M E Young

Summary

Affiliation: Southern Illinois University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Rich stimulus sampling for between-subjects designs improves model selection
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, 281 LSII, Mailcode 6502, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Behav Res Methods 44:176-88. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Human sensitivity to the magnitude and probability of a continuous causal relation in a video game
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:11-22. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Causal impressions: predicting when, not just whether
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Mailcode 6502, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Mem Cognit 33:320-31. 2005
  4. pmc Pigeons' discrimination of Michotte's launching effect
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 86:223-37. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint A theory of variability discrimination: finding differences
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 6502, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:805-22. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Color change as a causal agent revisited
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Am J Psychol 121:129-56. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Launching at a distance: the effect of spatial markers
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:1356-70. 2008
  8. doi request reprint The spatiotemporal distinctiveness of direct causation
    Michael E Young
    Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 16:729-35. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Waiting to decide helps in the face of probabilistic uncertainty but not delay uncertainty
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 62901, USA
    Learn Behav 39:115-24. 2011
  10. pmc Deciding when to "cash in" when outcomes are continuously improving: an escalating interest task
    Michael E Young
    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Behav Processes 88:101-10. 2011

Detail Information

Publications38

  1. doi request reprint Rich stimulus sampling for between-subjects designs improves model selection
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, 281 LSII, Mailcode 6502, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Behav Res Methods 44:176-88. 2012
    ..These improvements came at a small cost in the precision of the parameter estimates for the generating function...
  2. doi request reprint Human sensitivity to the magnitude and probability of a continuous causal relation in a video game
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:11-22. 2012
    ..This new paradigm provides a rich platform for examining the cues to causation encountered in the learning of continuous causal relations...
  3. ncbi request reprint Causal impressions: predicting when, not just whether
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Mailcode 6502, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Mem Cognit 33:320-31. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the everyday inference of causality relies on our ability to predict whether and when an effect will occur...
  4. pmc Pigeons' discrimination of Michotte's launching effect
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 86:223-37. 2006
    ..Both discriminations proved difficult for the pigeons to master; later tests suggested that the pigeons often learned the discriminations by attending to subtle stimulus properties other than the intended ones...
  5. ncbi request reprint A theory of variability discrimination: finding differences
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 6502, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:805-22. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Color change as a causal agent revisited
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Am J Psychol 121:129-56. 2008
    ..When participants performed a causal ratings task, color change produced moderate judgments of causation, with little response differentiation as a function of color dynamics...
  7. ncbi request reprint Launching at a distance: the effect of spatial markers
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:1356-70. 2008
    ..The results suggest that altering a cause's ability to predict when the effect would occur (via a spatial marker) and the presence of a conduit for energy transmission have independent effects on causal judgements of object interaction...
  8. doi request reprint The spatiotemporal distinctiveness of direct causation
    Michael E Young
    Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 16:729-35. 2009
    ..Direct launching was much easier to discriminate from launches involving small gaps or delays. In a follow-up experiment, participants made similar judgments for a noncausal event...
  9. doi request reprint Waiting to decide helps in the face of probabilistic uncertainty but not delay uncertainty
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 62901, USA
    Learn Behav 39:115-24. 2011
    ..The experiments demonstrate people's ability to successfully modulate their environmental sampling in the face of uncertainty due to lower cause-effect probabilities, but not in the presence of longer cause-effect delays...
  10. pmc Deciding when to "cash in" when outcomes are continuously improving: an escalating interest task
    Michael E Young
    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Behav Processes 88:101-10. 2011
    ..The results also demonstrate that this new video game task is useful for generating sensitivity to delay to reinforcement over time scales that are typically used in nonhuman animal studies...
  11. ncbi request reprint The pigeon's discrimination of visual entropy: a logarithmic function
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Mailcode 6502, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Anim Learn Behav 30:306-14. 2002
    ..Reanalysis of previously published data also yielded results consistent with a logarithmic relationship between entropy and discriminative behavior...
  12. ncbi request reprint Serial causation: occasion setting in a causal induction task
    M E Young
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
    Mem Cognit 28:1213-30. 2000
    ..Current causal induction models are unable to account for the full range of effects that we observed; the relative roles of time, attention, and cue distinctiveness are discussed...
  13. ncbi request reprint Evidence for a conceptual account of same-different discrimination learning in the pigeon
    M E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 62901, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 8:677-84. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Entropy and variability discrimination
    M E Young
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:278-93. 2001
    ..Individuals differed in their use of absolute rather than relative entropy...
  15. ncbi request reprint Limited attention and cue order consistency affect predictive learning: a test of similarity measures
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 62901 6502, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 28:484-96. 2002
    ..These results suggest the need for differential attention to event presence and absence and to mechanisms that incorporate limited attentional capacity...
  16. ncbi request reprint Detecting variety: what's so special about uniformity?
    Michael E Young
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 62901 6502, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 131:131-43. 2002
    ..These and other results suggest that both species are predisposed to notice differences rather than similarities...
  17. ncbi request reprint Stimulus control by same-versus-different relations among multiple visual stimuli
    Edward A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52245, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:347-57. 2002
    ..Same-different discrimination was evident with 2-item displays, but it was much stronger with 6 or more items. These findings help to define the substrates of advanced conceptual behavior...
  18. ncbi request reprint Positive and negative patterning in human causal learning
    M E Young
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol B 53:121-38. 2000
    ..The discussion concludes with an analysis of exemplar models (e.g., Pearce, 1994) of human causal learning and considers the conditions under which these models do and do not anticipate our results...
  19. ncbi request reprint Display variability and spatial organization as contributors to the pigeon's discrimination of complex visual stimuli
    E A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 26:133-43. 2000
    ..These seemingly separate effects could be collectively explained by the pigeon's discriminating the amount of variability or entropy in localized regions of the display...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of number of items on the pigeon's discrimination of same from different visual displays
    M E Young
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 23:491-501. 1997
    ..These results were well described by the degree of variability or entropy in multielement visual displays...
  21. pmc Brief presentations are sufficient for pigeons to discriminate arrays of same and different stimuli
    Edward A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 78:365-73. 2002
    ..Pigeons thus discriminate same from different stimuli with considerable speed, suggesting that same-different discrimination behavior is of substantial adaptive significance...
  22. ncbi request reprint Seeing things from a different angle: the pigeon's recognition of single geons rotated in depth
    J J Peissig
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 26:115-32. 2000
    ..Aspects of these results are both consistent with and problematic for object-centered and viewer-centered theories of object recognition...
  23. ncbi request reprint The pigeon's variability discrimination with lists of successively presented visual stimuli
    M E Young
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 25:475-90. 1999
    ..Statistical models confirmed and quantified the importance of these additional factors...
  24. ncbi request reprint Same-different conceptualization by baboons (Papio papio): the role of entropy
    E A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa and Center for Research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    J Comp Psychol 115:42-52. 2001
    ..Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, the baboons' responses to displays that contained jittered and blurred icons suggested that their same-different conceptual behavior was not based on the spatial orderliness of the visual arrays...
  25. ncbi request reprint The feature positive effect in the face of variability: novelty as a feature
    Joshua S Beckmann
    Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:72-7. 2007
    ..These results are problematic for contemporary associative learning models...
  26. doi request reprint Stimulus dynamics and temporal discrimination: implications for pacemakers
    Joshua S Beckmann
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:525-37. 2009
    ..This hypothesis was investigated through applications of the leading quantitative models of temporal discrimination to the present data...
  27. doi request reprint Response variability in pigeons in a Pavlovian task
    W David Stahlman
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1563, USA
    Learn Behav 38:111-8. 2010
    ..6%. Pecking was more variable with low probabilities of food delivery, thus extending the rule relating variability and expectation to a Pavlovian situation...
  28. ncbi request reprint Learning an object from multiple views enhances its recognition in an orthogonal rotational axis in pigeons
    Jessie J Peissig
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Vision Res 42:2051-62. 2002
    ..Exp. Anal. Behav. 54 (1990) 69]...
  29. ncbi request reprint The impact of object animacy on the appraisal of causality
    Olga Falmier
    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, IL 62901 6502, USA
    Am J Psychol 121:473-500. 2008
    ..Explicitly informing participants about the nature of the objects had a strong impact. Experience with the causal task affected ratings to a greater extent when the objects were explicitly described as nonliving rather than living...
  30. ncbi request reprint Multiple-pair training enhances transposition in pigeons
    Olga F Lazareva
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Learn Behav 36:174-87. 2008
    ..These results also provide strong evidence against stimulus generalization as the sole determinant of relational responding in transposition...
  31. ncbi request reprint Effects of number of items and visual display variability on same-different discrimination behavior
    Leyre Castro
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Mem Cognit 34:1689-703. 2006
    ..This and previous related research suggest that variability discrimination may lie at the root of same-different categorization behavior...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effects of varying stimulus size on object recognition in pigeons
    Jessie J Peissig
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 32:419-30. 2006
    ..This finding was supported in Experiment 3. Overall, the experiments suggest that the pigeon encodes size as a feature of objects and that the representation of size is most likely logarithmic...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effects of occlusion on pigeons' visual object recognition
    Norma T DiPietro
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    Perception 31:1299-312. 2002
    ..Evidently, the recognition of occluded objects requires pigeons to learn to discriminate the object from the occluder; once this discrimination is mastered, occluded objects can be better recognized...
  34. doi request reprint Same-different discrimination: the keel and backbone of thought and reasoning
    Edward A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1407, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 36:3-22. 2010
    ..This study also has prompted the development of a theory-the Finding Differences Model-that successfully explains a wealth of findings in the comparative psychology of same-different discrimination behavior...
  35. ncbi request reprint The role of edges in object recognition by pigeons
    Jessie J Peissig
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1407, USA
    Perception 34:1353-74. 2005
    ..Such substances do not have definite boundaries cued by edges which are thought to be central to human recognition...
  36. ncbi request reprint Transposition in pigeons: reassessing Spence (1937) with multiple discrimination training
    Olga F Lazareva
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Learn Behav 33:22-46. 2005
    ..Neither Spence's (1937) theory nor existing relational accounts could predict the obtained pattern of relational responding...
  37. ncbi request reprint Variability discrimination in humans and animals: implications for adaptive action
    Edward A Wasserman
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245, USA
    Am Psychol 59:879-90. 2004
    ..Discovering and understanding the behavioral and neural processes related to stimulus variability and its consequences for behavior offer distinctive challenges and important new opportunities for psychologists and neuroscientists...
  38. ncbi request reprint Likelihood judgment based on previously observed outcomes: the alternative-outcomes effect in a learning paradigm
    Paul D Windschitl
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Mem Cognit 30:469-77. 2002
    ..The findings were consistent with the heuristic comparison account, which suggests that the judged likelihood of a focal outcome will be disproportionately influenced by the strength (frequency) of the strongest alternative outcome...