Ruth O'Hara

Summary

Affiliation: Stanford University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc 5-HTTLPR short allele, resilience, and successful aging in older adults
    Ruth Oʼhara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:452-6. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term effects of mnemonic training in community-dwelling older adults
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 41:585-90. 2007
  3. pmc Serotonin transporter polymorphism, memory and hippocampal volume in the elderly: association and interaction with cortisol
    R O'HARA
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 12:544-55. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Serotonin transporter polymorphism and stress: a view across the lifespan
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, C 305, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 9:173-5. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Increasing the ranks of academic researchers in mental health: a multisite approach to postdoctoral fellowship training
    Ruth O'Hara
    Sierra Pacific MIRECC, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Acad Med 85:41-7. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Sleep apnea, apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele, and TBI: mechanism for cognitive dysfunction and development of dementia
    Ruth O'Hara
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center MIRECC, 151 Y, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Rehabil Res Dev 46:837-50. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Slower speed-of-processing of cognitive tasks is associated with presence of the apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 42:199-204. 2008
  8. pmc Neuropsychiatric symptoms, apolipoprotein E gene, and risk of progression to cognitive impairment, no dementia and dementia: the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS)
    Sherry A Beaudreau
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 28:672-80. 2013
  9. doi request reprint Modeling the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension in Vietnam veterans with PTSD
    Lisa M Kinoshita
    Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Sleep Breath 16:1201-9. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors in choosing atypical antipsychotics: toward understanding the bases of physicians' prescribing decisions
    Jennifer Hoblyn
    Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 40:160-6. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc 5-HTTLPR short allele, resilience, and successful aging in older adults
    Ruth Oʼhara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:452-6. 2012
    ..We examined whether the presence of the short allele was associated with poorer emotional resilience in older adults...
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term effects of mnemonic training in community-dwelling older adults
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 41:585-90. 2007
    ..Our findings suggest that mnemonic training has long-term benefits for some older adults, particularly those who continue to employ the mnemonic...
  3. pmc Serotonin transporter polymorphism, memory and hippocampal volume in the elderly: association and interaction with cortisol
    R O'HARA
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 12:544-55. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Serotonin transporter polymorphism and stress: a view across the lifespan
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, C 305, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 9:173-5. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Increasing the ranks of academic researchers in mental health: a multisite approach to postdoctoral fellowship training
    Ruth O'Hara
    Sierra Pacific MIRECC, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Acad Med 85:41-7. 2010
    ..The VA's multisite fellowship program plays a valuable role in preparing substantial numbers of psychiatry and psychology trainees for a range of academic clinical research and leadership positions in the field of mental health...
  6. ncbi request reprint Sleep apnea, apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele, and TBI: mechanism for cognitive dysfunction and development of dementia
    Ruth O'Hara
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center MIRECC, 151 Y, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Rehabil Res Dev 46:837-50. 2009
    ..Increased understanding of the relationships among sleep apnea, the APOE epsilon 4 allele, and cognition could improve our ability to ameliorate one significant source of cognitive impairment and risk for dementia associated with TBI...
  7. ncbi request reprint Slower speed-of-processing of cognitive tasks is associated with presence of the apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 42:199-204. 2008
    ..These findings provide continued support for the negative impact of the epsilon4 allele on cognition and further suggest that speed-of-processing during memory tasks may have the potential to detect subtle cognitive deficits...
  8. pmc Neuropsychiatric symptoms, apolipoprotein E gene, and risk of progression to cognitive impairment, no dementia and dementia: the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS)
    Sherry A Beaudreau
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 28:672-80. 2013
    ..To examine the relationship of neuropsychiatric symptoms and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele status to dementia at baseline and progression to dementia in older adults with and without cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND)...
  9. doi request reprint Modeling the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension in Vietnam veterans with PTSD
    Lisa M Kinoshita
    Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Sleep Breath 16:1201-9. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that in addition to indices of OSA severity, hypertension is associated with worse cognitive performance in such adults...
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors in choosing atypical antipsychotics: toward understanding the bases of physicians' prescribing decisions
    Jennifer Hoblyn
    Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 40:160-6. 2006
    ..Off-label prescribing of medications, polypharmacy, and other questionable prescribing practices have led investigators to examine a large VA pharmacy database to determine if physician prescribing decisions appear reasonable...
  11. ncbi request reprint Which Alzheimer patients are at risk for rapid cognitive decline?
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5550, USA
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 15:233-8. 2002
    ..This information could help clinicians target these patients for pharmacologic interventions, facilitate long-term care planning, and potentially create savings by delaying or stabilizing the course of the disease...
  12. ncbi request reprint Relating medial temporal lobe volume to frontal fMRI activation for memory encoding in older adults
    Allyson C Rosen
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Cortex 41:595-602. 2005
    ..These findings indicate a positive association between MTL volume and right frontal-lobe function that may underlie variability in memory performance among the elderly, and also suggest a two-stage model of memory decline in aging...
  13. ncbi request reprint Cognitive ability, expertise, and age differences in following air-traffic control instructions
    Joy L Taylor
    Psychiatry Service, Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto, CA 94304 1207, USA
    Psychol Aging 20:117-33. 2005
    ..Results are discussed within frameworks of deliberate practice and cognitive mediation of age differences...
  14. pmc Circadian clock gene polymorphisms and sleep-wake disturbance in Alzheimer disease
    Jerome A Yesavage
    Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:635-43. 2011
    ..The goal of this study is to report indices of sleep-wake function collected from individuals with AD in relation to relevant polymorphisms in circadian clock-related genes...
  15. ncbi request reprint Sleep/wake disruption in Alzheimer's disease: APOE status and longitudinal course
    Jerome A Yesavage
    National Institute of Aging Alzheimer s Disease Core Center, Palo Alto VA Health Care System 151Y, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 17:20-4. 2004
    ..In these data, APOE status was associated with the progression of sleep/wake disturbances in AD. Overall, there was greater deterioration on sleep parameters in patients negative for the epsilon4 allele...
  16. ncbi request reprint Age and disease severity predict choice of atypical neuroleptic: a signal detection approach to physicians' prescribing decisions
    Jerome A Yesavage
    Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, MC 151Y, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 37:535-8. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Variable effects of aging on frontal lobe contributions to memory
    Allyson C Rosen
    Departments of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Bldg 420, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuroreport 13:2425-8. 2002
    ..Thus, successful aging was characterized by preserved left prefrontal and enhanced right prefrontal activation that may have provided compensatory encoding resources...
  18. ncbi request reprint Should one use medications in combination with cognitive training? If so, which ones?
    Jerome Yesavage
    Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 62:11-8. 2007
    ..As the number of cognitively impaired older adults grows, it is likely that there will be pressure to treat more broadly with both medications and cognitive training...
  19. ncbi request reprint Differential associations between entorhinal and hippocampal volumes and memory performance in older adults
    Allyson C Rosen
    Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:1150-60. 2003
    ..57) with delayed paragraph recall. These results suggest that entorhinal and hippocampal volumes are related to individual differences in dissociable kinds of memory performance among healthy older adults...
  20. pmc COMT genotype, gender and cognition in community-dwelling, older adults
    Ruth O'Hara
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Neurosci Lett 409:205-9. 2006
    ..Further, when gender is taken into consideration, any negative impact of COMT genotype may extend to cognitive domains other than those associated with prefrontal regions...
  21. pmc The association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults
    Sherry A Beaudreau
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness, Research, Education, and Clinical Center MIRECC at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Psychol Aging 24:507-12. 2009
    ..Findings suggest an excess cognitive load on inhibitory ability in normal older adults reporting mild anxiety...
  22. ncbi request reprint Insomnia in the context of traumatic brain injury
    Jamie M Zeitzer
    VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue 151Y, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Rehabil Res Dev 46:827-36. 2009
    ....
  23. pmc Gender differences in sexual behaviors of AD patients and their relationship to spousal caregiver well-being
    Helen D Davies
    Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Aging Ment Health 16:89-101. 2012
    ..This study evaluated the impact of gender differences on intimacy and sexual satisfaction in marital relationships in which one partner has AD...
  24. ncbi request reprint Underreporting of behavioral problems in older hospitalized patients
    Helen D Davies
    Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, 116F, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Gerontologist 45:535-8. 2005
    ..Such underreporting may have clinical and administrative implications...
  25. ncbi request reprint Hormone replacement therapy and longitudinal cognitive performance in postmenopausal women
    Ruth O'Hara
    Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5550, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 13:1107-10. 2005
    ..The authors examined the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on longitudinal cognitive performance (controlling for mood state) in 69 community-dwelling, postmenopausal women...
  26. pmc Serotonin transporter polymorphism is associated with increased apnea-hypopnea index in older adults
    Carmen M Schröder
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Strasbourg University Hospital and Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France CNRS UPR 3212, Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neuroscience, Strasbourg, France University Sleep Clinic, Department of Neurology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 29:227-35. 2014
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint The effect of oxybutynin treatment on cognition in children with diurnal incontinence
    Barbara R Sommer
    Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    J Urol 173:2125-7. 2005
    ..The impact of this drug on cognitive functioning in the pediatric population is unknown. We report the results of a study designed to assess the effect of oxybutynin on cognitive function in children...
  28. ncbi request reprint Design decisions to optimize reliability of daytime cortisol slopes in an older population
    Helena C Kraemer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:325-33. 2006
    ..How best to estimate that slope with minimal burden to the participants and the cost of the study is a decision often made without empiric foundation...
  29. doi request reprint Utility of the abbreviated Fuld Object Memory Evaluation and MMSE for detection of dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia in diverse ethnic groups
    Tiffany Rideaux
    Pacific Graduate School of Psychology Stanford PsyD Consortium, Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 31:371-86. 2012
    ..Findings suggest that ethnicity is important in the selection of an appropriate cognitive screen and cut-score to use with older adults...
  30. ncbi request reprint Modeling the prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment
    Jerome A Yesavage
    Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, MC 151Y, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 36:281-6. 2002
    ..Due to its substantial prevalence, MCI may be an important target for screening and possible intervention...
  31. ncbi request reprint Psychoactive drugs and pilot performance: a comparison of nicotine, donepezil, and alcohol effects
    Martin S Mumenthaler
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1366-73. 2003
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Late-life anxiety and cognitive impairment: a review
    Sherry A Beaudreau
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Clinical Center MIRECC, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 16:790-803. 2008
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Relationship of age and simulated flight performance
    J A Yesavage
    Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 47:819-23. 1999
    ..To determine the relationship between age and aviator performance on a flight simulator...
  34. ncbi request reprint Use of a VA pharmacy database to screen for areas at high risk for disease: Parkinson's disease and exposure to pesticides
    J A Yesavage
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 17:36-8. 2004
    ..However, a thorough exploration of alternative explanations is needed to reach definitive conclusions regarding the findings suggested by this method...
  35. ncbi request reprint Spatial test for agricultural pesticide "blow-in" effect on prevalence of Parkinson's disease
    J A Yesavage
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 19:32-5. 2006
    ..The results did not support the hypothesis of increasing prevalence of Parkinsonism attributable to wind drift...
  36. ncbi request reprint Nocturnal rapid eye movement sleep latency for identifying patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency
    Olivier Andlauer
    Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA
    JAMA Neurol 70:891-902. 2013
    ..In many patients, a short rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML) during the NPSG is also observed but not used diagnostically...
  37. doi request reprint BDNF and CREB1 genetic variants interact to affect antidepressant treatment outcomes in geriatric depression
    Greer M Murphy
    Neuroscience Research Laboratories, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:301-13. 2013
    ..Previous studies reported that the Met variant results in enhanced response to antidepressant medications. These findings may be at odds with studies indicating that on a cellular level the Met variant impairs the secretion of BDNF...
  38. pmc Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: a synthesis of the literature
    Maurice M Ohayon
    Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center, Stanford University, School of Medicine, 3430 West Bayshore Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 16:283-95. 2012
    ..Future epidemiological studies should focus on systematically adding frequency and severity in the definition of the syndrome in order to minimize the inclusion of cases mimicking RLS...
  39. pmc Prefrontal cortex and executive function impairments in primary breast cancer
    Shelli R Kesler
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd, MC5795, Stanford, CA 94305 5795, USA
    Arch Neurol 68:1447-53. 2011
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Categorical versus dimensional approaches to diagnosis: methodological challenges
    Helena Chmura Kraemer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, C305, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5717, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 38:17-25. 2004
    ..We argue that failure to utilize the correct approach under the appropriate circumstances can result in impaired clinical and research decision-making...
  41. pmc Elevated prefrontal myo-inositol and choline following breast cancer chemotherapy
    Shelli R Kesler
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA, 94305 5795, USA
    Brain Imaging Behav 7:501-10. 2013
    ..These findings provide preliminary evidence of an altered metabolic profile that increases our understanding of neurobiologic status post-breast cancer and chemotherapy. ..
  42. ncbi request reprint The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders
    ANDA GERSHON
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5717, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 15:352. 2013
    ..We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research...
  43. pmc Sleep disturbance in pediatric PTSD: current findings and future directions
    Ben Kovachy
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 9:501-10. 2013
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Immunology: hepatitis A virus link to atopic disease
    Jennifer J McIntire
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5208, USA
    Nature 425:576. 2003
  45. ncbi request reprint Psychiatric genetics: what to expect
    Joachim F Hallmayer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Road, Room P112, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 6:149-50. 2004
  46. pmc Genetic evidence for a distinct subtype of schizophrenia characterized by pervasive cognitive deficit
    Joachim F Hallmayer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 77:468-76. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study
    Emma J Glasson
    Schools of Population Health and Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:618-27. 2004
    ..Some investigations have shown an association with obstetric complications but findings have been inconsistent owing to differences in sampling and methods...
  48. ncbi request reprint Abnormal cortical activation during response inhibition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
    Doron Gothelf
    The Behavioral Neurogenetics Center, Child Psychiatry Department, Schneider Children s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqwa, Israel
    Hum Brain Mapp 28:533-42. 2007
    ..2DS may recruit additional cingulate activation for tasks requiring attention and inhibition. 22q11.2DS is a unique model for learning about the deleterious effects of decreased dosage of the COMT gene on brain function...
  49. ncbi request reprint Brief report: effect of maternal age on severity of autism
    Alisa C Baxter
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5719, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 37:976-82. 2007
    ..Results indicate that there is no relationship between IQ or selected CBCL subtests and maternal age, suggesting that maternal age does not influence the severity of autism as measured by these indicators...

Research Grants5

  1. MCI, APOE and Sleep Apnea: Effects on Cognition
    RUTH O HARA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Reducing cognitive impairment and delaying the onset of AD has significant clinical and economic benefits. Thus, the answer to this question could significantly enhance our therapeutic approach to cognitive impairment in older adults. ..
  2. MCI, APOE and Sleep Apnea: Effects on Cognition
    RUTH O HARA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Reducing cognitive impairment and delaying the onset of AD has significant clinical and economic benefits. Thus, the answer to this question could significantly enhance our therapeutic approach to cognitive impairment in older adults. ..
  3. MCI, APOE and Sleep Apnea: Effects on Cognition
    RUTH O HARA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Reducing cognitive impairment and delaying the onset of AD has significant clinical and economic benefits. Thus, the answer to this question could significantly enhance our therapeutic approach to cognitive impairment in older adults. ..
  4. MCI, APOE and Sleep Apnea: Effects on Cognition
    RUTH O HARA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Reducing cognitive impairment and delaying the onset of AD has significant clinical and economic benefits. Thus, the answer to this question could significantly enhance our therapeutic approach to cognitive impairment in older adults. ..