Gerald M Reaven

Summary

Affiliation: Stanford University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Multiple CHD risk factors in type 2 diabetes: beyond hyperglycaemia
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 4:S13-8. 2002
  2. pmc Apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity
    Patrick Yue
    Div of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Falk CVRC, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E59-67. 2010
  3. doi request reprint Pioglitazone administration decreases cardiovascular disease risk factors in insulin-resistant smokers
    Fahim Abbasi
    Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 57:1108-14. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint The relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin resistance is altered in smokers
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicien, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:5002-7. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Rosiglitazone reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rate and increases insulin clearance in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Diabetes 54:2447-52. 2005
  6. pmc Comparison of three treatment approaches to decreasing cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic insulin-resistant dyslipidemic subjects
    Fahim Abbasi
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am J Cardiol 102:64-9. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on circulating vascular and inflammatory markers in insulin-resistant subjects
    James W Chu
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305, USA
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2:37-41. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Plasma adiponectin concentrations do not increase in association with moderate weight loss in insulin-resistant, obese women
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 53:280-3. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Body mass index and waist circumference associate to a comparable degree with insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities in South Asian women and men
    Fahim Abbasi
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 9:296-300. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of metformin treatment on multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Metabolism 53:159-64. 2004

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. ncbi request reprint Multiple CHD risk factors in type 2 diabetes: beyond hyperglycaemia
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 4:S13-8. 2002
    ..The opportunities for new therapeutic approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk will undoubtedly evolve along with our understanding of the complex factors responsible for insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinaemia, and CHD...
  2. pmc Apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity
    Patrick Yue
    Div of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Falk CVRC, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E59-67. 2010
    ..We conclude that apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity in vivo. Apelin's effects on glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation are in part mediated by a G(i) and AMPK-dependent pathway...
  3. doi request reprint Pioglitazone administration decreases cardiovascular disease risk factors in insulin-resistant smokers
    Fahim Abbasi
    Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 57:1108-14. 2008
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint The relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin resistance is altered in smokers
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicien, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:5002-7. 2006
    ..Low plasma adiponectin concentrations in smokers may contribute to the adverse consequences that occur in these individuals...
  5. ncbi request reprint Rosiglitazone reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rate and increases insulin clearance in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Diabetes 54:2447-52. 2005
    ..In conclusion, enhanced insulin sensitivity in rosiglitazone-treated nondiabetic insulin-resistant individuals was associated with a shift to the right in the GS-ISR dose-response curve and an increase in I-MCR...
  6. pmc Comparison of three treatment approaches to decreasing cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic insulin-resistant dyslipidemic subjects
    Fahim Abbasi
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am J Cardiol 102:64-9. 2008
    ..In conclusion, there did not appear to be 1 therapeutic intervention that effectively treated all metabolic abnormalities present in these patients at greatly increased risk of cardiovascular disease...
  7. ncbi request reprint Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on circulating vascular and inflammatory markers in insulin-resistant subjects
    James W Chu
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305, USA
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2:37-41. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Plasma adiponectin concentrations do not increase in association with moderate weight loss in insulin-resistant, obese women
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 53:280-3. 2004
    ..Adiponectin concentrations did not change with weight loss in either group. Thus, neither weight loss, per se, nor enhanced insulin sensitivity resulted in a change in plasma adiponectin concentrations...
  9. ncbi request reprint Body mass index and waist circumference associate to a comparable degree with insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities in South Asian women and men
    Fahim Abbasi
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 9:296-300. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) associate to a comparable degree with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asians...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of metformin treatment on multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Metabolism 53:159-64. 2004
    ..Administration of metformin, either as monotherapy or in combination with a sulfonylurea drug, improved glycemic control and led to a decrease in several CVD risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  11. ncbi request reprint Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in gastric bypass patients with hypoglycemic syndrome: no evidence for inappropriate pancreatic beta-cell function
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Obes Surg 20:1110-6. 2010
    ..The syndrome is believed to occur due to insulin hypersecretion from either pancreatic beta-cell hyperplasia or hyperfunction...
  12. ncbi request reprint In search of moderators and mediators of hyperglycemia with atypical antipsychotic treatment
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 43:997-1002. 2009
    ..These findings provide a quantitative approach to identify those at greatest treatment-associated risk to develop glucose intolerance, and emphasize the need to address co-morbid medical disorders in these patients...
  13. doi request reprint Relationship between changes in insulin sensitivity and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in thiazolidinedione-treated, insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals: pioglitazone versus rosiglitazone
    Fahim Abbasi
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 58:373-8. 2009
    ..However, despite these similarities, their effects on lipoprotein metabolism seem to be quite different, with beneficial effects confined to PIO-treated individuals...
  14. ncbi request reprint The metabolic syndrome: one step forward, two steps back
    Sun H Kim
    Stanford Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 1:68-75. 2004
    ..This review critically evaluates the similarities and differences between the two groups' concepts of the metabolic syndrome and questions the clinical utility of making the diagnosis with either set of definitions...
  15. ncbi request reprint Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations are elevated in obese insulin-resistant women and fall with weight loss
    Tracey McLaughlin
    Division of Endocrinology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5103, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1896-900. 2006
    ..Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are higher in apparently healthy, insulin-resistant (IR) individuals and decrease in response to thiazolidenedione treatment...
  16. doi request reprint Plasma glucose and insulin regulation is abnormal following gastric bypass surgery with or without neuroglycopenia
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Room S025, Stanford, CA 94305 5103, USA
    Obes Surg 19:1550-6. 2009
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Isolated impaired fasting glucose and peripheral insulin sensitivity: not a simple relationship
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 31:347-52. 2008
    ..To subject this conclusion to further validation, we evaluated the relationship between glucose tolerance categories and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a large nondiabetic population...
  18. ncbi request reprint Body mass index and waist circumference both contribute to differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic adults
    Helke M F Farin
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:47-51. 2006
    ..Questions remain as to whether waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) most effectively identifies insulin-resistant individuals...
  19. doi request reprint Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk CVRC, Stanford Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Med Clin North Am 95:875-92. 2011
    ..If this is done, then intense efforts at weight control can be brought to bear on those who not only need it the most but also have the most to gain by losing weight...
  20. doi request reprint Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
    Fahim Abbasi
    Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Metabolism 60:1673-6. 2011
    ..Calculations of TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC...
  21. ncbi request reprint Lipoprotein abnormalities are associated with insulin resistance in South Asian Indian women
    Latha P Palaniappan
    Stanford Prevention Research Center and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 56:899-904. 2007
    ..These results indicate that a highly atherogenic lipoprotein profile seen in South Asian Indian women is significantly associated with insulin resistance independent of differences in WC...
  22. pmc Differential intra-abdominal adipose tissue profiling in obese, insulin-resistant women
    Alice Liu
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive Rm S 025, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Obes Surg 19:1564-73. 2009
    ..We compared cell size distribution and genetic markers in SAT and VAT of IR individuals undergoing bariatric surgery...
  23. pmc Cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity: does it matter whether BMI or waist circumference is the index of obesity?
    Fahim Abbasi
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and the Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 98:637-40. 2013
    ..It has been suggested that the cardiometabolic risk associated with excess adiposity is particularly related to central obesity...
  24. pmc Measurement of insulin-mediated glucose uptake: direct comparison of the modified insulin suppression test and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp
    Joshua W Knowles
    Stanford University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk CVRC, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Metabolism 62:548-53. 2013
    ..To determine the agreement between SSPG and M and to develop transformation equations to convert SSPG to M and vice versa, we directly compared these two measurements in the same individuals...
  25. doi request reprint Insulin resistance: the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk CVRC, Stanford Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37:581-601, vii-viii. 2008
    ..Finally, it appears that the adverse impact of overall obesity, as estimated by body mass index, is comparable to that of abdominal obesity, as quantified by waist circumference...
  26. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the 1997 and 2003 American Diabetes Association classification of impaired fasting glucose: impact on prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, coronary heart disease risk factors, and coronary heart disease in a community-based medical practi
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 48:293-7. 2006
    ....
  27. pmc Effect of moderate alcoholic beverage consumption on insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic individuals
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5103, USA
    Metabolism 58:387-92. 2009
    ....
  28. pmc Relationship between body mass index and insulin resistance in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic agents
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, S025, Stanford, CA 94305 5103, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 44:493-8. 2010
    ..Olanzapine also appears to have an independent effect on insulin resistance that is above and beyond obesity...
  29. ncbi request reprint Discrimination between obesity and insulin resistance in the relationship with adiponectin
    Fahim Abbasi
    Divisions of Cardiovascular Medicine and Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes 53:585-90. 2004
    ..These results suggest that adiponectin concentrations are more closely related to differences in insulin-mediated glucose disposal than obesity...
  30. ncbi request reprint Impact of degree of obesity on surrogate estimates of insulin resistance
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 27:1998-2002. 2004
    ..To evaluate the role of adiposity in the relationship between specific and surrogate estimates of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) in a large nondiabetic population...
  31. ncbi request reprint Relationship between insulin resistance and an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor
    Markus C Stühlinger
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    JAMA 287:1420-6. 2002
    ..Several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with reduced sensitivity to insulin, but elevated ADMA concentrations have not been fully linked to the metabolic syndrome...
  32. ncbi request reprint Metabolic and ovarian effects of rosiglitazone treatment for 12 weeks in insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    Nicholas A Cataldo
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Hum Reprod 21:109-20. 2006
    ..Insulin sensitizers have favourable metabolic and ovarian effects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study examined rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, in PCOS...
  33. ncbi request reprint A1 adenosine receptor partial agonist lowers plasma FFA and improves insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet in rodents
    Arvinder K Dhalla
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, CV Therapeutics, Palo Alto, California, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E1358-63. 2007
    ..01) increased glucose infusion rate to values similar to that for chow-fed mice. In conclusion, CVT-3619 treatment lowers FFA and TG concentrations and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance...
  34. ncbi request reprint Metabolic impact of switching antipsychotic therapy to aripiprazole after weight gain: a pilot study
    Sun H Kim
    Division of Endocrinology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:365-8. 2007
    ..In conclusion, switching to aripiprazole alone does not ameliorate the highly prevalent metabolic abnormalities in the schizophrenia population who have gained weight on other second generation antipsychotic medications...
  35. pmc Metabolic syndrome: do clinical criteria identify similar individuals among overweight premenopausal women?
    Sofiya Alhassan
    Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 57:49-56. 2008
    ..Regardless of MetSyn clinical criteria, >/=7% reduction in body weight has a beneficial impact on variables used to define MetSyn...
  36. doi request reprint Ethnic differences in the relationship between adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in South Asian and Caucasian women
    Marlene Martin
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 31:798-801. 2008
    ..To assess whether lower adiponectin concentrations in South Asian Indians may be responsible for their greater degree of insulin resistance...
  37. pmc Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: you can't have one without the other
    Sun H Kim
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 31:1433-8. 2008
    ..To evaluate this suggestion, we assessed the degree of discordance between insulin sensitivity and insulin response in a healthy, nondiabetic population...
  38. ncbi request reprint Methods for quantifying insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients
    James W Chu
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    Metabolism 52:858-61. 2003
    ..43 to 0.61), thereby possessing limited ability to predict SSPG variability (r2=0.18 to 0.37). In conclusion, indirect measures of IMGU need to be applied with caution when evaluating insulin action in HIV-infected patients...
  39. ncbi request reprint The insulin resistance syndrome: definition and dietary approaches to treatment
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 25:391-406. 2005
    ..This chapter will focus on defining the abnormalities and clinical syndromes that compose the IRS and evaluating the dietary changes that can ameliorate its adverse consequences...
  40. ncbi request reprint The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary?
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:1237-47. 2006
    ....
  41. doi request reprint What is the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on insulin secretory function in insulin-resistant individuals? It depends on how you measure it
    Fahim Abbasi
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Metabolism 60:57-62. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Compensatory hyperinsulinemia and the development of an atherogenic lipoprotein profile: the price paid to maintain glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant individuals
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 34:49-62. 2005
    ....
  43. pmc Apelin decreases lipolysis via G(q), G(i), and AMPK-Dependent Mechanisms
    Patrick Yue
    Department of Medicine Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94350, USA
    Endocrinology 152:59-68. 2011
    ..In conclusion, apelin negatively regulates lipolysis. Its actions may be mediated by pathways involving G(q), G(i), and AMP-activated protein kinase...
  44. ncbi request reprint Comparison of body mass index versus waist circumference with the metabolic changes that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in insulin-resistant individuals
    Helke M F Farin
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Am J Cardiol 98:1053-6. 2006
    ..In conclusion, because BMI performed at least as well as WC in identifying differences in insulin sensitivity and multiple CVD risk factors, either estimate can be used to identify patients at increased CVD risk...
  45. ncbi request reprint Body mass index and waist circumference correlate to the same degree with insulin-mediated glucose uptake
    Helke M F Farin
    Cardiovascular Medicine Division Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 54:1323-8. 2005
    ..To summarize, (1) BMI and WC correlate closely within an individual and equally well with IMGU, and (2) BMI is as effective as WC in identifying insulin-resistant individuals...
  46. pmc Risk for obstructive sleep apnea in obese, nondiabetic adults varies with insulin resistance status
    Alice Liu
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA
    Sleep Breath 17:333-8. 2013
    ..The study's aim was to utilize questionnaires that assess OSA risk and symptoms to test the hypothesis that the most insulin-resistant subset of obese individuals is at highest risk for OSA...
  47. ncbi request reprint Comparison in patients with type 2 diabetes of fibric acid versus hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitor treatment of combined dyslipidemia
    Tracey McLaughlin
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Metabolism 51:1355-9. 2002
    ..As such, the clinical utility of statin monotherapy in the treatment of combined dyslipidemia may have been underestimated...
  48. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: a possible etiologic link
    Ronald M Witteles
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5406, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 44:78-81. 2004
    ..This study was designed to quantify the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM)...
  49. ncbi request reprint The individual components of the metabolic syndrome: is there a raison d'etre?
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 26:191-5. 2007
  50. ncbi request reprint Effect of orlistat added to diet (30% of calories from fat) on plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia
    Charles P Lucas
    Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Cardiol 91:961-4. 2003
    ..The beneficial metabolic effects of weight loss were accentuated in response to orlistat administration, and the improvement was greatest in patients with combined dyslipidemia (type IIB)...
  51. pmc Relations between obesity, insulin resistance, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D
    Cynthia A Lamendola
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1055-9. 2012
    ..Although low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with insulin resistance and obesity, the relations between these 3 variables have not been completely resolved...
  52. ncbi request reprint Hyperinsulinemia predicts hepatic fat content in healthy individuals with normal transaminase concentrations
    Diego Ardigo
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma 43100, Italy Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Metabolism 54:1566-70. 2005
    ..Fasting plasma insulin (a surrogate estimate of IR/CH) predicts hepatic fat content and ALT in healthy volunteers with normal transaminase concentrations, independently of the other anthropometric and metabolic variables measured...
  53. pmc HIF-1 regulates hypoxia- and insulin-induced expression of apelin in adipocytes
    Alexander J Glassford
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E1590-6. 2007
    ..In summary, in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and differentiated MEFs, HIF-1 appears to be involved in hypoxia- and insulin-induced apelin expression...
  54. doi request reprint Insulin secretory function in type 2 diabetes: Does it matter how you measure it?
    Gerald M Reaven
    Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA
    J Diabetes 1:142-50. 2009
    ..It is concluded that it may be time to challenge current conventional wisdom as to the role of the β-cell in the natural history of 2DM...
  55. ncbi request reprint Importance of identifying the overweight patient who will benefit the most by losing weight
    Gerald M Reaven
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Ann Intern Med 138:420-3. 2003
    ..Thoughtful use of this information will help identify the subset of persons who will benefit the most from intense therapeutic efforts to lose weight...
  56. doi request reprint Estimates of insulin secretory function in apparently healthy volunteers vary as a function of how the relevant variables are quantified
    Barry R Johns
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and Metabolism, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Clin Chem 57:627-32. 2011
    ..0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL)...
  57. ncbi request reprint Multiple lipoprotein abnormalities associated with insulin resistance in healthy volunteers are identified by the vertical auto profile-II methodology
    James W Chu
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Clin Chem 49:1014-7. 2003
  58. doi request reprint Relationships among insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: similarities and differences
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 13:238-43. 2011
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2399-403. 2003
  60. ncbi request reprint Increased aortic stiffness in the insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rat
    Akhilesh K Sista
    Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Dept of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289:H845-51. 2005
    ..Thus there is mechanical, structural, and molecular evidence of arteriosclerosis in the Zucker fa/fa rat at the glucose-intolerant, hyperinsulinemic stage...
  61. ncbi request reprint The insulin resistance syndrome
    Gerald M Reaven
    Falk CVRC, Stanford Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 5:364-71. 2003
  62. ncbi request reprint The metabolic syndrome: requiescat in pace
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk CVRC, Stanford Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Clin Chem 51:931-8. 2005
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Preferential involvement of larger vessels in a rat model of diabetes-induced graft vasculopathy
    Bernard Cantin
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA
    J Heart Lung Transplant 21:1040-3. 2002
    ..Severe TxCAD, defined as a luminal occlusion > or =75%, was more prevalent in the larger vessels. We observed a differential involvement based on vessel size in diabetes-induced TxCAD...
  64. ncbi request reprint Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk
    Fahim Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 40:937-43. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Why Syndrome X? From Harold Himsworth to the insulin resistance syndrome
    Gerald M Reaven
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk CVRC, Stanford Medical Center, California 94305, USA
    Cell Metab 1:9-14. 2005
    ..In addition, the developments in the last 16 years that have led from the notion of Syndrome X to the broader concept of an Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS) will be briefly summarized...
  66. ncbi request reprint Impaired nitric oxide synthase pathway in diabetes mellitus: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
    Ken Y Lin
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif 94305, USA
    Circulation 106:987-92. 2002
    ..An endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study explored the mechanisms by which ADMA becomes elevated in DM...
  67. ncbi request reprint Reversal of diabetes-induced rat graft transplant coronary artery disease by metformin
    Bernard Cantin
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5406, USA
    J Heart Lung Transplant 21:637-43. 2002
    ..We undertook this study to determine whether treatment of diabetes with metformin would favorably affect TxCAD...
  68. ncbi request reprint Relative impact of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration and insulin resistance on carotid wall thickening in nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers
    Pei Wen Wang
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
    Metabolism 51:255-9. 2002
    ..These results provide evidence that insulin resistance is as significant a predictor of degree of atherogenesis (estimated by IMT) of the common carotid artery as a high LDL-C concentration...
  69. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome with alternative definitions of impaired fasting glucose
    Earl S Ford
    Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Atherosclerosis 181:143-8. 2005
    ..The clinical and public health implications of the new IFG definition remain to be elucidated...
  70. ncbi request reprint Trends in hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults in the U.S
    Chaoyang Li
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS K66, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Diabetes Care 29:2396-402. 2006
    ..Our aim was to assess the trends in the mean concentrations of fasting serum insulin and the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults during the periods of 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 in the U.S...
  71. ncbi request reprint Relationship to insulin resistance of the adult treatment panel III diagnostic criteria for identification of the metabolic syndrome
    Karen L Cheal
    Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 53:1195-200. 2004
    ..The individual components vary both in terms of their utility in making a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome and their relationship to insulin resistance, with the obesity and lipid criteria being most useful...
  72. ncbi request reprint American College of Endocrinology position statement on the insulin resistance syndrome
    Daniel Einhorn
    American College of Endocrinology
    Endocr Pract 9:237-52. 2003
  73. ncbi request reprint Relation of plasma insulin levels to forearm flow-mediated dilatation in healthy volunteers
    Diego Ardigo
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Parma University, Parma, Italy
    Am J Cardiol 97:1250-4. 2006
    ..In conclusion, IR/CH is an independent predictor of decreases in endothelial-dependent vasodilation in apparently healthy individuals, in the absence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis...
  74. ncbi request reprint Relationship between plasma nitric oxide concentration and insulin resistance in essential hypertension
    Ivana Zavaroni
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Parma University, Parma, Italy
    Am J Hypertens 17:549-52. 2004
    ..This study was initiated to determine whether these inconsistent findings were related to differences in insulin resistance...
  75. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia predict carotid intimal medial thickness in patients with essential hypertension
    Ivana Zavaroni
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Parma University, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16:22-7. 2006
    ..To test this hypothesis, we attempted to see if there was a link between insulin resistance (IR) and carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT), an early index of CVD, in patients with essential hypertension...
  76. ncbi request reprint Relationship between obesity and several cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Korean individuals: comparison of body mass index and waist circumference
    Ki Chul Sung
    Division of Cardiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 110 746, South Korea
    Metabolism 56:297-303. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPAR gamma) agonist, CLX-0921, has potent antihyperglycemic activity with low adipogenic potential
    Debendranath Dey
    Department of Biochemistry, Clinical Development, and Research Development, Calyx Therapeutics Inc Hayward, CA 94085, USA
    Metabolism 52:1012-8. 2003
    ..CLX-0921 also increases glycogen synthesis, an activity not typically associated with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Thus CLX-0921 appears to have a distinct spectrum of activity relative to other TZDs...
  78. doi request reprint Hyperinsulinemia and impaired leptin-adiponectin ratio associate with endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms in subjects with in-stent restenosis
    Elena Galluccio
    Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E978-86. 2008
    ..Hyperinsulinemia, endothelial dysfunction, and a more atherogenic profile seem to be peculiar features of subjects with asymptomatic CAD and restenosis carrying NOS3 gene variants...
  79. ncbi request reprint Quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in HIV-infected individuals: comparison of patients treated and untreated with protease inhibitors
    George Beatty
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:34-40. 2003
    ..Finally, PI treatment may have an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion...
  80. pmc Does the association of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with fasting serum insulin differ by race/ethnicity?
    Chaoyang Li
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 7:4. 2008
    ..However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with FSI by race/ethnicity...
  81. ncbi request reprint Improvements in insulin resistance with weight loss, in contrast to rosiglitazone, are not associated with changes in plasma adiponectin or adiponectin multimeric complexes
    Fahim Abbasi
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Deptartment of Medicine, Carl T Hayden Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 650 East Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R139-44. 2006
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Beyond type 2 diabetes: the need for a clinically useful way to identify insulin resistance
    Tracey L McLaughlin
    Am J Med 114:501-2. 2003
  83. ncbi request reprint Effect of a high-carbohydrate versus a high--cis-monounsaturated fat diet on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Meena Shah
    Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235 9052, USA
    Diabetes Care 28:2607-12. 2005
    ..Data on the dietary effects on these diets' glucose and lipid metabolism have been previously published...
  84. ncbi request reprint Relationship among alcohol, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors in 27,030 Korean men
    Ki Chul Sung
    Department of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Diabetes Care 30:2690-4. 2007
    ..However, the validity of this relationship and its impact on the putative benefits of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been well evaluated...
  85. ncbi request reprint Relationships between estimates of adiposity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a large group of nondiabetic Korean adults
    Ki Chul Sung
    Division of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Pyung Dong, Jongro Ku, Seoul, Korea 110 746
    Diabetes Care 30:2113-8. 2007
    ..Insulin resistance and abdominal and overall adiposity are closely associated with NAFLD; however, the interplay between them in the relationship with NAFLD is unclear, especially in nondiabetic individuals...
  86. ncbi request reprint Relative effects of insulin resistance and protease inhibitor treatment on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in HIV-infected patients
    George Beatty
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco at San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 5:383-91. 2004
    ..The relationship between insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy remains unclear, and the atherogenic nature of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in HIV-infected patients has not been fully characterized...
  87. ncbi request reprint Relationship between fasting and day-long plasma glucose concentrations in diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes
    F Abbasi
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University, School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305 5406, USA
    Metabolism 51:457-9. 2002
    ....