Robert Sapolsky

Summary

Affiliation: Stanford University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Organismal stress and telomeric aging: an unexpected connection
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17323-4. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint General versus specific actions of mild-moderate hypothermia in attenuating cerebral ischemic damage
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5327, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1879-94. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Alzheimer's disease and some speculations about the evolution of its modifiers
    R M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 924:99-103. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint Altering behavior with gene transfer in the limbic system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Gilbert Lab, MC 5020, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Physiol Behav 79:479-86. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Neuroprotective gene therapy against acute neurological insults
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:61-9. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:208-20. 2003
  7. pmc A pacific culture among wild baboons: its emergence and transmission
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E106. 2004
  8. pmc The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Gilbert Laboratory, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1787-96. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint The influence of social hierarchy on primate health
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Departments of Biological Sciences, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Science 308:648-52. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Stress and plasticity in the limbic system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, MC 5020, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Neurochem Res 28:1735-42. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Parasite/Host Interactions and the Neurobiology of Fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Pro-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects in the CNS
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. Parasite / host interaction and the neurobiology of fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. Parasite / host interaction and the neurobiology of fear
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Gene therapy against conditioned fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
  9. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
  10. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 1999

Detail Information

Publications84

  1. pmc Organismal stress and telomeric aging: an unexpected connection
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17323-4. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint General versus specific actions of mild-moderate hypothermia in attenuating cerebral ischemic damage
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5327, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1879-94. 2007
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Alzheimer's disease and some speculations about the evolution of its modifiers
    R M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 924:99-103. 2000
    ..We analyze this in the context of the altricial nature of new-born primates, their long period of dependency on competent maternal care, and the requirement of cognitive intactness for such competency...
  4. ncbi request reprint Altering behavior with gene transfer in the limbic system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Gilbert Lab, MC 5020, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Physiol Behav 79:479-86. 2003
    ..These involve altering (a) cognition, (b) the rewarding properties of addictive substances, (c) patterns of social affiliation, and (d) responses to stress...
  5. ncbi request reprint Neuroprotective gene therapy against acute neurological insults
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:61-9. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:208-20. 2003
    ..In particular, the author considers the role of stress as a predisposing factor in certain psychiatric disorders and the ways in which stress signals can be harnessed as inducers of conditional expression systems in gene therapy...
  7. pmc A pacific culture among wild baboons: its emergence and transmission
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E106. 2004
    ....
  8. pmc The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Gilbert Laboratory, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1787-96. 2004
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint The influence of social hierarchy on primate health
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Departments of Biological Sciences, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Science 308:648-52. 2005
    ..Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status...
  10. ncbi request reprint Stress and plasticity in the limbic system
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, MC 5020, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    Neurochem Res 28:1735-42. 2003
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Marked differences in the efficacy of post-insult gene therapy with catalase versus glutathione peroxidase
    Pearl Chang
    Departments of Biological Sciences, Neurology, and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 1063:27-31. 2005
    ..Thus, we speculated that the post-insult decline in glutathione compromises the protective potential of GPX. Supporting this, reversing the post-insult glutathione decline with glutathione supplementation was neuroprotective...
  12. pmc Spatial memory and long-term object recognition are impaired by circadian arrhythmia and restored by the GABAAAntagonist pentylenetetrazole
    Norman F Ruby
    Biology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e72433. 2013
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus. ..
  13. ncbi request reprint Over-expression of antioxidant enzymes protects cultured hippocampal and cortical neurons from necrotic insults
    Hui Wang
    Department of Biological Sciences, and Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurochem 87:1527-34. 2003
    ..These studies not only underline the key role played by ROS in the neurotoxicity of necrotic insults, but also suggest potential gene therapy approaches...
  14. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy in the nervous system with superoxide dismutase
    Ilona Zemlyak
    Dept of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab, MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 1088:12-8. 2006
    ..These studies can be viewed as a cautionary note concerning gene therapy intervention against necrotic insults...
  15. doi request reprint Overexpression of mineralocorticoid and transdominant glucocorticoid receptor blocks the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory
    Deveroux Ferguson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California, USA
    Hippocampus 18:1103-11. 2008
    ..These findings illustrate the potential beneficial effects of increasing MR signaling or decreasing GR signaling to enhance specific aspects of cognitive function...
  16. ncbi request reprint Mild postischemic hypothermia prolongs the time window for gene therapy by inhibiting cytochrome C release
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5327, USA
    Stroke 35:572-7. 2004
    ..5 hours after stroke but not when delivered 5 hours after stroke onset. Here we determine whether hypothermia prolongs the therapeutic window for gene therapy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Bcl-2 overexpression protects against neuron loss within the ischemic margin following experimental stroke and inhibits cytochrome c translocation and caspase-3 activity
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive R200, Stanford, CA 94305 5327, USA
    J Neurochem 85:1026-36. 2003
    ..This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for stroke...
  18. pmc Viral vector-mediated blockade of the endocrine stress-response modulates non-spatial memory
    Deveroux Ferguson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Neurosci Lett 437:1-4. 2008
    ..These data add to the growing evidence that increasing estrogenic signaling can protect against the impairing effects of stress on non-spatial memory...
  19. pmc Evidence for caspase effects on release of cytochrome c and AIF in a model of ischemia in cortical neurons
    Maneesh H Singh
    Department of Biological Sciences, and Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 371 Serra Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neurosci Lett 469:179-83. 2010
    ..In addition, both crmA overexpression and DEVD inhibited cyt c release, suggesting a positive feedback loop involving activated caspases stimulating cyt c release...
  20. ncbi request reprint Enhancing cognition after stress with gene therapy
    Andrea Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurosci 26:11637-43. 2006
    ..Thus, ER/GR expression enhances spatial memory performance and blocks the impairing effects of GCs on such performance...
  21. ncbi request reprint Estrogenic protection against gp120 neurotoxicity: role of microglia
    Ilona Zemlyak
    Department of Biological Sciences, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 1046:130-6. 2005
    ....
  22. pmc Resilience against predator stress and dendritic morphology of amygdala neurons
    Rupshi Mitra
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Behav Brain Res 205:535-43. 2009
    ..These data suggest that dendritic hypotrophy in the BLA may be a resilience marker against lasting anxiogenic effects of predator stress...
  23. ncbi request reprint Bcl-2 transfection via herpes simplex virus blocks apoptosis-inducing factor translocation after focal ischemia in the rat
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:681-92. 2004
    ..Our data also suggest that AIF translocated into nuclei after cytochrome c was released into the cytosol. Bcl-2 transfection in the peri-infarct region blocked nuclear AIF translocation and improved cortical neuron survival...
  24. ncbi request reprint Neuroprotective effects of bcl-2 overexpression in hippocampal cultures: interactions with pathways of oxidative damage
    Sarah Howard
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurochem 83:914-23. 2002
    ..Thus, the antioxidant actions of Bcl-2 are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain its protective actions against these insults in hippocampal neurons...
  25. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids worsen excitotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampal cultures
    Anna MacPherson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Laboratory MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Exp Neurol 194:376-83. 2005
    ..These findings add to the growing picture of these classically anti-inflammatory hormones potentially having pro-inflammatory effects in the injured CNS...
  26. ncbi request reprint Anti-apoptotic therapy with a Tat fusion protein protects against excitotoxic insults in vitro and in vivo
    Kevin L Ju
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Exp Neurol 210:602-7. 2008
    ..This fusion protein decreased neurotoxicity caused by the excitotoxins glutamate and kainic acid in primary hippocampal cultures, and decreased hippocampal damage in vivo in an excitotoxic seizure model...
  27. ncbi request reprint Dual-gene, dual-cell type therapy against an excitotoxic insult by bolstering neuroenergetics
    Tonya M Bliss
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurosci 24:6202-8. 2004
    ....
  28. pmc Gene therapy using SOD1 protects striatal neurons from experimental stroke
    Alexis S Davis
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive R200, Stanford, CA 94305 5237, United States
    Neurosci Lett 411:32-6. 2007
    ..These data add to the growing literature, which suggests that an antioxidant approach, perhaps by employing gene therapy techniques, may be beneficial in the treatment of stroke...
  29. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy in neurological disease
    Midori A Yenari
    Department of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    Methods Mol Med 104:75-88. 2005
    ..Although application to clinical stroke is probably remote, viral vector-mediated gene therapy provides a unique and powerful tool in the study of molecular mechanisms involved in brain injury...
  30. ncbi request reprint Gene therapy and hypothermia for stroke treatment
    Midori A Yenari
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:54-68; discussion 79-81. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Novel glucocorticoid effects on acute inflammation in the CNS
    Klaus Dinkel
    Department of Biological Sciences, Gilbert Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurochem 84:705-16. 2003
    ..These data strongly question the traditional view of GCs being uniformly anti-inflammatory and could further explain how GCs worsen the outcome of neurological insults...
  32. ncbi request reprint Chaperones, protein aggregation, and brain protection from hypoxic/ischemic injury
    Rona G Giffard
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Biol 207:3213-20. 2004
    ..Protection from ischemia and ischemia-like injury by chaperones thus involves at least anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic and anti-protein aggregation mechanisms...
  33. pmc Neurotoxic effects of polymorphonuclear granulocytes on hippocampal primary cultures
    Klaus Dinkel
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:331-6. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that PMN might represent a harmful part of inflammation after brain injury that can contribute to secondary damage...
  34. pmc Glucocorticoids exacerbate lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner
    Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurosci 30:13690-8. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that GCs do not uniformly suppress neuroinflammation and can even enhance it at multiple levels in the pathway linking LPS exposure to inflammation...
  35. ncbi request reprint Disturbing behaviors of the orangutan
    Anne Nacey Maggioncalda
    Department of Anthropological Sciences, Program in Human Biology, Stanford University, Department of Anatomy, Stanford University School of Medicine, USA
    Sci Am 286:60-5. 2002
  36. pmc Disruption of fear memory through dual-hormone gene therapy
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:441-4. 2009
    ..The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is uniquely affected by steroid hormones. Whereas glucocorticoids (GCs)--the adrenal hormones released during stress--increase the excitability of BLA neurons, estrogen decreases it...
  37. ncbi request reprint Gene transfer of HSP72 protects cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus neurons from global ischemia: influence of Bcl-2
    Stephen Kelly
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5327, USA
    Ann Neurol 52:160-7. 2002
    ..We show that HSP72 overexpression protects cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus neurons from global cerebral ischemia, and that this protection may be mediated in part by increased Bcl-2 expression...
  38. ncbi request reprint Catalase over-expression protects striatal neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemia
    Wenping Gu
    Departments of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive R200, Stanford, CA 94305 5327, USA
    Neuroreport 15:413-6. 2004
    ..Thus, the timing of catalase over-expression relative to ischemia is a critical variable determining its potential therapeutic value...
  39. ncbi request reprint The neuroprotective effects of virally-derived caspase inhibitors p35 and crmA following a necrotic insult
    Madhuri Roy
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 14:1-9. 2003
    ..Moreover, in demonstrating the previously unexplored modulation of these processes, these data underline the capacity for classically "anti-apoptotic" proteins to alter other branches of cell death processes...
  40. ncbi request reprint gp120 neurotoxicity fails to induce heat shock defenses, while the over expression of hsp70 protects against gp120
    Min Chin Lim
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res Bull 61:183-8. 2003
    ..Specifically, over expression of hsp70 with a herpes viral amplicon vector protected cultured hippocampal neurons from gp120 neurotoxicity...
  41. doi request reprint Effects of enrichment predominate over those of chronic stress on fear-related behavior in male rats
    Rupshi Mitra
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Stress 12:305-12. 2009
    ..Enhanced contextual modulation of fear memories in animals experiencing environmental enrichment while stressed could reflect an adaptive response. This could allow greater flexibility to optimize vigilance in differing spatial contexts...
  42. ncbi request reprint Characterization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression following a kainate model of status epilepticus
    Nathan C Manley
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Brain Res 1182:138-43. 2007
    ....
  43. doi request reprint Effects of overexpression of antioxidants on the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor in the model of ischemia
    Ilona Zemlyak
    Department Biological Sciences, 371 Serra Street, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
    Neurosci Lett 453:182-5. 2009
    ..Arguing against this, overexpression of the same antioxidants did not inhibit cytochrome c release. These findings suggest a specific interaction between ROS formation and the caspase-independent route of apoptosis...
  44. ncbi request reprint The stressed CNS: when glucocorticoids aggravate inflammation
    Shawn F Sorrells
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Neuron 64:33-9. 2009
    ..In this minireview we discuss the contexts wherein GCs increase CNS inflammation and point out directions for future investigation...
  45. pmc An inflammatory review of glucocorticoid actions in the CNS
    Shawn F Sorrells
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 21:259-72. 2007
    ..We consider how these unexpected effects of glucocorticoids can co-exist with their well-established anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the considerable clinical implications of these findings...
  46. pmc Acute corticosterone treatment is sufficient to induce anxiety and amygdaloid dendritic hypertrophy
    Rupshi Mitra
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Gilbert Building, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5573-8. 2008
    ..The effects of corticosterone were specific to anxiety, as neither acute nor chronic treatment caused any change in conditioned fear or in general locomotor activity in these animals...
  47. doi request reprint Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression in basolateral amygdala reduces corticosterone secretion and anxiety
    Rupshi Mitra
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:686-90. 2009
    ..Prolonged and heavy occupancy of GRs tends to mediate the deleterious effects of glucocorticoids on neurons, whereas MR occupancy tends to mediate beneficial effects...
  48. ncbi request reprint Phosphoinositide-3-kinase/akt survival signal pathways are implicated in neuronal survival after stroke
    Heng Zhao
    Departments of Neurosurgery and Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 34:249-70. 2006
    ..Together, attenuation of the Akt pathway dysfunction contributes to neuronal survival after stroke...
  49. pmc Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors
    Ajai Vyas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6442-7. 2007
    ..Proximate mechanisms of such behavioral manipulations remain unknown, although a subtle tropism on part of the parasite remains a potent possibility...
  50. doi request reprint Blocking glucocorticoid and enhancing estrogenic genomic signaling protects against cerebral ischemia
    Michelle Y Cheng
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:130-6. 2009
    ..Thus, gene therapeutic strategies to modulate GC and estrogen signaling can be beneficial during an ischemic insult...
  51. pmc Neighbor effects of neurons bearing protective transgenes
    Angela L Lee
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 1339:70-5. 2010
    ..We also characterized the necessity for cell-cell contact for these effects. These phenomena may have broad implications for the efficacy of gene overexpression strategies in the CNS...
  52. doi request reprint Gene therapy in rodent amygdala against fear disorders
    Rupshi Mitra
    Stanford University, Department of Biology, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 10:1289-303. 2010
    ..As we obtain more information about mechanisms and brain circuits involved, treatment of these conditions will become increasingly realistic...
  53. ncbi request reprint Potassium channel gene therapy can prevent neuron death resulting from necrotic and apoptotic insults
    Angela L Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurochem 86:1079-88. 2003
    ..This difference raises the possibility that the means by which these channel subtypes protect may differ. With further development, potassium channel vectors may be an effective pre-emptive strategy against necrotic insults...
  54. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid exacerbation of gp120 neurotoxicity: role of microglia
    Sheila M Brooke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Exp Neurol 177:151-8. 2002
    ..Thus, GCs appear to act at a number of different sites in the multi-cellular pathway to exacerbate the neurotoxic effects of gp120...
  55. ncbi request reprint The exacerbation of hippocampal excitotoxicity by glucocorticoids is not mediated by apoptosis
    Madhuri Roy
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif 94305 5020, USA
    Neuroendocrinology 77:24-31. 2003
    ..We suggest that this finding is to be expected, given some energetic features of GC action and the energetic demands of apoptosis...
  56. ncbi request reprint Sleep deprivation effects on growth factor expression in neonatal rats: a potential role for BDNF in the mediation of delta power
    Ilana S Hairston
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:1586-95. 2004
    ..We conclude that cortical BDNF expression reflects the onset of adult sleep-homeostatic response, whereas the profile of expression of both growth factors suggests a trophic effect of mild sleep deprivation...
  57. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids influence brain glycogen levels during sleep deprivation
    Phung Gip
    Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford University, CA 94304 8307, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286:R1057-62. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest that the elevated glucocorticoid secretion during SD causes brain glycogenolysis in response to energy demands...
  58. ncbi request reprint Effects of glucocorticoids in the gp120-induced inhibition of glutamate uptake in hippocampal cultures
    Sheila M Brooke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Gilbert Building Rm 432, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 972:137-41. 2003
    ..It was found that while GCs do not exacerbate the decrease in reuptake of glutamate in glia cultures, they do enhance the decrease in mixed neuronal cultures and this latter effect appears to be energy-dependent...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effect of GP120 on glutathione peroxidase activity in cortical cultures and the interaction with steroid hormones
    Sheila M Brooke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurochem 81:277-84. 2002
    ..Overexpression of GSPx enzyme via herpes vector system reversed the GCs-induced loss of enzyme and eliminated the GCs exacerbation of gp120 neurotoxicity...
  60. ncbi request reprint Interrupting reperfusion as a stroke therapy: ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size after focal ischemia in rats
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, California 94305 5327, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:1114-21. 2006
    ..In conclusion, postconditioning reduced infarct size, most plausibly by blocking apoptosis and free radical generation. With further study it may eventually be clinically applicable for stroke treatment...
  61. ncbi request reprint Biphasic cytochrome c release after transient global ischemia and its inhibition by hypothermia
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5327, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 25:1119-29. 2005
    ..Thus, biphasic cytochrome c release occurs after transient global ischemia and mild hypothermia protects against ischemic damage by blocking the second phase of cytochrome c release, possibly by blocking caspase activity...
  62. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids and central nervous system inflammation
    Klaus Dinkel
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Neurovirol 8:513-28. 2002
    ..This article provides a review of the current literature, showing that under certain circumstances GCs might fail to have anti-inflammatory effects and sometimes even enhance inflammation...
  63. ncbi request reprint Is impaired neurogenesis relevant to the affective symptoms of depression?
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Gilbert Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 56:137-9. 2004
  64. ncbi request reprint Protection against gp120-induced neurotoxicity by an array of estrogenic steroids
    Ilona Zemlyak
    Department of Biological Sciences, Gilbert Laboratory MC 5020, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Brain Res 958:272-6. 2002
    ..These findings give insight both into the mechanisms of estrogenic protection (e.g. receptor-dependent versus independent actions) as well as into the potential therapeutic use of estrogens against AIDS-related dementia complex...
  65. ncbi request reprint Conditions of protection by hypothermia and effects on apoptotic pathways in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5327, USA
    J Neurosurg 107:636-41. 2007
    ..This models a scenario in which the MCA remains occluded but partial reperfusion occurs through collateral vessels. The authors also determined whether hypothermia mediates ischemic damage by blocking apoptotic pathways...
  66. ncbi request reprint Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression differentially modulates specific phases of spatial and nonspatial memory
    Deveroux Ferguson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8046-52. 2007
    ..Thus, this study illustrates the critical role of MR in mediating the retrieval and consolidation of nonspatial memory...
  67. pmc Hippocampal-dependent learning requires a functional circadian system
    Norman F Ruby
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15593-8. 2008
    ..Arrhythmic hamsters may have failed to perform this task because of chronic inhibitory signaling from the SCN that interfered with the plastic mechanisms that encode learning in the hippocampus...
  68. ncbi request reprint Disruptive effects of glucocorticoids on glutathione peroxidase biochemistry in hippocampal cultures
    Ravi Patel
    Gilbert Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    J Neurochem 82:118-25. 2002
    ..Thus, GCs have various effects, both energetic and non-energetic in nature, upon steps in GSPx biochemistry that, collectively, may impair hippocampal antioxidant capacity...
  69. pmc Hypothermia blocks beta-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rats
    Hanfeng Zhang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5327, USA
    Brain Res 1198:182-7. 2008
    ..In conclusion, moderate hypothermia can stabilize beta-catenin, which may contribute to the protective effect of moderate hypothermia...
  70. ncbi request reprint Stress and depression: possible links to neuron death in the hippocampus
    Angela L Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Bipolar Disord 4:117-28. 2002
    ..Thus glucocorticoids may play a contributing role toward neuron death. We further discuss how glucocorticoids cause or exacerbate cellular changes associated with hippocampal neuron loss in the context of the events listed above...
  71. pmc Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats
    Patrick K House
    Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23277. 2011
    ....
  72. pmc Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults
    Liansheng Liu
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19498. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that psychological morbidity in these conditions may result from gastrointestinal problems, rather than causing them...
  73. ncbi request reprint Male orangutan subadulthood: a new twist on the relationship between chronic stress and developmental arrest
    Anne N Maggioncalda
    Department of Anthropological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305 2117, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 118:25-32. 2002
    ..1999], [2000]...
  74. ncbi request reprint Akt contributes to neuroprotection by hypothermia against cerebral ischemia in rats
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9794-806. 2005
    ..Hypothermia may protect from ischemic damage in part by preserving Akt activity and attenuating the apoptotic effects of PTEN, PDK1, and FKHR...
  75. ncbi request reprint Environmental enrichment reduces Abeta levels and amyloid deposition in transgenic mice
    Orly Lazarov
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Cell 120:701-13. 2005
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Physiologic manifestations of stress from capture and restraint of free-ranging male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)
    Mbaruk A Suleman
    Institute of Primate Research, P O Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Zoo Wildl Med 35:20-4. 2004
    ..Mean prolactin concentration was significantly lower in the wild-caught monkeys on day 2 after capture, and the levels increased gradually to 45 days in captivity and was highest in monkeys that had been captive for 7 mo...
  77. ncbi request reprint Mothering style and methylation
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Nat Neurosci 7:791-2. 2004
  78. ncbi request reprint Chronic unpredictable stress exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus via glucocorticoid secretion
    Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508 900, Brazil
    J Neurosci 26:3813-20. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that stress, via GC secretion, can increase LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, agreeing with a growing literature demonstrating proinflammatory effects of GCs...
  79. pmc Structural consequences of Kcna1 gene deletion and transfer in the mouse hippocampus
    H Jurgen Wenzel
    Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, 1515 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95618, USA
    Epilepsia 48:2023-46. 2007
    ..We examined the neuropathological consequences of seizure activity in the Kv1.1(-/-) (knock-out) mouse, and explored the effects of injecting a viral vector carrying the deleted Kcna1 gene into hippocampal neurons...
  80. ncbi request reprint Sleep restriction suppresses neurogenesis induced by hippocampus-dependent learning
    Ilana S Hairston
    Psychology Department, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
    J Neurophysiol 94:4224-33. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that sleep loss altered behavioral strategies to those that do not depend on the hippocampus, concomitantly reversing the neurogenic effects of hippocampus-dependent learning...
  81. ncbi request reprint Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons
    Joseph W Kemnitz
    Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 1299, USA
    Am J Primatol 57:13-9. 2002
    ..The present results suggest potentially deleterious effects of a highly accessible, calorically dense food source, and associated reduction of physical activity for baboons living in an otherwise natural environment...
  82. ncbi request reprint Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework
    Edward J Calabrese
    School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 222:122-8. 2007
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Chickens, eggs and hippocampal atrophy
    Robert M Sapolsky
    Nat Neurosci 5:1111-3. 2002
  84. ncbi request reprint Serum leptin levels as a marker for a syndrome X-like condition in wild baboons
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1234-40. 2003
    ..The differences were not explained by age or social status. These results show that a subgroup of wild baboons is susceptible to developing obesity and insulin resistance and that this susceptibility is not related to age or social rank...

Research Grants20

  1. Parasite/Host Interactions and the Neurobiology of Fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In Specific Aim 3, we will examine the effects of Toxoplasma infection on cell number and volume, and on dendritic morphology in brain regions implicated in the prior two Specific Aims in the effects of Toxo. ..
  2. Pro-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects in the CNS
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposal begins to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying these unexpected and damaging pro-inflammatory GC effects. ..
  3. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  4. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  5. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  6. Parasite / host interaction and the neurobiology of fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Pathological fear is central to several psychiatric disorders. Understanding how Toxoplasma abolishes fear will shed light on how fear is generated in the first place and how we can manage pathological fear. ..
  7. Parasite / host interaction and the neurobiology of fear
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pathological fear is central to several psychiatric disorders. Understanding how Toxoplasma abolishes fear will shed light on how fear is generated in the first place and how we can manage pathological fear. ..
  8. Gene therapy against conditioned fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  9. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  10. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..That, coupled with the possible implications of the stressfulness of HIV infection prompt the proposed studies. ..
  11. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..That, coupled with the possible implications of the stressfulness of HIV infection prompt the proposed studies. ..
  12. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..That, coupled with the possible implications of the stressfulness of HIV infection prompt the proposed studies. ..
  13. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..That, coupled with the possible implications of the stressfulness of HIV infection prompt the proposed studies. ..
  14. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  15. Gene Therapy, Stress and Hippocampal Function
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will then determine whether these vectors can protect neurogenesis from the inhibitory effects of GCs and, in the case of the chimeric vector, harness this to produce stimulatory estrogenic effects. ..
  16. Pro-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects in the CNS
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposal begins to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying these unexpected and damaging pro-inflammatory GC effects. ..