Ratna Ray

Summary

Affiliation: Saint Louis University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    Cancer Res 70:1925-31. 2010
  2. pmc Bitter melon reduces head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth by targeting c-Met signaling
    Ananthi Rajamoorthi
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e78006. 2013
  3. pmc Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein inhibits DNA damage pathway by sequestering p53 to the cytoplasm
    Cíntia Bittar
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e62581. 2013
  4. pmc Knockdown of MBP-1 in human foreskin fibroblasts induces p53-p21 dependent senescence
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3384. 2008
  5. doi request reprint miRNA-29b suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling
    Peng Ru
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 11:1166-73. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated anoikis of primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 321:181-8. 2004
  7. pmc Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model
    Peng Ru
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4:2122-30. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Distinct functional role of Hepatitis C virus core protein on NF-kappaB regulation is linked to genomic variation
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virus Res 87:21-9. 2002
  9. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis by a protective effect involving cellular FLICE inhibitory protein
    Kousuke Saito
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, 3635 Vista Ave, FDT 8N, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:4372-9. 2006
  10. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein and cellular protein HAX-1 promote 5-fluorouracil-mediated hepatocyte growth inhibition
    Arup Banerjee
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63119, USA
    J Virol 83:9663-71. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Innate Immunity and Hepatitis C Virus Infection
    Ratna B Ray; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2002
  5. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2001
  6. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2001
  7. Innate Immunity and Hepatitis C Virus Infection
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003
  9. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2006
  10. HCV NS5A protein and pathogenesis
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005

Collaborators

  • T Kanda
  • Asish K Ghosh
  • Cíntia Bittar
  • Karoly Toth
  • Pratibha V Nerurkar
  • Jane McHowat
  • Adrian M Di Bisceglie
  • DANIEL HOFT
  • Takaji Wakita
  • Keith Meyer
  • Kousuke Saito
  • Arnab Basu
  • Malika Ait-Goughoulte
  • Robert Steele
  • Arup Banerjee
  • Peng Ru
  • Sutapa Banerjee
  • Ananthi Rajamoorthi
  • Budhaditya Mazumdar
  • Nancy J Phillips
  • Bhaswati Sarcar
  • Adrish Sen
  • Viktor Grünwald
  • Mainak Majumder
  • Mark Varvares
  • Shubham Shrivastava
  • Juan G Gonzalez
  • Susan Crawford
  • Philip Newhall
  • Nancy Phillips
  • Azra Blazevic
  • Steven M Truscott
  • Jan S Ryerse
  • Getahun Abate
  • Rebecca Warner
  • Yie Hwa Chang
  • Scott L Friedman
  • Leonard E Grosso
  • Keith K Lai
  • Douglas Russel
  • Xiao Yan Zhou
  • Manuel Hidalgo
  • Linda DeGraffenried
  • William E Friedrichs

Detail Information

Publications35

  1. doi request reprint Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    Cancer Res 70:1925-31. 2010
    ..Together, these results show that BME modulates signal transduction pathways for inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and can be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of breast cancer...
  2. pmc Bitter melon reduces head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth by targeting c-Met signaling
    Ananthi Rajamoorthi
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e78006. 2013
    ..Together, our results suggested that BME treatment in HNSCC cells modulates multiple signaling pathways and may have therapeutic potential for treating HNSCC. ..
  3. pmc Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein inhibits DNA damage pathway by sequestering p53 to the cytoplasm
    Cíntia Bittar
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e62581. 2013
    ..Together these results suggested that HCV NS2 inhibits DNA damage response by altering the localization of p53, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection...
  4. pmc Knockdown of MBP-1 in human foreskin fibroblasts induces p53-p21 dependent senescence
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e3384. 2008
    ..Together, these results demonstrated that knockdown of endogenous MBP-1 is involved in cellular senescence of HFF through p53-p21 pathway...
  5. doi request reprint miRNA-29b suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling
    Peng Ru
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 11:1166-73. 2012
    ..Therefore, miR-29b could be a potentially new attractive target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer...
  6. ncbi request reprint Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated anoikis of primary human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 321:181-8. 2004
    ..Subsequent studies suggested that HCMEC death occurred through apoptosis. Results from this study shed light on the EGP-induced anoikis in primary human cardiac endothelial cells, which may have significant pathological consequences...
  7. pmc Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model
    Peng Ru
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4:2122-30. 2011
    ..Together, our results suggest for the first time that oral administration of BME inhibits prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice by interfering cell-cycle progression and proliferation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Distinct functional role of Hepatitis C virus core protein on NF-kappaB regulation is linked to genomic variation
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virus Res 87:21-9. 2002
    ..Taken together, our present data suggest that genomic variation in the core protein determines a distinct functional regulation of NF-kappaB, which may modulate immunnoregulatory molecules early in viral infection...
  9. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis by a protective effect involving cellular FLICE inhibitory protein
    Kousuke Saito
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, 3635 Vista Ave, FDT 8N, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:4372-9. 2006
    ..Taken together, our results suggested that the TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic pathway is inhibited by a sustained c-FLIP expression associated with the expression of HCV core protein, which may play a role in HCV-mediated pathogenesis...
  10. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein and cellular protein HAX-1 promote 5-fluorouracil-mediated hepatocyte growth inhibition
    Arup Banerjee
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63119, USA
    J Virol 83:9663-71. 2009
    ..These observations underscore an association between HCV core and HAX-1, which promotes 5-FU mediated p53-dependent caspase-7 activation and hepatocyte growth inhibition...
  11. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of hepatitis C virus core protein expression in immortalized human hepatocytes induces cytochrome c-independent increase in Apaf-1 and caspase-9 activation for cell death
    Keith Meyer
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 336:198-207. 2005
    ..These findings may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of HCV core protein-mediated hepatocyte growth regulation and disease progression...
  12. doi request reprint MBP-1 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis in immunocompetent mice
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    Cancer Res 69:9354-9. 2009
    ..Taken together, our study shows that MBP-1 acts as a double-edged sword by inhibiting primary and metastatic tumor growth and modulating matrix metalloproteinase expression with a therapeutic potential against breast cancer progression...
  13. ncbi request reprint Functional properties of a 16 kDa protein translated from an alternative open reading frame of the core-encoding genomic region of hepatitis C virus
    Arnab Basu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Gen Virol 85:2299-306. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the F protein does not share major properties identified previously for the HCV core protein, other than regulating p21 expression...
  14. doi request reprint Inhibition of HCV replication by small interfering RNA
    Ratna B Ray
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 510:251-62. 2009
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with fibrinogen-beta and attenuates cytokine stimulated acute-phase response
    Malika Ait-Goughoulte
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Hepatology 51:1505-13. 2010
    ..However, treatment with cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha repressed FBG-beta and other acute-phase response (APR) genes...
  16. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein augments androgen receptor-mediated signaling
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Pathology, St Louis University, 1100 S Grand Blvd, DRC 207, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 82:11066-72. 2008
    ..Together, our results suggest that HCV core protein acts as a positive regulator in AR signaling, providing further insight into oncogenic potential in the development of HCC in HCV-infected individuals...
  17. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein impairs TNF-mediated hepatic apoptosis, but not by an anti-FAS antibody, in transgenic mice
    Mainak Majumder
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, 1402 S Grand Blvd, 4th Floor, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Virology 294:94-105. 2002
    ..Together, our results suggest that NS5A impairs TNF-mediated apoptosis by interfering upstream of the signal transduction pathway and may play a role in HCV-mediated pathogenesis...
  18. ncbi request reprint MBP-1 mediated apoptosis involves cytochrome c release from mitochondria
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, MO 63104, USA
    Oncogene 21:2775-84. 2002
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that MBP-1 selectively represses Bcl-xL expression in MCF-7 cells and induces mitochondrial involvement in the apoptotic process...
  19. ncbi request reprint c-myc Promoter-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) regulates prostate cancer cell growth by inhibiting MAPK pathway
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:14325-30. 2005
    ..Together, our results suggested a novel role of MBP-1 for suppression of prostate cancer cell growth by regulating the MEK5-mediated signaling pathway...
  20. pmc Small interfering RNA targeted to hepatitis C virus 5' nontranslated region exerts potent antiviral effect
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Departments of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 81:669-76. 2007
    ..Therefore, we have identified a conserved sequence targeted to the HCV genome that can inhibit replication of different genotypes, suggesting the potential of siRNA as an additional therapeutic modality against HCV infection...
  21. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus core protein is necessary for the maintenance of immortalized human hepatocytes
    Arnab Basu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, Missouri 63110, USA
    Virology 298:53-62. 2002
    ..Thus, targeted inhibition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic modalities for prevention of HCV core protein function...
  22. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of hepatitis C virus protein expression by RNA interference
    Adrish Sen
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Virus Res 96:27-35. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrated that siRNA was effective in inhibiting HCV protein expression, and may have therapeutic potential to limit HCV replication in chronically infected patients...
  23. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus NS5A mediated STAT3 activation requires co-operation of Jak1 kinase
    Bhaswati Sarcar
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Virology 322:51-60. 2004
    ..Taken together, our results suggested that NS5A activates STAT3 through co-operation of Jak1 kinase and activated STAT3 may contribute to HCV-mediated pathogenesis...
  24. ncbi request reprint Microarray analyses and molecular profiling of Stat3 signaling pathway induced by hepatitis C virus core protein in human hepatocytes
    Arnab Basu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Liver Center and Cancer Center, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 349:347-58. 2006
    ..Identification of these modulated genes with potential roles may help in the selection of targets for therapies against HCV-mediated liver disease progression...
  25. pmc Generation of infectious hepatitis C virus in immortalized human hepatocytes
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, 3635 Vista Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:4633-9. 2006
    ..A similar level of virus growth was observed upon transfection of RNA from HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) into IHH. Taken together, our results suggest that IHH support HCV genome replication and virus assembly...
  26. ncbi request reprint Tumor-suppressive effects of MBP-1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology and Cancer Center, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    Cancer Res 66:11907-12. 2006
    ..Taken together, this study suggests that MBP-1 expression induces a novel form of necrosis-like cell death and MBP-1 could be a potential gene therapeutic candidate against non-small cell lung tumor growth...
  27. ncbi request reprint Stellate cell apoptosis by a soluble mediator from immortalized human hepatocytes
    Arnab Basu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Apoptosis 11:1391-400. 2006
    ..Taken together, our results suggested that a soluble mediator secreted from immortalized human hepatocytes plays an important role in hepatic stellate cell growth regulation...
  28. pmc Hepatitis C virus genotype 1a growth and induction of autophagy
    Malika Ait-Goughoulte
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Center for Vaccine Development, Edward A Doisy Research Center, 1100 S Grand Blvd, 8th Floor, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 82:2241-9. 2008
    ..Taken together, our results suggested that HCV genotype 1a (clone H77) can be serially passaged in IHH and that HCV infection induces an autophagic response in hepatocytes...
  29. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein upregulates serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and impairs the downstream akt/protein kinase B signaling pathway for insulin resistance
    Sutapa Banerjee
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Center for Vaccine Development, Edward A Doisy Research Center, 1100 S Grand Blvd, 8th Floor, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 82:2606-12. 2008
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrated that HCV core protein increases IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(312) which may contribute in part to the mechanism of insulin resistance...
  30. pmc Hepatitis C virus infection induces the beta interferon signaling pathway in immortalized human hepatocytes
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 81:12375-81. 2007
    ..Together, our results suggested that HCV infection in IHH induces the IFN signaling pathway, which corroborates observations from natural HCV infection in humans...
  31. pmc Hepatitis C virus differentially modulates activation of forkhead transcription factors and insulin-induced metabolic gene expression
    Arup Banerjee
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Virol 84:5936-46. 2010
    ....
  32. pmc Hepatitis C virus inhibits cell surface expression of HLA-DR, prevents dendritic cell maturation, and induces interleukin-10 production
    Kousuke Saito
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Virol 82:3320-8. 2008
    ..These effects may account for or contribute to the low overall level of immunogenicity of HCV observed in chronically infected patients...
  33. ncbi request reprint Knockdown of MBP-1 in human prostate cancer cells delays cell cycle progression
    Asish K Ghosh
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:23652-7. 2006
    ..2 cells restored cyclin A and cyclin B1 expression. Together, these results suggest that knockdown of MBP-1 in prostate cancer cells perturbs cell proliferation by inhibiting cyclin A and cyclin B1 expression...
  34. pmc Inhibition of intrahepatic gamma interferon production by hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A in transgenic mice
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Pathology, Saint Louis University, 1100 S Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 83:8463-9. 2009
    ..Together, our results suggested that HCV NS5A acts as an immunomodulator by inhibiting IFN-gamma production and may play an important role toward establishment of chronic HCV infection...
  35. ncbi request reprint Inhibitors of mTOR reverse doxorubicin resistance conferred by PTEN status in prostate cancer cells
    Viktor Grünwald
    The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Cancer Res 62:6141-5. 2002
    ..These results provide the rationale to explore in clinical trials whether these agents increase the response to chemotherapy of patients with PTEN-negative/Akt active cancers...

Research Grants18

  1. Innate Immunity and Hepatitis C Virus Infection
    Ratna B Ray; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our study will reveal the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies for treatment of chronic HCV infection. ..
  2. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To investigate the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis To test the biological effect of MBP-1 disruption in KO mice To determine whether adenovirus-mediated MBP-1 gene transfer can regress tumor growth in vivo. ..
  3. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To investigate the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis To test the biological effect of MBP-1 disruption in KO mice To determine whether adenovirus-mediated MBP-1 gene transfer can regress tumor growth in vivo. ..
  4. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..To investigate the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis To test the biological effect of MBP-1 disruption in KO mice To determine whether adenovirus-mediated MBP-1 gene transfer can regress tumor growth in vivo. ..
  5. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the virus mediated pathogenesis. The long term goal of this study is to design effective strategies for the intervention of HCV mediated disease in humans. ..
  6. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..To investigate the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis To test the biological effect of MBP-1 disruption in KO mice To determine whether adenovirus-mediated MBP-1 gene transfer can regress tumor growth in vivo. ..
  7. Innate Immunity and Hepatitis C Virus Infection
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our study will reveal the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies for treatment of chronic HCV infection. ..
  8. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the virus mediated pathogenesis. The long term goal of this study is to design effective strategies for the intervention of HCV mediated disease in humans. ..
  9. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MBP 1
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..To investigate the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis To test the biological effect of MBP-1 disruption in KO mice To determine whether adenovirus-mediated MBP-1 gene transfer can regress tumor growth in vivo. ..
  10. HCV NS5A protein and pathogenesis
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study may also lead to discovery of new therapeutic modalities against persistent HCV infection that affects over 170 million people worldwide. ..
  11. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the virus mediated pathogenesis. The long term goal of this study is to design effective strategies for the intervention of HCV mediated disease in humans. ..
  12. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the virus mediated pathogenesis. The long term goal of this study is to design effective strategies for the intervention of HCV mediated disease in humans. ..
  13. C MYC PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Interaction of MBP-1 with cellular protein(s) Thus, understanding the role and regulation of this cellular gene may provide future therapeutic modalities of gene regulation in malignancy. ..
  14. HEPATITIS C VIRUS NS5A PROTEIN AND PATHOGENESIS
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the virus mediated pathogenesis. The long term goal of this study is to design effective strategies for the intervention of HCV mediated disease in humans. ..
  15. C MYC PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN
    Ratna Ray; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Interaction of MBP-1 with cellular protein(s) Thus, understanding the role and regulation of this cellular gene may provide future therapeutic modalities of gene regulation in malignancy. ..