:714-21. 2005
    ..In sum, arginine treatment may provide a potentially novel and useful means to enhance NO synthesis and reduce fat mass in obese subjects with type-II diabetes mellitus...
  96. pmc Progesterone and interferon tau regulate hypoxia-inducible factors in the endometrium of the ovine uterus
    Gwonhwa Song
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Endocrinology 149:1926-34. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Galectin 15 (LGALS15): a gene uniquely expressed in the uteri of sheep and goats that functions in trophoblast attachment
    Shaye K Lewis
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 77:1027-36. 2007
    ..These results support the hypothesis that LGALS15 is uniquely expressed in Caprinae endometria and functions as an attachment factor important for peri-implantation blastocyst elongation...
  98. doi request reprint Discovery of candidate genes and pathways in the endometrium regulating ovine blastocyst growth and conceptus elongation
    M Carey Satterfield
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
    Physiol Genomics 39:85-99. 2009
    ..This transcriptomic data provides novel insights into the biology of endometrial function and preimplantation blastocyst growth and development in sheep...
  99. ncbi request reprint Methods for studying interferon tau stimulated genes
    Fuller W Bazer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, USA
    Methods Mol Med 122:367-80. 2006
    ..Given that ISGs are increased in the endometrium during pregnancy across diverse species, they may be important in establishment of uterine receptivity to implantation of the conceptus...
  100. ncbi request reprint Comparative developmental biology of the mammalian uterus
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Curr Top Dev Biol 68:85-122. 2005
    ..This knowledge is necessary to develop rational therapies to prevent and treat infertility and to enhance fertility in humans and domestic animals...
  101. ncbi request reprint Regulation of expression of fibroblast growth factor 7 in the pig uterus by progesterone and estradiol
    Hakhyun Ka
    Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    Biol Reprod 77:172-80. 2007
    ....

Research Grants10

  1. Genetic Regulation of Postnatal Uterine Morphogenesis and Function
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This research will help determine important genes for reproduction and help to design clinical therapies to prevent, identify and treat reproductive problems in women. ..
  2. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  3. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful completion of the experiments is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms controlling fundamental processes essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy that are regulated by endogenous retroviruses. ..
  4. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Successful completion of the experiments is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms controlling fundamental processes essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy that are regulated by endogenous retroviruses. ..
  5. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  6. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. MECHANISMS REGULATING UTERINE MORPHOGENESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  8. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas E Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Successful completion of the experiments is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms controlling fundamental processes essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy that are regulated by endogenous retroviruses. ..