Michael Fredericson

Summary

Affiliation: Stanford University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Stress fractures in athletes
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:309-25. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analysis of the relative effectiveness of 3 iliotibial band stretches
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Functional Restoration, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:589-92. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint An unusual cause of ischemic claudication: a case report
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Functional Restoration, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:766-7. 2003
  4. pmc Patellar tilt correlates with vastus lateralis: vastus medialis activation ratio in maltracking patellofemoral pain patients
    Saikat Pal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 30:927-33. 2012
  5. pmc Using real-time MRI to quantify altered joint kinematics in subjects with patellofemoral pain and to evaluate the effects of a patellar brace or sleeve on joint motion
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, James H Clark Center, Room S 355 MC 5450, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 5450, USA
    J Orthop Res 27:571-7. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Femur rotation and patellofemoral joint kinematics: a weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging analysis
    Richard B Souza
    Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 40:277-85. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Identifying sex-specific risk factors for stress fractures in adolescent runners
    Adam S Tenforde
    1Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2Stanford Undergraduate Programs, Stanford University, Stanford, CA and 3Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:1843-51. 2013
  8. pmc Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study
    Saikat Pal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University James H Clark Center, Room S 331, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:448-57. 2013
  9. doi request reprint Differences in patellofemoral kinematics between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions in patients with patellofemoral pain
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 29:312-7. 2011
  10. pmc Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls
    Thor F Besier
    Department of Orthopaedics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 6175, USA
    J Biomech 42:898-905. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Stress fractures in athletes
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:309-25. 2006
    ..In this article, we focus on magnetic resonance imaging, which provides highly sensitive and specific evaluation for bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction as well as detection of subtle fracture lines...
  2. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analysis of the relative effectiveness of 3 iliotibial band stretches
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Functional Restoration, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:589-92. 2002
    ..To compare the relative effectiveness of 3 common standing stretches for the iliotibial band (ITB): arms at side (stretch A), arms extending overhead (stretch B), and arms reaching diagonally downward (stretch C)...
  3. ncbi request reprint An unusual cause of ischemic claudication: a case report
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Functional Restoration, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:766-7. 2003
    ..This case presents an unusual cause of left leg claudication secondary to left iliac artery stenosis 2 years after pelvic radiation for cervical cancer and shows the necessity for a detailed evaluation of patients' medical histories...
  4. pmc Patellar tilt correlates with vastus lateralis: vastus medialis activation ratio in maltracking patellofemoral pain patients
    Saikat Pal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 30:927-33. 2012
    ..This suggests that a clinical intervention targeting vasti muscle activation imbalance may be effective only in PF pain subjects classified as maltrackers...
  5. pmc Using real-time MRI to quantify altered joint kinematics in subjects with patellofemoral pain and to evaluate the effects of a patellar brace or sleeve on joint motion
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, James H Clark Center, Room S 355 MC 5450, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 5450, USA
    J Orthop Res 27:571-7. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that some subjects with patellofemoral pain exhibit abnormal weight-bearing joint kinematics and that braces may be effective in reducing patellar maltracking in these subjects...
  6. doi request reprint Femur rotation and patellofemoral joint kinematics: a weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging analysis
    Richard B Souza
    Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 40:277-85. 2010
    ..Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design...
  7. ncbi request reprint Identifying sex-specific risk factors for stress fractures in adolescent runners
    Adam S Tenforde
    1Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2Stanford Undergraduate Programs, Stanford University, Stanford, CA and 3Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:1843-51. 2013
    ..Adolescent females and males participating in running represent a population at high risk of stress fracture. Few investigators have evaluated risk factors for prospective stress fracture in this population...
  8. pmc Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study
    Saikat Pal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University James H Clark Center, Room S 331, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:448-57. 2013
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Differences in patellofemoral kinematics between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions in patients with patellofemoral pain
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 29:312-7. 2011
    ..001). These results suggest that patellofemoral kinematics measured during supine, unloaded tasks do not accurately represent the joint motion during weight-bearing activities...
  10. pmc Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls
    Thor F Besier
    Department of Orthopaedics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 6175, USA
    J Biomech 42:898-905. 2009
    ..05). These results suggest that some patellofemoral pain patients might experience greater joint contact forces and joint stresses than pain-free subjects. The muscle force data are available as supplementary material...
  11. doi request reprint The influence of femoral internal and external rotation on cartilage stresses within the patellofemoral joint
    Thor F Besier
    Department of Orthopedics, Sports Medicine Center, Arrillaga Recreation Center, 341 Galvez Street, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 6175, USA
    J Orthop Res 26:1627-35. 2008
    ....
  12. pmc Comparison of MRI and ¹⁸F-NaF PET/CT in patients with patellofemoral pain
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 36:928-32. 2012
    ..To determine whether bone metabolic activity corresponds to bone and cartilage damage in patients with patellofemoral pain...
  13. doi request reprint Patellar maltracking correlates with vastus medialis activation delay in patellofemoral pain patients
    Saikat Pal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, James H Clark Center, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 5450, USA
    Am J Sports Med 39:590-8. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures in pain-free controls and patellofemoral pain patients...
  14. pmc Patients with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    J Orthop Res 30:209-13. 2012
    ..55; P = 0.0005). The implication of these results is that patellofemoral pain may be related to bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint...
  15. doi request reprint Overuse injuries in high school runners: lifetime prevalence and prevention strategies
    Adam S Tenforde
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94063, USA
    PM R 3:125-31; quiz 131. 2011
    ..To evaluate lifetime prevalence and risk factors for overuse injuries in high school athletes currently participating in long-distance running and provide recommendations for injury prevention strategies...
  16. ncbi request reprint Practical management of iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 16:261-8. 2006
    ..In rare refractory cases that do not respond to conservative treatment, surgery can be considered...
  17. ncbi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in the shoulder and wrist joints of asymptomatic elite athletes
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    PM R 1:107-16. 2009
    ..To characterize abnormalities on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the shoulder and wrist joints of asymptomatic elite athletes to better define the range of "normal" findings in this population...
  18. pmc Regional bone mineral density in male athletes: a comparison of soccer players, runners and controls
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94306, USA
    Br J Sports Med 41:664-8; discussion 668. 2007
    ..To investigate the association of soccer playing and long-distance running with total and regional bone mineral density (BMD)...
  19. doi request reprint Stress-related injuries around the lesser trochanter in long-distance runners
    Josephine T Nguyen
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radiology, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, CA, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:1616-20. 2008
    ..One case involved temporal progression to a cortical fracture...
  20. doi request reprint Evaluating the relationship of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of stress fracture injuries in the young athlete: a review of the literature
    Adam S Tenforde
    School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    PM R 2:945-9. 2010
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Comparison of quadriceps angle measurements using short-arm and long-arm goniometers: correlation with MRI
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA James H Clark Center, Rm S 355 MC 5450, 318 Campus Dr, Stanford CA 94305 5450, USA
    PM R 3:111-6. 2011
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Differential diagnosis of leg pain in the athlete
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93:321-4. 2003
    ..This article reviews the essential history and physical examination findings and the various causes of leg pain to help the clinician pinpoint the diagnosis and facilitate the athlete's return to sport participation...
  23. doi request reprint Use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury
    Adam S Tenforde
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    PM R 4:629-31. 2012
    ..Future research may identify appropriate protocols for recovery from overuse lower extremity injuries and other uses for this technology, including neuromuscular recovery and injury prevention...
  24. doi request reprint Neuromuscular prehabilitation to prevent osteoarthritis after a traumatic joint injury
    Adam S Tenforde
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    PM R 4:S141-4. 2012
    ..Future research should evaluate methods of neuromuscular prehabilitation strategies in relationship to the outcome of PTOA after joint injury...
  25. doi request reprint Evaluation of the athlete with buttock pain
    John M Vasudevan
    PM and R Sports Medicine Service, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, USA
    Curr Sports Med Rep 11:35-42. 2012
    ..The purpose of this article is to provide a clinical algorithm to assist the sports clinician in reaching an accurate diagnosis and initiating the appropriate treatment...
  26. ncbi request reprint Iliotibial band syndrome in runners: innovations in treatment
    Michael Fredericson
    Stanford University School of Medicine, and Stanford University Cross Country and Track Teams, Stanford, California 94305 5336, USA
    Sports Med 35:451-9. 2005
    ..In the rare refractory case, surgery may be required. The most common procedure is releasing or lengthening the posterior aspect of the ITB at the location of peak tension over the lateral femoral condyle...
  27. ncbi request reprint Practical management of patellofemoral pain
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Functional Restoration, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, U S A
    Clin J Sport Med 12:36-8. 2002
  28. doi request reprint Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: a review of the literature
    Adam S Tenforde
    Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA
    PM R 3:861-7. 2011
    ..Participation in nonimpact sports, such as swimming and cycling, is not associated with an improvement in bone health...
  29. ncbi request reprint Effects of ball sports on future risk of stress fracture in runners
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford, CA 940305 5336, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 15:136-41. 2005
    ..To evaluate whether playing ball sports during childhood and adolescence is associated with the risk of stress fractures in runners later in life...
  30. doi request reprint Feasibility of using real-time MRI to measure joint kinematics in 1.5T and open-bore 0.5T systems
    Christine E Draper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 28:158-66. 2008
    ..To test the feasibility and accuracy of measuring joint motion with real-time MRI in a 1.5T scanner and in a 0.5T open-bore scanner and to assess the dependence of measurement accuracy on movement speed...
  31. ncbi request reprint Asymptomatic tibial stress reactions: MRI detection and clinical follow-up in distance runners
    A Gabrielle Bergman
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305 5105, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:635-8. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Physical examination and patellofemoral pain syndrome
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil 85:234-43. 2006
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint MRI findings of femoral diaphyseal stress injuries in athletes
    Bryan Hwang
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Grant Building S0 60, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305 5105, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 185:166-73. 2005
  34. ncbi request reprint Disabling foot cramping in a runner secondary to paramyotonia congenita: a case report
    Michael Fredericson
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Foot Ankle Int 25:510-2. 2004
    ..He was given phenytoin, which lessened his symptoms and allowed him to continue running with minimal symptoms, but he stopped running because he was not able to maintain mileage high enough to compete successfully...
  35. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and aetiology of marathon running injuries
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine and Team Physician, Stanford University Cross Country and Track Teams, Stanford, California 94305 5336, USA
    Sports Med 37:437-9. 2007
    ..g. patellofemoral syndrome). Iliotibial band friction syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis and meniscal injuries of the knee were also commonly cited...
  36. ncbi request reprint Sacral stress fractures: magnetic resonance imaging not always definitive for early stage injuries: a report of 2 cases
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5336, USA
    Am J Sports Med 35:835-9. 2007
  37. ncbi request reprint Normalization of bone density in a previously amenorrheic runner with osteoporosis
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1481-6. 2005
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve during hook of hamate excision
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Orthopedics 29:456-8. 2006
  39. doi request reprint Rheumatic diseases presenting as sports-related injuries
    Fabio Jennings
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5336, USA
    Sports Med 38:917-30. 2008
    ..The mechanism of injury or lack thereof is also a clue to any underlying disease. In these circumstances, more complete workup is reasonable, including radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory testing for autoantibodies...
  40. pmc Update on stress fractures in female athletes: epidemiology, treatment, and prevention
    Yin ting Chen
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University, 450 Broadway Street, Pavilion A, 2nd Floor MC 6120, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA
    Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 6:173-81. 2013
    ..Prevention strategies may include early screening of female athlete triad, promoting early participation in activities that improve bone health, nutritional strategies, gait modification, and orthotics...
  41. ncbi request reprint Muscular balance, core stability, and injury prevention for middle- and long-distance runners
    Michael Fredericson
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3000 Pasteur Drive R105B, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 16:669-89. 2005
    ..It is highly recommended, however, that athletes consult a skilled practitioner to address individual needs and maximize results from a program of this nature...
  42. ncbi request reprint Patellofemoral kinematics during weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing knee extension in persons with lateral subluxation of the patella: a preliminary study
    Christopher M Powers
    Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southem California, Los Angles, CA, USA
    J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33:677-85. 2003
    ..Single-group, repeated-measures design...
  43. doi request reprint High hamstring tendinopathy: MRI and ultrasound imaging and therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous corticosteroid injection
    Maurice H Zissen
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5105, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 195:993-8. 2010
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Reliability and accuracy of a video analysis protocol to assess core ability
    Dawn A McDonald
    Stanford Human Performance Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 95616, USA
    PM R 3:204-11. 2011
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Synovial chondromatosis in an elite cyclist: a case report
    David A Doward
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87:860-5. 2006
    ..The diagnosis of primary synovial chondromatosis was confirmed by histologic examination. At the 17-month follow-up, our patient was essentially pain free and had returned to her previous athletic activities...
  46. doi request reprint Basic appearance of ultrasound structures and pitfalls
    Shelley McDonald
    PM and R Residency Program, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94063, USA
    Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 21:461-79. 2010
    ..They also must recognize the clinically relevant limitations and pitfalls associated with the use of ultrasound...
  47. pmc The female knee: anatomic variations and the female-specific total knee design
    Alan C Merchant
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 124 Marvin Avenue, Los Altos, CA 94022, USA
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 466:3059-65. 2008
    ..Level of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence...
  48. doi request reprint Adhesive capsulitis: a new management protocol to improve passive range of motion
    Raj Mitra
    Stanford University School of Medicine, 450 Broadway St, Mailcode 6342, Redwood City, CA 94063, USA
    PM R 1:1064-8. 2009
    ..To examine the short-term efficacy of a nonoperative shoulder protocol for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Current evidence and clinical applications of therapeutic knee braces
    Kelvin T L Chew
    Alexandra Hospital, Sports Medicine Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Singapore
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil 86:678-86. 2007
    ..This article also provides an update on the various knee braces in terms of the clinical efficacy and appropriate prescription recommendations...
  50. ncbi request reprint Do capacitively coupled electric fields accelerate tibial stress fracture healing? A randomized controlled trial
    Belinda R Beck
    Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
    Am J Sports Med 36:545-53. 2008
    ..Electrical stimulation enhances regular fracture healing, but the effect on stress fractures has not been definitively tested...
  51. doi request reprint Effects of a single session of posterior-to-anterior spinal mobilization and press-up exercise on pain response and lumbar spine extension in people with nonspecific low back pain
    Christopher M Powers
    Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy at the School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 1540 E Alcazar St, CHP 155, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9006, USA
    Phys Ther 88:485-93. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of PA mobilization and a press-up exercise on pain with standing extension and lumbar extension in people with nonspecific low back pain...
  52. doi request reprint Core stability exercise principles
    Venu Akuthota
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80309, USA
    Curr Sports Med Rep 7:39-44. 2008
    ..This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions...
  53. pmc Segmental lumbar mobility in individuals with low back pain: in vivo assessment during manual and self-imposed motion using dynamic MRI
    Kornelia Kulig
    Department of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 8:8. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that persons with central low back pain would have an altered lumbar segmental mobility pattern compared to those without pain...
  54. ncbi request reprint Intermittent normobaric hypoxia does not alter performance or erythropoietic markers in highly trained distance runners
    Colleen G Julian
    Sports Medicine Institute International, Palo Alto, California 94300, USA
    J Appl Physiol 96:1800-7. 2004
    ..Four weeks of a 5:5-min normobaric hypoxia exposure at rest for 70 min, 5 days/wk, is not a sufficient stimulus to elicit improved performance or change the normal level of erythropoiesis in highly trained runners...