R M Malina

Summary

Affiliation: Tarleton State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi Weight training in youth-growth, maturation, and safety: an evidence-based review
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 16:478-87. 2006
  2. ncbi Overweight and obesity in a rural Amerindian population in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico, 1968-2000
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Health and Physical Education, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 19:711-21. 2007
  3. ncbi Secular change in age at menarche in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico: 1968--2000
    R M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 31:634-46. 2004
  4. ncbi Growth status and estimated growth rate of youth football players: a community-based study
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 15:125-32. 2005
  5. ncbi Maturity offset in gymnasts: application of a prediction equation
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1342-7. 2006
  6. ncbi Maturity status of youth football players: a noninvasive estimate
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1044-52. 2005
  7. ncbi TW3 and Fels skeletal ages in elite youth soccer players
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 34:265-72. 2007
  8. ncbi Maturity-associated variation in sport-specific skills of youth soccer players aged 13-15 years
    Robert M Malina
    Research Professor, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 77414, USA
    J Sports Sci 23:515-22. 2005
  9. ncbi Physical fitness of children and adolescents in the United States: status and secular change
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sport Sci 50:67-90. 2007
  10. ncbi Physical activity and fitness in an international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Food Nutr Bull 27:S295-313. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications63

  1. ncbi Weight training in youth-growth, maturation, and safety: an evidence-based review
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 16:478-87. 2006
    ..To review the effects of resistance training programs on pre- and early-pubertal youth in the context of response, potential influence on growth and maturation, and occurrence of injury...
  2. ncbi Overweight and obesity in a rural Amerindian population in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico, 1968-2000
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Health and Physical Education, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 19:711-21. 2007
    ..Overweight, in particular, and to a lesser extent obesity have increased in prevalence among adults since the late 1970s. The results suggest adulthood as a critical period for onset of overweight and obesity in this sample...
  3. ncbi Secular change in age at menarche in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico: 1968--2000
    R M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 31:634-46. 2004
    ..To evaluate secular change in the age at menarche between 1978 and 2000 in residents of a rural Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, using status quo and retrospective methods...
  4. ncbi Growth status and estimated growth rate of youth football players: a community-based study
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 15:125-32. 2005
    ..To characterize the growth status of participants in community-sponsored youth football programs and to estimate rates of growth in height and weight...
  5. ncbi Maturity offset in gymnasts: application of a prediction equation
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1342-7. 2006
    ..To verify the applicability of the prediction equation for maturity offset in a sample of female gymnasts followed longitudinally through adolescence...
  6. ncbi Maturity status of youth football players: a noninvasive estimate
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1044-52. 2005
    ..To estimate the biological maturity status of youth football players 9-14 yr old using a noninvasive method and to compare the body size of players of contrasting status...
  7. ncbi TW3 and Fels skeletal ages in elite youth soccer players
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 34:265-72. 2007
    ..Skeletal age (SA) tends to be advanced for chronological age (CA) in adolescent male soccer players...
  8. ncbi Maturity-associated variation in sport-specific skills of youth soccer players aged 13-15 years
    Robert M Malina
    Research Professor, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 77414, USA
    J Sports Sci 23:515-22. 2005
    ..In conclusion, age, experience, body size and stage of puberty contributed relatively little to variation in performance in four of the six soccer-specific skill tests in adolescent footballers aged 13-15 years...
  9. ncbi Physical fitness of children and adolescents in the United States: status and secular change
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Med Sport Sci 50:67-90. 2007
    ..The general trend may be consistent with the decline since the 1980s in aerobic performance assessed with the 20 m shuttle run. These trends highlight the need for updated national physical fitness data for American youth...
  10. ncbi Physical activity and fitness in an international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Food Nutr Bull 27:S295-313. 2006
    ..The review concludes with specific recommendations for and limitations of inclusion of indicators of physical activity and fitness in the construction of an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children...
  11. ncbi Incidence and player risk factors for injury in youth football
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 16:214-22. 2006
    ..To estimate the incidence of injuries in youth football and to assess the relationship between player-related risk factors (age, body size, biological maturity status) and the occurrence of injury in youth football...
  12. ncbi Body composition in athletes: assessment and estimated fatness
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Clin Sports Med 26:37-68. 2007
    ..This article provides an overview of models and methods used for studying body composition, changes in body composition during adolescence and the transition into adulthood, and applications to adolescent and young adult athletes...
  13. ncbi Secular change in height, sitting height and leg length in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico: 1968-2000
    R M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 31:615-33. 2004
    ..To evaluate secular changes in height, sitting height and estimated leg length between 1968 and 2000 in residents in a rural Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico...
  14. pmc Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13-15 years classified by skill level
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Br J Sports Med 41:290-5; discussion 295. 2007
    ..To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill...
  15. ncbi Maturity-associated variation in the growth and functional capacities of youth football (soccer) players 13-15 years
    Robert M Malina
    Eur J Appl Physiol 91:555-62. 2004
    ..Training is a significant contributor to aerobic resistance, whereas weight and height are significant contributors to the sprint and vertical jump, respectively...
  16. doi Physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico
    R M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:826-34. 2011
    ..The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years...
  17. ncbi Validation of a noninvasive maturity estimate relative to skeletal age in youth football players
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 17:362-8. 2007
    ..To validate a non-invasive measure of biological maturity (percentage of predicted mature height at a given age) with an established indicator of maturity [skeletal age (SA)] in youth American football players...
  18. ncbi Familial similarity in body size in an isolated Zapotec-speaking community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico: estimated genetic and environmental effects
    B B Little
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76402 0010, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 32:513-24. 2005
    ..The study used path analysis to estimate genetic and environmental determinants of familial similarity in anthropometric characteristics among children from a rural subsistence agrarian community in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico...
  19. doi Secular change in muscular strength of indigenous rural youth 6-17 years in Oaxaca, southern Mexico: 1968-2000
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, and Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 37:168-84. 2010
    ..The study compared the grip strength of indigenous school youth 6-17 years of age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, who were surveyed in 1968, 1978 and 2000...
  20. ncbi Gene-environment interaction in skeletal maturity and body dimensions of urban Oaxaca Mestizo schoolchildren
    Bertis B Little
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402 0010, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 34:216-25. 2007
    ..The study analyzed the relationship between skeletal age (SA) and the difference between skeletal and chronological ages (SA-CA) and body size among growth-stunted and well-nourished children...
  21. ncbi Opportunity for natural selection and gene flow in an isolated Zapotec-speaking community in southern Mexico in the throes of a secular increase in size
    B B Little
    Department of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering, Tarleton State University, Box T 0010, Stephenville, TX 76402 0010, USA
    Hum Biol 78:295-305. 2006
    ..Genotype-environment interaction and environmental influences are apparently the predominant causes of the secular trend. If natural selection plays a role in causing the secular trend, it is a small one...
  22. ncbi Anthropometric asymmetry in chronically undernourished children from Southern Mexico
    B B Little
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402 0010, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 29:526-37. 2002
    ..Genetic influences are hypothesized to underlie skeletal asymmetry (i.e. differences in development on either side of the median plane)...
  23. doi Secular change in heights of indigenous adults from a Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico
    Robert M Malina
    Professor Emeritus, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin and Research Professor, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 141:463-75. 2010
    ..Combining observations on adults with those for youth in the community indicated several phases of secular change in height that varied with years of birth...
  24. ncbi Overweight and obesity among youth participants in American football
    Robert M Malina
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 77414, USA
    J Pediatr 151:378-82. 2007
    ..To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among participants in youth American football 9 to 14 years of age...
  25. ncbi Craniofacial dimensions in children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico: secular change, 1968-2000
    Bertis B Little
    Department of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 131:127-36. 2006
    ....
  26. doi Natural selection and demographic transition in a Zapotec-speaking genetic isolate in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico
    Bertis B Little
    Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402 0010, USA
    Ann Hum Biol 35:34-49. 2008
    ..The study analyzed the potential for natural selection and the demographic transition in an isolated Amerindian population in the process of secular change in body size...
  27. doi Socioeconomic variation in the growth status of urban school children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1972 and 2000
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin and Research Professor, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:805-16. 2009
    ..The prevalence of stunting declined while the prevalence of overweight and to a lesser extent in obesity increased from 1972 to 2000, more so in low-middle and middle SES than in low SES children...
  28. doi Physical activity in youth from a subsistence agriculture community in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33:819-30. 2008
    ..Daily household chores, walking, and leisure activities suggest moderately active and moderately-to-vigorously active lifestyles in girls and boys, respectively, in this indigenous subsistence agricultural community...
  29. ncbi Inbreeding avoidance in an isolated indigenous Zapotec community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico
    Bertis B Little
    Department of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76402 0010, USA
    Hum Biol 77:305-16. 2005
    ..However, among the poorest individuals, socially prescribed jural rules for inbreeding avoidance failed to operate. Thus the preponderance of inbreeding appears to occur among the poor, economically disadvantaged in the community...
  30. pmc National athletic trainers' association position statement: preventing, detecting, and managing disordered eating in athletes
    Christine M Bonci
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
    J Athl Train 43:80-108. 2008
    ..To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes...
  31. doi Physical activity: the present in the context of the past
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin and Research Professor, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 20:373-91. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi The relative age effect in soccer: a match-related perspective
    Roel Vaeyens
    Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    J Sports Sci 23:747-56. 2005
    ..Our findings suggest that match-based variables may provide a more reliable indication of the relative age effect in soccer...
  33. ncbi Indicators of biological maturation and secular changes in biological maturation
    Gaston P Beunen
    Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Food Nutr Bull 27:S244-56. 2006
    ..The review concludes with specific recommendations for the inclusion of a maturity indicator or maturity indicators in the construction of an international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children..
  34. doi Sex differences in exercise behavior during adolescence: is biological maturation a confounding factor?
    Sean P Cumming
    School for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
    J Adolesc Health 42:480-5. 2008
    ..To test the hypothesis that sex-related differences in exercise behavior during adolescence are confounded by biological age...
  35. ncbi Secular trend in peak oxygen consumption among United States youth in the 20th century
    Joey C Eisenmann
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Hum Biol 14:699-706. 2002
    ..The available data indicate that aerobic fitness has not decreased in United States youth except in adolescent girls over the past few decades...
  36. doi Epidemiologic transition in an isolated indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico
    Robert M Malina
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, TX 76402 0010, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 137:69-81. 2008
    ....
  37. ncbi Estimated maturity status and perceptions of adult autonomy support in youth soccer players
    Sean P Cumming
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    J Sports Sci 24:1039-46. 2006
    ..Age and body mass index were unrelated to perceptions of adult (i.e. coach, mother, father) autonomy support in male and female players...
  38. ncbi Age at menarche in competitive figure skaters: variation by competency and discipline
    Eva A Vadocz
    Department of Physical Education, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208, USA
    J Sports Sci 20:93-100. 2002
    ..45 (P < 0.01). Later maturation was thus characteristic of competitive figure skaters, particularly in elite and more specialized pair skaters, and there was a significant familial resemblance...
  39. ncbi Combined influence of body mass index and waist circumference on coronary artery disease risk factors among children and adolescents
    Ian Janssen
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, School of Physical and Health Education, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada
    Pediatrics 115:1623-30. 2005
    ....
  40. ncbi Adolescent growth spurts in female gymnasts
    Martine Thomis
    Department of Sport and Movement Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Pediatr 146:239-44. 2005
    ..adolescent growth spurts in height, sitting height, and leg length? (2) Are the sequence and magnitude of spurts comparable with female adolescent non-athletes? (3) How do the data compare with other female gymnasts and with short girls?..
  41. ncbi Growth in peak aerobic power during adolescence
    Christina A Geithner
    Department of Exercise Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1616-24. 2004
    ..To model the growth of peak aerobic power during adolescence in both sexes followed longitudinally from 10 to 18 yr...
  42. ncbi Body mass index, waist circumference, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of children and adolescents
    Peter T Katzmarzyk
    School of Physical and Health Education and Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:e198-205. 2004
    ..To derive optimal body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference thresholds for children and adolescents, to predict risk factor clustering...
  43. ncbi Urban-rural contrasts in the physical fitness of school children in Oaxaca, Mexico
    Maria Eugenia Peña Reyes
    Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico, DF
    Am J Hum Biol 15:800-13. 2003
    ..The observed differences may be related to activity habits associated with school physical education and lifestyle in the respective communities...
  44. ncbi Age- and sex-associated variation in neuromuscular capacities of adolescent distance runners
    Joey C Eisenmann
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, 352 Bethune, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada
    J Sports Sci 21:551-7. 2003
    ..The magnitude of sex differences between the runners and the general population varied by age and neuromuscular capacity...
  45. ncbi Sex differences in the pattern of age-dependent increase in the BMI from 20-59 years
    Zygmunt Welon
    Institute of Anthropology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kuznicza 35, 50 951 Wroclaw, Poland
    Am J Hum Biol 14:693-8. 2002
    ..This hypothesis was verified with a linear regression model in women but for men piecewise regression with a break at 40 years of age fits the age trends...
  46. ncbi Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents
    Yi Ching Huang
    Department of Physical Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 21:11-9. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi Intraindividual allometric development of aerobic power in 8- to 16-year-old boys
    Gaston Beunen
    Department of Sport and Movement Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:503-10. 2002
    ....
  48. ncbi Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth
    William B Strong
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA
    J Pediatr 146:732-7. 2005
    ..To review the effects of physical activity on health and behavior outcomes and develop evidence-based recommendations for physical activity in youth...
  49. ncbi Utility of childhood BMI in the prediction of adulthood disease: comparison of national and international references
    Ian Janssen
    School of Physical and Health Education, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
    Obes Res 13:1106-15. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi Maturity-associated variation in the body size and proportions of elite female gymnasts 14-17 years of age
    Albrecht L Claessens
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Pediatr 165:186-92. 2006
    ..The results highlight the need to consider maturity-associated variation in the body dimensions of gymnasts before attributing their characteristics to the demands of regular training...
  51. ncbi The relationship between peak height velocity and physical performance in youth soccer players
    Renaat M Philippaerts
    Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    J Sports Sci 24:221-30. 2006
    ..Trainers and coaches should be aware of the individual characteristics of the adolescent growth spurt and the training load should also be individualized at this time...
  52. ncbi Blunted growth velocity in female artistic gymnasts
    Gaston Beunen
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:605; author reply 606. 2006
  53. ncbi Wrist pain, distal radial physeal injury, and ulnar variance in the young gymnast
    John P DiFiori
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 924 Westwood Blvd, Suite 725, Los Angeles, CA 90266, USA
    Am J Sports Med 34:840-9. 2006
    ..This article provides a comprehensive review of these issues and offers suggestions for management, preventive measures, and future research...
  54. ncbi Factors affecting levels of physical activity in adults
    Vern Seefeldt
    Institute for the Study of Youth Sports, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA
    Sports Med 32:143-68. 2002
    ..The initiation and maintenance of regular physical activity in adults depends on a multitude of biological and sociocultural variables that demand attention across the lifespan...
  55. ncbi Puberty and physical self-perceptions of competitive female figure skaters: an interdisciplinary approach
    Eva V Monsma
    Department of Physical Education, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208, USA
    Res Q Exerc Sport 77:158-66. 2006
    ..Skating context did not predict physical self-perceptions...
  56. ncbi Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children
    Dawn Podulka Coe
    Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1515-9. 2006
    ..This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children...
  57. ncbi Body mass index, overweight and obesity in married and never married men and women in Poland
    Anna Lipowicz
    Institute of Anthropology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
    Am J Hum Biol 14:468-75. 2002
    ..001), whereas educational level did not have a significant role. Among women, age, marital status, and education were significantly (P < 0.001) related to the BMI...
  58. ncbi Estimated daily energy expenditure and blood lipids in adolescents: the Québec Family Study
    Joey C Eisenmann
    York University School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Adolesc Health 33:147-53. 2003
    ..To examine the association between estimated daily energy expenditure and blood lipids in a sample of adolescents...
  59. ncbi Variation in relative fat distribution associated with maturational timing: The Wrocław Growth study
    Sławomir Kozieł
    Institute of Anthropology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
    Ann Hum Biol 32:691-701. 2005
    ..The data suggest that early maturing subjects accumulate more subcutaneous adipose tissue on the lower trunk compared with later maturing peers of the same age and sex...
  60. ncbi Sports participation among Portuguese youth 10 to 18 years
    André F Seabra
    Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
    J Phys Act Health 4:370-80. 2007
    ..The present study considered age- and sex-associated variation in sports participation (SP) in Portuguese youth...
  61. ncbi BMI and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese youth 9-18 years
    Yi Ching Huang
    Department of Exercise and Health Science, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:701-8. 2007
    ..The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a physical fitness index (PFI) based on four indicators of fitness in a national sample of Taiwanese youth...
  62. ncbi Comparisons of physical characteristics and performances among female collegiate rowers
    Rebecca A Battista
    Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    J Sports Sci 25:651-7. 2007
    ..In conclusion, collegiate rowers differ to some extent in physical and performance characteristics by level and experience...
  63. ncbi Influence of height on attained level of education in males at 19 years of age
    Alicja Szklarska
    Institute of Anthropology, Polish Academy of Science, Wrocław, Poland
    J Biosoc Sci 39:575-82. 2007
    ..24, p<0.001; 1995: OR=1.24, p <0.001; 2001: OR=1.20, p<0.001). Two possible, not mutually exclusive, selective mechanisms are postulated and discussed: 'passive' and 'active' action...