T M File

Summary

Affiliation: Summa Health System
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Solutions to the problem of bacterial resistance
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Treat Respir Med 4:25-30. 2005
  2. doi request reprint Case studies of lower respiratory tract infections: community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Am J Med 123:S4-15. 2010
  3. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:110-9. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:993-1016, xi. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:xiii-xiv. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Clinical efficacy of newer agents in short-duration therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:S159-64. 2004
  7. pmc Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of
    T M File
    Summa Health System, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3323-31. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint New insights in the treatment by levofloxacin
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Chemotherapy 50:22-8. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Evolution of amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of adults with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia in response to antimicrobial-resistance patterns
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Clin Lab Med 24:531-51. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for empiric antimicrobial prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Chest 125:1888-901. 2004

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. ncbi request reprint Solutions to the problem of bacterial resistance
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Treat Respir Med 4:25-30. 2005
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Case studies of lower respiratory tract infections: community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Am J Med 123:S4-15. 2010
    ..The cases presented in this review highlight many of the recent recommendations from the IDSA/ATS guidelines...
  3. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:110-9. 2005
    ..Both amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg and comparators were well tolerated, with few patients withdrawing from the studies...
  4. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:993-1016, xi. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:xiii-xiv. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Clinical efficacy of newer agents in short-duration therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:S159-64. 2004
    ....
  7. pmc Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of
    T M File
    Summa Health System, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3323-31. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint New insights in the treatment by levofloxacin
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Chemotherapy 50:22-8. 2004
    ..Remarkably, levofloxacin continues to expand its list of indications. The development of a new high-dose 750-mg schedule has the potential to decrease the duration of treatment as well as reduce the emergence of resistance...
  9. ncbi request reprint Evolution of amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of adults with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia in response to antimicrobial-resistance patterns
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Clin Lab Med 24:531-51. 2004
    ..The b-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate allows for coverage of b-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as H influenzae and M catarrhalis. This article reviews the rationale for, and evolution of, oral amoxicillin clavulanate for ABRS and CAP..
  10. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for empiric antimicrobial prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Chest 125:1888-901. 2004
    ..Prospective data are required to evaluate which of these two approaches offers clinical superiority...
  11. ncbi request reprint Telithromycin new product overview
    Thomas M File
    Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Northeastern Ohio University, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:S1-13. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas: not only a cause of skin infections, also a new cause of pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:123-4. 2005
  13. ncbi request reprint Severe acute respiratory syndrome: pertinent clinical characteristics and therapy
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Treat Respir Med 4:95-106. 2005
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Burden of community-acquired pneumonia in North American adults
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio University, College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Postgrad Med 122:130-41. 2010
    ..Given the significance of the disease burden, the potential benefit of pneumococcal vaccination in adults is substantial...
  15. ncbi request reprint The science of selecting antimicrobials for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 15:S5-11. 2009
    ..Initiating appropriate empiric therapy can be challenging given elevated resistance rates among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains...
  16. doi request reprint What can we learn from the time course of untreated and partially treated community-onset Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia? A clinical perspective on superiority and noninferiority trial designs for mild community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:S157-65. 2008
    ..Because the composite rate of success in recent randomized clinical trials exceeds 90%, it would seem that a noninferiority margin of 10% is reasonable for trials for mild CAP...
  17. ncbi request reprint The development of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin/clavulanate for the management of respiratory tract infections in adults
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:S131-4. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Impact of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital setting
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 74:S6-11. 2007
    ..This article provides a brief review of the differences between health care-associated and community-acquired MRSA and discusses the potential impact of the changing epidemiology of MRSA on the hospital setting...
  19. ncbi request reprint Gemifloxacin once daily for 5 days versus 7 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, multicentre, double-blind study
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH and Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:112-20. 2007
    ..Short-course therapy has been advocated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the efficacy and safety of 5 and 7 day courses of gemifloxacin for outpatient treatment of mild-moderate CAP...
  20. doi request reprint Recommendations for treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: review of recent international guidelines
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, and Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:S42-7. 2010
    ..Developers of future clinical trials will need to be mindful of these recommendations to maintain best practice care for each investigator...
  21. ncbi request reprint Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia
    T M File
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, and North eastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:31-41. 2006
    ..Continued surveillance studies, appropriate antimicrobial usage campaigns, stratification of patients based on known risk factors for resistance, and vaccination programmes are needed to appropriately manage DRSP and limit its spread...
  22. ncbi request reprint Community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, and Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Lancet 362:1991-2001. 2003
    ..The appropriate use of vaccines against pneumococcal disease and influenza should be encouraged. Several guidelines for management of CAP have recently been published, the recommendations of which are reviewed...
  23. ncbi request reprint Optimal treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia: non-responders to conventional regimens
    T M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Chemotherapy 47:11-8; discussion 26-7. 2001
    ..A systematic therapeutic approach including a microbiological evaluation to identify the causative pathogen and its susceptibility will help to ensure that an appropriate antimicrobial agent is used...
  24. ncbi request reprint Outcome of treatment of respiratory tract infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, including drug-resistant strains, with pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxycillin/clavulanate
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:235-47. 2002
    ..pneumoniae infection as this formulation covers many PRSP that are non-susceptible to amoxycillin (+/-clavulanic acid) (MICs of >/=4 mg/l) as well as common beta-lactamase-producing respiratory pathogens...
  25. ncbi request reprint Clinical characteristics of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as the sole cause of community-acquired pneumonia
    T M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 29:426-8. 1999
    ..The presence of comorbid illnesses and the requirement of supplemental oxygen therapy were the most common criteria for hospital admission...
  26. ncbi request reprint Rational use of antibiotics to treat respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Department of Medicine, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Am J Manag Care 8:713-27. 2002
    ..To foster the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for respiratory tract infections and to review factors that should help achieve this objective...
  27. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of respiratory tract infections
    T M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, USA
    Semin Respir Infect 15:184-94. 2000
    ..pneumoniae) has also increased the challenge for appropriate management of RTI. An awareness of the epidemiology and cause of specific respiratory infections should optimize care...
  28. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of gemifloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind comparison with trovafloxacin
    T M File
    Summa Health System, Akron Infectious Diseases Inc, OH 44304, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:67-74. 2001
    ..Gemifloxacin was well tolerated and the incidence of transient liver function abnormalities was very low. Gemifloxacin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with CAP...
  29. ncbi request reprint Appropriate use of antimicrobials for drug-resistant pneumonia: focus on the significance of beta-lactam-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Thomas M File Jr
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, and Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:S17-26. 2002
    ..The clinical relevance of in vitro resistance may be related to at least 3 factors: concordance of antimicrobial therapy, severity of illness, and virulence...
  30. ncbi request reprint International guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: the role of macrolides
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Drugs 63:181-205. 2003
    ..The difference in the emphasis placed on the importance of the atypical pathogens as well as the expression of MRSP in North America compared with Europe partly explains this variance...
  31. ncbi request reprint Streptococcus pneumoniae and community-acquired pneumonia: a cause for concern
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Am J Med 117:39S-50S. 2004
    ....
  32. doi request reprint A disease model descriptive of progression between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and community-acquired pneumonia: roles for underlying lung disease and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:58-64. 2009
    ..For S. pneumoniae, achieving an AUIC > or =100 can attenuate progression, regardless of GLG. Thus, AUIC > or = 100 appears to be a viable antibiotic selection strategy to protect patients with S. pneumoniae from developing CAP...
  33. ncbi request reprint Clinical and public health implications of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    R C Moellering
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Chemother 14:42-56. 2002
    ..Further studies are required to monitor and control macrolide resistance and evaluate settings in which macrolide treatment failures are occurring, and new therapeutic interventions are needed...
  34. ncbi request reprint Gemifloxacin: a new, potent fluoroquinolone for the therapy of lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine and Summa Health System, 75 Arch St Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2:831-43. 2004
    ..2%. A nonphototoxic rash (usually a mild, maculopapular rash) was observed in 2.8% of patients in clinical studies...
  35. ncbi request reprint Emergence of levofloxacin-resistant pneumococci in immunocompromised adults after therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Kevin B Anderson
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:376-81. 2003
    ..In immunocompromised patients with suspected or proven pneumococcal infection, it may be prudent not to use fluoroquinolone monotherapy empirically when the patient has a history of fluoroquinolone therapy in at least the past 4 months...
  36. ncbi request reprint The radiologic manifestations of Legionnaire's disease. The Ohio Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group
    M J Tan
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Chest 117:398-403. 2000
    ..To study the serial radiographic manifestations of Legionnaire's disease from the initial presentation on admission to recovery using strict criteria for the diagnosis of infection...
  37. ncbi request reprint Persistently positive culture results in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila
    J S Tan
    Summa Health System and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1562-6. 2001
    ..The poor outcome may have been partially due to the suspected underlying lung malignancy, as shown by cytologic examination, and by a delay in seeking medical attention...
  38. ncbi request reprint [Clinical impact of appropriate use of antibiotic in hospital according to CARAT criteria]
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Infez Med 16:30-7. 2008
    ..Promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics should provide for optimal outcomes for our patients...
  39. ncbi request reprint Overview of resistance in the 1990s
    T M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Rootstown, USA
    Chest 115:3S-8S. 1999
    ..Responsible antibiotic use and stringent infection-control policies are needed to discourage the development of resistant strains...
  40. ncbi request reprint Levofloxacin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia
    T M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Can Respir J 6:35A-9A. 1999
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Management of community-acquired pneumonia: a focus on conversion from hospital to the ambulatory setting
    James S Tan
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Am J Respir Med 2:385-94. 2003
    ..Following prompt intravenous therapy and stabilization, patients with CAP should be treated with oral therapy in the ambulatory setting...
  42. ncbi request reprint How long should we treat community-acquired pneumonia?
    Nikole M Scalera
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:177-81. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Legionnaires disease with bacteremic coinfection
    Michael J Tan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:533-9. 2002
    ..Initial empiric antimicrobial therapy for patients who live in areas of endemicity and who are smokers should be treated with antimicrobial agents that have activity against pneumococcus and Legionella species...
  44. ncbi request reprint Clinical implications of 750 mg, 5-day levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:1473-81. 2004
    ..To evaluate the time to symptom resolution and i.v.-to-p.o. transition in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients treated with 750 mg or 500 mg levofloxacin...
  45. ncbi request reprint A new dosing paradigm: high-dose, short-course fluoroquinolone therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Cornerstone . 2003
    ..This article discusses the use of high-dose, short-course fluoroquinolone therapy as an effective option for patients with community-acquired pneumonia...
  46. ncbi request reprint Ventilator-associated pneumonia: gearing towards shorter-course therapy
    Thea de Jesus Chua
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:185-8. 2006
    ....
  47. doi request reprint Performance measure of urinary antigen in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia
    John Selickman
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:129-33. 2010
    ..03). Test performance was less sensitive than prospective studies indicate. Patients with impaired renal function were significantly more likely to have positive UAg tests...
  48. ncbi request reprint Performance measurement in community-acquired pneumonia: consequences intended and unintended
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 44:942-4. 2007
  49. ncbi request reprint A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia
    Forest W Arnold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:1086-93. 2007
    ..In different regions of the world, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antimicrobial is common...
  50. pmc Factors associated with antimicrobial resistance and mortality in pneumococcal bacteremia
    Mark I Neuman
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Emerg Med 32:349-57. 2007
    ..7). Harboring an antibiotic non-susceptible strain (OR 1.4) and male sex (OR 1.4) were associated with increased risk of mortality, whereas black race (OR 0.6) and evidence of focal infection (OR 0.6) were associated with decreased risk...
  51. doi request reprint Integrated results of 2 phase 3 studies comparing tigecycline and levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia
    Cristina Tanaseanu
    Department of Internal Medicine, St Pantelimon Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest OP 22, Romania
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61:329-38. 2008
    ..6% TGC versus 6.9% LEV) were significantly higher in LEV. Discontinuations for AEs were low (TGC, 26 patients [6.1%]; LEV, 34 patients [8.1%]). TGC appeared safe and achieved cure rates similar to LEV in hospitalized patients with CAP...
  52. ncbi request reprint Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 44:S27-72. 2007
  53. ncbi request reprint Levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Joseph P Lynch
    University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine and Hospitalists, The David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4:725-42. 2006
    ..However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms are becoming more prevalent so prudence must be exercised when prescribing this agent...
  54. ncbi request reprint Short-course treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Lionel A Mandell
    Clin Infect Dis 37:761-3. 2003
  55. ncbi request reprint Shorter course therapy of serious respiratory infections: new data for new approaches to management
    Thomas M File
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:105-7. 2004
  56. ncbi request reprint Oral gemifloxacin versus sequential therapy with intravenous ceftriaxone/oral cefuroxime with or without a macrolide in the treatment of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label, multicenter study of clinical effic
    Hartmut Lode
    Department of Chest and Infectious Diseases, Hospital Heckeshorn, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Ther 24:1915-36. 2002
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint What is optimal antimicrobial therapy for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia?
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 36:396-8. 2003
  58. ncbi request reprint Managing patients with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a common clinical problem
    Sanjay Sethi
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, State University of New York, VA Medical Research, Buffalo, NY, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:1511-21. 2004
    ..There is a substantial need for more research to understand the etiology and identify efficacious interventions to reduce the frequency of exacerbations of COPD...
  59. ncbi request reprint Etiology and management of community-acquired pneumonia in Asia
    Toshiharu Matsushima
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:157-62. 2002
    ..pneumoniae. Some Asian countries have their own guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia, but these are written in their own languages...
  60. ncbi request reprint Judicious use of antibiotics to treat respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:149-50. 2002
  61. ncbi request reprint A clinician's guide to the appropriate and accurate use of antibiotics: the Council for Appropriate and Rational Antibiotic Therapy (CARAT) criteria
    Thomas G Slama
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Am J Med 118:1S-6S. 2005
    ..The criteria, which are aimed at optimizing antibiotic therapy, include evidence-based results, therapeutic benefits, safety, optimal drug for the optimal duration, and cost-effectiveness...
  62. ncbi request reprint Optimizing therapy for community-acquired pneumonia with the goal of rapid resolution of illness
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1706-8. 2005
  63. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia in older adults: reversing the trend
    Thomas M File
    JAMA 294:2760-3. 2005
  64. ncbi request reprint The clinical relevance of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: a new perspective
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 42:798-800. 2006
  65. pmc Prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility of mef(A)-positive macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae over 4 years (2000 to 2004) of the PROTEKT US Study
    David J Farrell
    G R Micro Ltd, 7 9 William Rd, London NW1 3ER, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 45:290-3. 2007
    ..However, the ketolide antibacterial telithromycin consistently demonstrated in vitro activity against these isolates over the 4 years of the study (MIC90=0.5 to 1 microg/ml)...
  66. ncbi request reprint Medication options for the treatment of CAP
    Lionel A Mandell
    Am Fam Physician 74:1479. 2006
  67. ncbi request reprint Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1405-33. 2003
  68. ncbi request reprint Meropenem versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind comparative study
    Timothy C Fabian
    University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    Surg Infect (Larchmt) 6:269-82. 2005
    ..Meropenem, a broad-spectrum carbapenem with potent in vitro activity, is postulated to be an effective monotherapy for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI)...
  69. ncbi request reprint Viral respiratory tract infections: increasing importance and a new pathogen
    Thomas M File
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:125-7. 2003