Theresa J Ochoa

Summary

Affiliation: Texas Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Clinical studies of lactoferrin in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Pediatrics, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porras, Lima 33, Peru
    Biochem Cell Biol 90:457-67. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Severe airway obstruction in a child with Pott's disease
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Pediatrics, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:649-51. 2006
  3. pmc New insights into the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porras, Lima 33, Peru
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:852-6. 2008
  4. pmc Effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Lima, Peru
    Biochimie 91:30-4. 2009
  5. pmc High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:296-301. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint [Comparison of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) diagnosis by serology and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]
    Angela Lluque
    Laboratorio de Enfermedades Entéricas y Nutrición LEEN, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 30:121-5. 2010
  7. pmc Detection of the CS20 colonization factor antigen in diffuse-adhering Escherichia coli strains
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 60:186-9. 2010
  8. pmc Impact of lactoferrin supplementation on growth and prevalence of Giardia colonization in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1881-3. 2008
  9. pmc Enteropathogenic escherichia coli infection in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 24:478-83. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint Management of children with infection-associated persistent diarrhea
    Theresa J Ochoa
    University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Division, 6431 Fannin, JFB 1 739, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 15:229-36. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. doi request reprint Clinical studies of lactoferrin in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Pediatrics, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porras, Lima 33, Peru
    Biochem Cell Biol 90:457-67. 2012
    ..If the data from these sepsis studies are proven to be correct, it will profoundly affect the treatment of low birth weight neonates and will aid in the reduction of child mortality worldwide...
  2. ncbi request reprint Severe airway obstruction in a child with Pott's disease
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Pediatrics, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:649-51. 2006
    ..Airway obstruction associated with Pott's disease is rare. We present a case of severe airway obstruction caused by an extensive paravertebral mediastinal abscess in a 3-year-old boy with tuberculosis of the thoracic spine...
  3. pmc New insights into the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porras, Lima 33, Peru
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:852-6. 2008
    ..These inconsistencies probably are related to the study patient populations, reflecting a possible age-related susceptibility to infection...
  4. pmc Effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Lima, Peru
    Biochimie 91:30-4. 2009
    ..Recently several clinical trials in children have started to address this issue. Whether lactoferrin can prevent a significant portion of diarrheal disease remains to be determined...
  5. pmc High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:296-301. 2009
    ..Antimicrobial drug resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were more frequent in E. coli isolated from diarrheal samples than controls, which reflected greater antibiotic exposure in patients with gastroenteritis...
  6. ncbi request reprint [Comparison of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) diagnosis by serology and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]
    Angela Lluque
    Laboratorio de Enfermedades Entéricas y Nutrición LEEN, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 30:121-5. 2010
    ..Currently the proper diagnosis of EPEC should be done by the identification of the intimin gen (eaeA) by PCR...
  7. pmc Detection of the CS20 colonization factor antigen in diffuse-adhering Escherichia coli strains
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 60:186-9. 2010
    ..coli strains identified using molecular methods. CFs may be an unrecognized relevant adherence factor in other E. coli, which may then play a role in pathogenesis and the immune response of the host...
  8. pmc Impact of lactoferrin supplementation on growth and prevalence of Giardia colonization in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1881-3. 2008
    ..However, there was a lower prevalence of colonization with Giardia species and better growth among children in the lactoferrin group...
  9. pmc Enteropathogenic escherichia coli infection in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 24:478-83. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study is to review the current epidemiology of EPEC infection and the new insights into its physiopathology...
  10. ncbi request reprint Management of children with infection-associated persistent diarrhea
    Theresa J Ochoa
    University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Division, 6431 Fannin, JFB 1 739, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 15:229-36. 2004
    ..Persistent diarrhea seriously affects nutritional status, growth, and intellectual function. Meeting these challenges is profoundly important, particularly in developing countries...
  11. ncbi request reprint Lactoferrin blocks the initial host cell attachment mechanism of Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)
    Theresa J Ochoa
    University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 554:463-6. 2004
  12. ncbi request reprint [Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea]
    Maribel Riveros
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 28:21-8. 2011
    ..Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown...
  13. pmc Lactoferrin impairs type III secretory system function in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77040, USA
    Infect Immun 71:5149-55. 2003
    ..This disruption of the type III secretory system implies that lactoferrin could provide broad cross protection against the enteropathogens that share this mechanism...
  14. pmc Age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among infants from Periurban areas in Lima, Peru
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1694-702. 2009
    ..Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are being recognized as important pediatric enteropathogens worldwide. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in age-related susceptibility to specific strains, especially among infants...
  15. ncbi request reprint [Frequency and pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Peruvian children with and without diarrhea]
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 28:13-20. 2011
    ..INTRODUCTION; Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, they are not part of routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories...
  16. pmc Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: a tool for investigation of asymptomatic versus symptomatic infections
    Francesca Barletta
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 53:1223-9. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial load of EPEC isolated from stool samples from children with and without diarrhea to determine whether bacterial load might be a useful tool for further study of this phenomenon...
  17. ncbi request reprint [Pneumococcal serotypes in carrier children prior to the introduction of anti-pneumococcal vaccines in Peru]
    Erik H Mercado
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 29:53-60. 2012
    ..To determine the carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of healthy children younger than 2 years prior to the universal use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Peru...
  18. pmc Norovirus prevalence in 'pathogen negative' gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru
    Fulton P Rivera
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:734-6. 2011
    ..The role of norovirus as a cause of diarrhoea and the ascertainment of its severity in developing countries needs further confirmation by future epidemiological studies...
  19. pmc Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction
    Fulton P Rivera
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    PLoS ONE 8:e59253. 2013
    ..bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea...
  20. pmc Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolated from children
    Susan Mosquito
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Ave Honorio Delgado 430, Lima 31, Peru
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 40:544-8. 2012
    ..05). There was a high diversity of resistance genes in DEC, including symptomatic strains...
  21. doi request reprint Multiplex real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) for diarrheagenic
    Francesca Barletta
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Methods Mol Biol 943:307-14. 2013
    ..coli (ETEC), eaeA for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), stx1 and stx2 for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and daaD for diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC)...
  22. pmc Randomized double-blind controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin for prevention of diarrhea in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    J Pediatr 162:349-56. 2013
    ..To determine the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on prevention of diarrhea in children...
  23. pmc Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Peruvian children with bloody diarrhea
    Alejandro Llanos
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:314-6. 2012
    ..2% and was associated with absence of fever, an observation that may increase suspicion of these pathogens. Because of the significant prevalence of STEC locally, proper diagnostics methods should be implemented in the region...
  24. pmc Human milk secretory antibodies against attaching and effacing Escherichia coli antigens
    Marita Noguera-Obenza
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77040, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:545-51. 2003
    ..Only anti-EspA is found in most milk samples from both populations of women. EspA may represent a useful target for an immunization strategy to prevent EHEC disease in humans...
  25. pmc Fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
    Erik H Mercado
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1376-81. 2011
    ....
  26. pmc Rifaximin does not induce toxin production or phage-mediated lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
    Theresa J Ochoa
    University of Texas School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, TX 77225, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2837-41. 2007
    ..Rifaximin, unlike many antibiotics used to treat pediatric gastroenteritis, does not induce phage-mediated bacteriolysis and Stx release...
  27. pmc Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by use of melting-curve analysis and real-time multiplex PCR
    Chase E Guion
    Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas 77225, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1752-7. 2008
    ..The cost of materials was low. Melting-point analysis of real-time multiplex PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detection of diarrheagenic E. coli...
  28. ncbi request reprint [Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy nasopharyngeal carriers in seven regions of Peru]
    Nancy Torres
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 30:575-82. 2013
    ..To determine the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of healthy nasopharyngeal carriers younger than 2 years in seven regions of Peru...
  29. doi request reprint Effect of bovine lactoferrin in Salmonella ser. Typhimurium infection in mice
    Susan Mosquito
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porras, Lima 33, Peru
    Biometals 23:515-21. 2010
    ..Bovine LF protects against Salmonella ser. Typhimurium infection in mice, reducing the severity, mortality and the degree of inflammation of this infection...
  30. ncbi request reprint Human lactoferrin impairs virulence of Shigella flexneri
    Henry F Gomez
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Houston Medical School, 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:87-95. 2003
    ..Lactoferrin does not directly degrade previously released invasion plasmid antigens but works by making IpaBC susceptible to breakdown by surface-expressed protease(s)...
  31. pmc Detection of secretory immunoglobulin A in human colostrum as mucosal immune response against proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
    David Durand
    From the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México and Barcelona Centre for International Health Research CRESIB, Hospital Clínic Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1122-6. 2013
    ..coli. There are no previous studies defining the presence of colostral sIgA against all these 3 major enteric pathogens...
  32. pmc Genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains causing traveler's diarrhea
    Fulton P Rivera
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    J Clin Microbiol 51:633-5. 2013
    ..Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present...
  33. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal diseases among hospitalized children in Lima, Peru
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 28:121-7. 2010
    ..To determine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and the antibiotic susceptibility and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru...
  34. doi request reprint Factors affecting caregivers' use of antibiotics available without a prescription in Peru
    Lucie Ecker
    Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima, Peru
    Pediatrics 131:e1771-9. 2013
    ..To determine factors that affect caregivers' decisions about antibiotic use in children in settings where antibiotics are available without prescription...
  35. ncbi request reprint Physicians' responsibility for antibiotic use in infants from periurban Lima, Peru
    Lucie Ecker
    Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima, Peru
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 30:574-9. 2011
    ..To describe the use of antibiotics in Peruvian children under 1 year in a setting where they are available without a prescription...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effect of lactoferrin on enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Biochem Cell Biol 84:369-76. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the effect of lactoferrin on surface proteins is not restricted to organisms having a TTSS...
  37. pmc Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pediatric patients in Lima, Peru
    Anicia M Medina
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:158-63. 2010
    ..Diarrheagenic E. coli were highly resistant to ampicillin (74%) and cotrimoxazole (70%)...
  38. ncbi request reprint [Preferences of antibiotic use in children less than five in physicians working health centers of primary level in peri-urban areas of Lima, Peru]
    Lucie Ecker
    Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 30:181-9. 2013
    ..To describe physicians' preferences of antibiotic use in children less than 5 years in health centers of primary level in three periurban districts in Lima, Perú...
  39. doi request reprint Effect of bovine lactoferrin on the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for clinical Shigella spp. strains
    Susan Mosquito
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Biochem Cell Biol 90:412-6. 2012
    ..The decrease in the MIC in the presence of bLF seems to depend on the mechanisms of action of each antibiotic. In vivo studies are needed to further evaluate bLF as a coadjuvant to antibiotic treatment of resistant Shigella...
  40. ncbi request reprint [Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli- associated diarrhea]
    Susan Mosquito
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humbold, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 28:648-56. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and spectrum of disease of Escherichia coli O157
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas, Houston Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:259-63. 2003
    ..Understanding the pathophysiology of this illness is likely to lead to important new treatment interventions...
  42. pmc Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatric patients
    Theresa J Ochoa
    University of Texas Heath Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:966-8. 2005
    ..Children with CA-MRSA were younger and mostly African American. Of MRSA isolates, 4.5% had the inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype...
  43. ncbi request reprint Nitazoxanide for treatment of intestinal parasites in children
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:641-2. 2005
  44. ncbi request reprint [Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru]
    Iván O Espinoza
    Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 28:602-9. 2011
    ..To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru...
  45. doi request reprint The patient presenting with acute dysentery--a systematic review
    Margaret L Pfeiffer
    Medical School, University of Texas, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Infect 64:374-86. 2012
    ..The etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy...
  46. ncbi request reprint Penicillin resistance and serotypes/serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal carrier children younger than 2 years in Lima, Peru
    Theresa J Ochoa
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 52:59-64. 2005
    ..Only 65% of the isolated strains had serogroups found in the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. This highlights the importance of regional surveillance studies for effective vaccine strategies and treatment protocols...
  47. pmc Lactoferrin protects rabbits from Shigella flexneri-induced inflammatory enteritis
    Henry F Gomez
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Houston Medical School, 77030, USA
    Infect Immun 70:7050-3. 2002
    ..Lactoferrin at a concentration normally found in human colostrum blocks development of S. flexneri-induced inflammatory enteritis...
  48. pmc Drug-resistant diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico
    Teresa Estrada-Garcia
    Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1306-8. 2005
    ..Ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were uniformly active. Effective and safe oral agents are needed to treat children with bacterial diarrhea...
  49. ncbi request reprint Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli severe dysentery complicated by rotavirus gastroenteritis
    Leova Pacheco-Gil
    Hospital del Nino, Dr Rodolfo Nieto Padrón, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico
    J Infect 53:e211-3. 2006
    ..The severe gastrointestinal bleeding anemia and hypovolemic shock was successfully treated with IV blood transfusions, rehydration and antibiotic therapy...