Paul J Norman

Summary

Affiliation: Stanford University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint SNP haplotypes and allele frequencies show evidence for disruptive and balancing selection in the human leukocyte receptor complex
    Paul J Norman
    Clinical Transplantation Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, 3rd Floor New Guy s House, St Thomas Street, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Immunogenetics 56:225-37. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Complex interactions: the immunogenetics of human leukocyte antigen and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors
    Paul J Norman
    Departments of Structural Biology and Microbiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Semin Hematol 42:65-75. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Unusual selection on the KIR3DL1/S1 natural killer cell receptor in Africans
    Paul J Norman
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Genet 39:1092-9. 2007
  4. pmc KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-C
    Thorsten Graef
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 206:2557-72. 2009
  5. pmc Co-evolution of KIR2DL3 with HLA-C in a human population retaining minimal essential diversity of KIR and HLA class I ligands
    Ketevan Gendzekhadze
    Department of Structural Biology and Microbiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18692-7. 2009
  6. pmc Dimorphic motifs in D0 and D1+D2 domains of killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 combine to form receptors with high, moderate, and no avidity for the complex of a peptide derived from HIV and HLA-A*2402
    Deepti Sharma
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 183:4569-82. 2009
  7. pmc Mutation at positively selected positions in the binding site for HLA-C shows that KIR2DL1 is a more refined but less adaptable NK cell receptor than KIR2DL3
    Hugo G Hilton
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 189:1418-30. 2012
  8. pmc Polymorphic sites away from the Bw4 epitope that affect interaction of Bw4+ HLA-B with KIR3DL1
    Bharati Sanjanwala
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 181:6293-300. 2008
  9. pmc Although divergent in residues of the peptide binding site, conserved chimpanzee Patr-AL and polymorphic human HLA-A*02 have overlapping peptide-binding repertoires
    Michael Gleimer
    Graduate Program in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 186:1575-88. 2011
  10. pmc Variable NK cell receptors exemplified by human KIR3DL1/S1
    Peter Parham
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 187:11-9. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications27

  1. ncbi request reprint SNP haplotypes and allele frequencies show evidence for disruptive and balancing selection in the human leukocyte receptor complex
    Paul J Norman
    Clinical Transplantation Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, 3rd Floor New Guy s House, St Thomas Street, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Immunogenetics 56:225-37. 2004
    ..The different natural selection pressures acting on each locus may have contributed to a lack of linkage disequilibrium between them...
  2. ncbi request reprint Complex interactions: the immunogenetics of human leukocyte antigen and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors
    Paul J Norman
    Departments of Structural Biology and Microbiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Semin Hematol 42:65-75. 2005
    ..The functional variety of natural immune responses that are controlled by HLA and KIR interactions is genetically determined and maintained by natural selection...
  3. ncbi request reprint Unusual selection on the KIR3DL1/S1 natural killer cell receptor in Africans
    Paul J Norman
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Genet 39:1092-9. 2007
    ..Natural killer cells express the dominant KIR3DL1 at a high frequency and with high surface density, providing strong responses to cells perturbed in Bw4 expression...
  4. pmc KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-C
    Thorsten Graef
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 206:2557-72. 2009
    ..Correlation between the worldwide distributions of functional KIR2DS4 and HLA-A*11 points to the physiological importance of their mutual interaction...
  5. pmc Co-evolution of KIR2DL3 with HLA-C in a human population retaining minimal essential diversity of KIR and HLA class I ligands
    Ketevan Gendzekhadze
    Department of Structural Biology and Microbiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18692-7. 2009
    ..That it contains all functional elements of KIR diversity worldwide, attests to the competitive advantage it provides, not only for surviving epidemic infections, but also for rebuilding populations once infection has passed...
  6. pmc Dimorphic motifs in D0 and D1+D2 domains of killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 combine to form receptors with high, moderate, and no avidity for the complex of a peptide derived from HIV and HLA-A*2402
    Deepti Sharma
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 183:4569-82. 2009
    ..A24nef was not bound by KIR3DS1, the activating counterpart of KIR3DL1. Moreover, introducing any one of three residues specific to KIR3DS1, serine 163, arginine 166, or leucine 199, into 3DL1*015, abrogated A24nef binding...
  7. pmc Mutation at positively selected positions in the binding site for HLA-C shows that KIR2DL1 is a more refined but less adaptable NK cell receptor than KIR2DL3
    Hugo G Hilton
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 189:1418-30. 2012
    ..Substitutions restricted to activating KIR all reduced the avidity of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3, further evidence that activating KIR function often becomes subject to selective attenuation...
  8. pmc Polymorphic sites away from the Bw4 epitope that affect interaction of Bw4+ HLA-B with KIR3DL1
    Bharati Sanjanwala
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 181:6293-300. 2008
    ..This influence is likely mediated by changes in the peptides bound, which alter the conformation of the Bw4 epitope...
  9. pmc Although divergent in residues of the peptide binding site, conserved chimpanzee Patr-AL and polymorphic human HLA-A*02 have overlapping peptide-binding repertoires
    Michael Gleimer
    Graduate Program in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 186:1575-88. 2011
    ..In contrast, PBMCs from Patr-AL(+) chimpanzees are tolerant of Patr-AL...
  10. pmc Variable NK cell receptors exemplified by human KIR3DL1/S1
    Peter Parham
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 187:11-9. 2011
    ....
  11. pmc Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes
    Paul J Norman
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genome Res 19:757-69. 2009
    ..A consequence of such recombination is to blur the distinction between alleles and loci in the rapidly evolving human KIR gene family...
  12. ncbi request reprint Synergistic polymorphism at two positions distal to the ligand-binding site makes KIR2DL2 a stronger receptor for HLA-C than KIR2DL3
    Achim K Moesta
    Department of Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 180:3969-79. 2008
    ..This study demonstrates how allelic polymorphism at sites distal to the ligand-binding site of KIR2DL2/3 has diversified this receptor's interactions with HLA-C...
  13. pmc Primate-specific regulation of natural killer cells
    Peter Parham
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Med Primatol 39:194-212. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc Chimpanzees use more varied receptors and ligands than humans for inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor recognition of the MHC-C1 and MHC-C2 epitopes
    Achim K Moesta
    Department of Structural Biology, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
    J Immunol 182:3628-37. 2009
    ..Whereas human HLA-B allotypes that have functional C1 epitopes are either rare (HLA-B*73) or geographically localized (HLA-B*46), some 25% of Patr-B allotypes have the C1 epitope and are functional KIR ligands...
  15. pmc Human-specific evolution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules
    Peter Parham
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:800-11. 2012
    ..Correlating with their balance in human populations, B haplotypes favour reproductive success, whereas A haplotypes favour successful immune defence. Evolution of the B KIR haplotypes is thus unique to the human species...
  16. pmc Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism
    John A Hammond
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild D 159 299 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Immunogenetics 64:915-33. 2012
    ..The elaboration of a complex variable family of classical MHC class I genes in pinnipeds contrasts with the single, highly polymorphic classical MHC class I gene of dog and giant panda, terrestrial carnivores...
  17. ncbi request reprint Episodes of natural selection shaped the interactions of IgA-Fc with FcalphaRI and bacterial decoy proteins
    Laurent Abi-Rached
    Department of Structural Biology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 178:7943-54. 2007
    ..A cluster of positively selected residues presents a putative binding site for unknown IgA-binding factors...
  18. pmc The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans
    Laurent Abi-Rached
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 334:89-94. 2011
    ..Thus, adaptive introgression of archaic alleles has significantly shaped modern human immune systems...
  19. ncbi request reprint High KIR diversity in Amerindians is maintained using few gene-content haplotypes
    Ketevan Gendzekhadze
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Sherman Fairchild Building, Stanford, CA, USA
    Immunogenetics 58:474-80. 2006
    ..Here is clear evidence for balancing selection on the KIR system and the biological importance of both A and B haplotypes for the survival of human populations...
  20. ncbi request reprint Natural killer-cell activity after human renal transplantation in relation to killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigen mismatch
    Maria Luisa Vampa
    Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 76:1220-8. 2003
    ..This provides us with a unique opportunity to dissect the influence of KIR on NK-cell function after transplantation...
  21. ncbi request reprint DNA sequence variation and molecular genotyping of natural killer leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, LILRA3
    Paul J Norman
    Clinical Transplantation Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, 3rd Floor New Guy s House, St Thomas Street, SE1 9RT, London, UK
    Immunogenetics 55:165-71. 2003
    ..Six alleles were present in this group but they were unevenly distributed, as three alleles accounted for 88% of the studied chromosomes...
  22. pmc Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans
    Brenna M Henn
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5154-62. 2011
    ..However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world...
  23. ncbi request reprint Isolation, purification and flow cytometric analysis of human intrahepatic lymphocytes using an improved technique
    Mohamed A Morsy
    Institute of Liver Study, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Lab Invest 85:285-96. 2005
    ..The histologically normal liver contains heterogeneous and diverse IHL with large numbers of CD8+, NK, NKT and gammadelta+ cells...
  24. pmc Novel KIR3DL1 alleles and their expression levels on NK cells: convergent evolution of KIR3DL1 phenotype variation?
    Rasmi Thomas
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Immunol 180:6743-50. 2008
    ..These results raise the possibility that KIR3DL1 evolution maintains variation in KIR3DL1 cell-surface expression levels, potentially due to the effect of such variation on functional capacity...
  25. ncbi request reprint A multi-laboratory characterization of the KIR genotypes of 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop cell lines
    Mark A Cook
    Cancer Research, UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Hum Immunol 64:567-71. 2003
    ..Further improvements in typing may be required if population and clinical studies are to produce accurate results...
  26. ncbi request reprint A comparison of HLA-DR and -DQ allele and haplotype frequencies in Trinidadian populations of African, South Asian, and mixed ancestry
    Christine V F Carrington
    Department of Pre Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad
    Hum Immunol 63:1045-54. 2002
    ..Trinidad South Asians displayed similar allele frequencies and associations to other populations from Northern India...
  27. pmc Reduced telomere length in rheumatoid arthritis is independent of disease activity and duration
    Sophia E Steer
    Department of Rheumatology, Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Kings College London School of Medicine at Guy s, King s and St Thomas, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Ann Rheum Dis 66:476-80. 2007
    ..Telomere loss in white blood cells (WBC) is accelerated by oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro. It was postulated that the accelerated WBC telomere shortening in RA occurs as a result of exposure to chronic inflammation...