William Banks

Summary

Affiliation: Saint Louis University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi The blood-brain barrier as a cause of obesity
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 14:1606-14. 2008
  2. pmc Developing drugs that can cross the blood-brain barrier: applications to Alzheimer's disease
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    BMC Neurosci 9:S2. 2008
  3. ncbi Impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier in obesity
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 20:1341-5. 1999
  4. ncbi Passage of amyloid beta protein antibody across the blood-brain barrier in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 23:2223-6. 2002
  5. pmc Nitric oxide isoenzymes regulate lipopolysaccharide-enhanced insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Endocrinology 149:1514-23. 2008
  6. ncbi Leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier: implications for the cause and treatment of obesity
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 7:125-33. 2001
  7. doi The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 29:223-8. 2009
  8. ncbi Is obesity a disease of the blood-brain barrier? Physiological, pathological, and evolutionary considerations
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 9:801-9. 2003
  9. ncbi Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 631056, USA
    Diabetes 53:1253-60. 2004
  10. ncbi Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to HIV-1 Tat
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Exp Neurol 193:218-27. 2005

Detail Information

Publications99

  1. ncbi The blood-brain barrier as a cause of obesity
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 14:1606-14. 2008
    ..The hypertriglyceridemia of obesity invokes this aspect of the starvation response, inducing leptin resistance at the BBB. Thus, the BBB plays important roles in both obesity and starvation...
  2. pmc Developing drugs that can cross the blood-brain barrier: applications to Alzheimer's disease
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    BMC Neurosci 9:S2. 2008
    ..It then examines some examples of the delivery of drugs to the central nervous system that are relevant to Alzheimer's disease, placing emphasis on peptides, antibodies, and antisense oligonucleotides...
  3. ncbi Impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier in obesity
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 20:1341-5. 1999
    ..This suggests a new model for obesity in which a defect in the BBB transport of leptin into the CNS underlies the insensitivity to leptin and leads to obesity...
  4. ncbi Passage of amyloid beta protein antibody across the blood-brain barrier in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 23:2223-6. 2002
    ..This ability to enter and exit the brain even in the presence of increased brain ligand supports the use of antibody in the treatment of Alzheimer's and other diseases of the brain...
  5. pmc Nitric oxide isoenzymes regulate lipopolysaccharide-enhanced insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Endocrinology 149:1514-23. 2008
    ..NO released by endothelial NOS and inducible NOS acts indirectly to stimulate insulin transport, whereas NO released by nNOS acts directly on BECs to inhibit insulin transport...
  6. ncbi Leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier: implications for the cause and treatment of obesity
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 7:125-33. 2001
    ..Strategies to overcome impaired BBB transport are reviewed, including the use of allosteric regulators and the delivery of material by the intrathecal route...
  7. doi The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 29:223-8. 2009
    ..These normal functions of the BBB can be altered by neuroimmune events. As such, the BBB is an important conduit in the communication between the immune system and the CNS...
  8. ncbi Is obesity a disease of the blood-brain barrier? Physiological, pathological, and evolutionary considerations
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 9:801-9. 2003
    ..Evolutionary pressures would not have selected against such impairments if leptin levels were lower than those typically seen in Western society. A model that could explain how leptin transporter resistance can be acquired is presented...
  9. ncbi Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 631056, USA
    Diabetes 53:1253-60. 2004
    ..Decreasing triglycerides may potentiate the anorectic effect of leptin by enhancing leptin transport across the BBB...
  10. ncbi Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to HIV-1 Tat
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Exp Neurol 193:218-27. 2005
    ..In conclusion, we found that Tat crossed the BBB bidirectionally. Such permeability could provide a mechanism by which Tat produced on one side of the BBB could affect neural or immune function on the other side...
  11. ncbi Evidence that the species barrier of human immunodeficiency virus-1 does not extend to uptake by the blood--brain barrier: comparison of mouse and human brain microvessels
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Life Sci 77:2361-8. 2005
    ..These results show that the mouse can be used to study the initial phases of HIV-1 uptake by the BBB...
  12. ncbi Denial versus dualism: the blood-brain barrier as an interface of the gut-brain axis
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center VAMC, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    Endocrinology 147:2609-10. 2006
  13. doi Delivery of galanin-like peptide to the brain: targeting with intranasal delivery and cyclodextrins
    Naoko Nonaka
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, John Cochran Division, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 325:513-9. 2008
    ..These studies show that intranasal administration is an effective route of administration for the delivery of GALP to the brain and that targeting among brain regions may be possible with the use of various cyclodextrins...
  14. ncbi Blood-brain barrier transport of cytokines: a mechanism for neuropathology
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, 915 North Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 11:973-84. 2005
    ..Here we address some of the major principles and concepts relating to cytokine transport and BBB function which have emerged as important to neuroimmunology and neuropathology...
  15. ncbi Effects of a behaviorally active antibody on the brain uptake and clearance of amyloid beta proteins
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 26:287-94. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi Passage of erythropoietic agents across the blood-brain barrier: a comparison of human and murine erythropoietin and the analog darbepoetin alfa
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 505:93-101. 2004
    ..We conclude that erythropoietic agents cross the blood-brain barrier by way of the extracellular pathways in amounts that are likely sufficient to explain their neuroprotective effects...
  17. ncbi Preproenkephalin targeted antisenses cross the blood-brain barrier to reduce brain methionine enkephalin levels and increase voluntary ethanol drinking
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 27:784-96. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results used pharmacokinetic, immunochemical, and behavioral methods to show that PS-ODN antisenses that readily cross the BBB can decrease brain levels of Met-Enk and increase voluntary ethanol drinking...
  18. ncbi Effects of chronic ethanol on brain and serum level of methionine enkephalin
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center at St Louis, Division of Geriatrics, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 24:1935-40. 2003
    ..These results support the hypothesis that exposure to ethanol alters brain Met-Enk in a way consistent with the reinforcement of physical dependence...
  19. ncbi The many lives of leptin
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 25:331-8. 2004
    ....
  20. ncbi Influence of ethanol dependence and methionine enkephalin antisense on serum endomorphin-1 and methionine enkephalin levels
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:792-6. 2004
    ..Levels of methionine enkephalin (MEnk), for example, are affected by ethanol. No study on the effect of ethanol on endomorphin, the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, has yet been conducted...
  21. ncbi Antiaging methods and medicines for the memory
    William A Banks
    Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, MO 63104, USA
    Clin Geriatr Med 20:317-28. 2004
    ..Approaches such as these, and not the commercial antiaging remedies that have no scientific basis, will eventually provide medicine for memory enhancement...
  22. doi Blood-brain barrier as a regulatory interface
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Forum Nutr 63:102-10. 2010
    ..Finally, the implications of these views for drug development targeted at obesity or anorexia is explored. Overall, these views show the BBB is an integral part of the physiology of eating...
  23. ncbi Permeability of the mouse blood-brain barrier to murine interleukin-2: predominance of a saturable efflux system
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 18:434-42. 2004
    ..This is the first description of a saturable CNS-to-blood efflux system for a cytokine. We postulate that this efflux system may protect the brain from circulating IL-2...
  24. ncbi Binding, internalization, and membrane incorporation of human immunodeficiency virus-1 at the blood-brain barrier is differentially regulated
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and St Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Neuroscience 128:143-53. 2004
    ..In conclusion, binding, internalization, and membrane incorporation are separately regulated steps likely determining whether HIV-1 is incorporated into brain endothelial cells, transported across them, or returned to the circulation...
  25. ncbi The effects of high fat diets on the blood-brain barrier transport of leptin: failure or adaptation?
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, USA
    Physiol Behav 88:244-8. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi The blood-brain barrier in neuroAIDS
    Wiliam A Banks
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Curr HIV Res 4:259-66. 2006
    ..Overall, the BBB plays a major role in establishing and maintaining virus within the CNS and neuroAIDS...
  27. pmc Minimal penetration of lipopolysaccharide across the murine blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 24:102-9. 2010
    ..In conclusion, brain uptake of circulating I-LPS is so low that most effects of peripherally administered LPS are likely mediated through LPS receptors located outside the BBB...
  28. doi The blood-brain barrier and immune function and dysfunction
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:26-32. 2010
    ....
  29. pmc Characteristics of compounds that cross the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 915 N, Grand Blvd, St, Louis, MO 63106, USA
    BMC Neurol 9:S3. 2009
    ..We discuss two examples of drug delivery for newly discovered transporters: that for phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and for enzymes...
  30. pmc Transport of prion protein across the blood-brain barrier
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, MO, USA
    Exp Neurol 218:162-7. 2009
    ..These results show that PrP(c) has bidirectional, saturable transport across the BBB and selectively targets some CNS regions. Such transport may play a role in PrP(c) function and prion replication...
  31. pmc Anti-amyloid beta protein antibody passage across the blood-brain barrier in the SAMP8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: an age-related selective uptake with reversal of learning impairment
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Exp Neurol 206:248-56. 2007
    ..In conclusion, an IgM antibody was produced that crosses the BBB to reverse cognitive impairment in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease...
  32. ncbi Delivery of testosterone to the brain by intranasal administration: comparison to intravenous testosterone
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    J Drug Target 17:91-7. 2009
    ..We conclude that the i.n. administration route delivers testosterone systemically and can target the brain, especially the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus...
  33. pmc Effects of triglycerides, obesity, and starvation on ghrelin transport across the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, United States
    Peptides 29:2061-5. 2008
    ..Overall, these results show that serum factors and physiological states influence the rate at which ghrelin is transported across the blood-brain barrier...
  34. pmc The blood-brain barrier: connecting the gut and the brain
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Regul Pept 149:11-4. 2008
    ..By these and other mechanisms, the BBB regulates communications between the CNS and GI tract...
  35. doi Delivery of peptides to the brain: emphasis on therapeutic development
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research, Educational, and Clincal Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA
    Biopolymers 90:589-94. 2008
    ..This provides both a therapeutic opportunity and the potential for disease to arise from BBB dysfunctions. In the last case, the BBB itself is a therapeutic target...
  36. ncbi Insulin resistance syndrome in the elderly: assessment of functional, biochemical, metabolic, and inflammatory status
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Diabetes Care 30:2369-73. 2007
    ..Here, we determined the impact of IRS on functional, biochemical, metabolic, and inflammatory status in a high-risk population: elderly women in nursing homes...
  37. ncbi The CNS as a target for peptides and peptide-based drugs
    William A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 3:707-12. 2006
    ..Finally, intranasal and intrathecal routes may be especially useful for substances that are rapidly degraded in blood or are large and hydrophobic, respectively...
  38. ncbi Aluminum complexing enhances amyloid beta protein penetration of blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Res 1116:215-21. 2006
    ..Brain-to-blood transport was similar for Al-Abeta42 and Abeta42. In conclusion, complexing with aluminum affects some aspects of blood-to-brain permeability so that Al-Abeta42 would have more ready access to brain cells than Abeta42...
  39. ncbi The blood-brain barrier as a regulatory interface in the gut-brain axes
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, MO, United States
    Physiol Behav 89:472-6. 2006
    ..For example, it appears that adiponectin can inhibit release of interleukin-6 from brain endothelial cells. Overall, the BBB represents an important interface in mediating gut-brain axes...
  40. ncbi The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Neurol Clin 24:413-9. 2006
    ..All these normal functions of the BBB can be altered in an adaptive or pathologic manner by neuroimmune events. As such, the BBB is an important conduit in the communication of the immune and the central nervous systems...
  41. pmc Mouse models of neurological disorders: a view from the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1802:881-8. 2010
    ..An increasing number of diseases are so categorized in which BBB dysfunction or dysregulation plays a major role; this review highlights such roles for the BBB including those proposed for Alzheimer's disease and obesity...
  42. ncbi Passage of murine scrapie prion protein across the mouse vascular blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 318:125-30. 2004
    ..PrP(SC) also entered the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment. These results show that a prion protein can cross the intact BBB to enter both the parenchymal and CSF compartments of the brain...
  43. ncbi Differential permeability of the blood-brain barrier to two pancreatic peptides: insulin and amylin
    W A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center New Orleans and Tulane University School of Medicine, LA 70146, USA
    Peptides 19:883-9. 1998
    ....
  44. ncbi Saturable transport of the neurokinin-1 non-peptide antagonist LY303870 across the rat blood-brain barrier after intravenous administration
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, MO 63106, USA
    Life Sci 69:1683-9. 2001
    ..LY reached a brain/serum ratio of 190+/-12 microl/g with about 0.07% of the injected dose entering each gram of brain. These results show that LY is transported across the BBB from serum into brain by a saturable system...
  45. ncbi Obesity-inducing lesions of the central nervous system alter leptin uptake by the blood-brain barrier
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MO, USA
    Life Sci 69:2765-73. 2001
    ..This suggests that some of the feeding hormones controlled by the PVN and PDA may participate in regulating leptin uptake by the BBB...
  46. ncbi The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities
    Marian R Banks
    Nursing Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57:M428-32. 2002
    ..We characterized the resident population in long-term care facilities desiring AAT and determined whether AAT can objectively improve loneliness...
  47. pmc Transport of an antifungal trypsin inhibitor isolated from corn across the blood-brain barrier
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Educational, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2633-5. 2002
    ..We found that it completely crossed the blood-brain barrier by means of a saturable mechanism at a rate of 0.153 microl/g. min, with about 0.082% of the intravenously injected dose being taken up per gram of brain...
  48. ncbi Extent and direction of ghrelin transport across the blood-brain barrier is determined by its unique primary structure
    William A Banks
    The Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:822-7. 2002
    ..The direction and extent of passage are determined by the primary structure of ghrelin, defining a new role for the unique post-translational octanoylation...
  49. ncbi Strategies for the delivery of leptin to the CNS
    William A Banks
    Department of Internal Medicine, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    J Drug Target 10:297-308. 2002
    ..These strategies include the development of longer lasting and more permeable analogs, development of antagonists, enhancing the activity of the leptin transporter, and delivering leptin by intrathecal administration...
  50. ncbi Differential transport of a secretin analog across the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers of the mouse
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, St Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:1062-9. 2002
    ..This passage provides a pathway through which peripherally administered SA could affect the CNS...
  51. ncbi Leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier of the Koletsky rat is not mediated by a product of the leptin receptor gene
    William A Banks
    GRECC Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Res 950:130-6. 2002
    ..We conclude that a leptin transporter and possibly its gene have yet to be identified and that the short form likely plays a role in the modulation of transport activity...
  52. ncbi Serum leptin levels in wild and captive populations of baboons (papio): implications for the ancestral role of leptin
    W A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4315-20. 2001
    ..In comparison, captive baboons had levels about three times higher than wild baboons, with a clear inverse relation between age and leptin levels. These results support the view that leptin evolved to be effective at low levels...
  53. ncbi Regional transport of TNF-alpha across the blood-brain barrier in young ICR and young and aged SAMP8 mice
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 22:671-6. 2001
    ..These results show blood-borne TNF enters some regions of the brain much more readily than others and TNF transport is increased into some brain regions of the SAMP8 mice at an age when learning and memory are impaired...
  54. ncbi Anorectic effects of circulating cytokines: role of the vascular blood-brain barrier
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and the Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Nutrition 17:434-7. 2001
    ..That altered transport across the BBB of other substances related to feeding also might result in obesity or anorexia is a possibility that deserves investigation...
  55. ncbi Diurnal uptake of circulating interleukin-1alpha by brain, spinal cord, testis and muscle
    W A Banks
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70146, USA
    Neuroimmunomodulation 5:36-41. 1998
    ..This diurnal variation in the rate of uptake of cytokines by tissues could underlie differences in potency when given at different times of the day...
  56. ncbi Passage of leptin across the blood-testis barrier
    W A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clincial Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missiouri 63106, USA
    Am J Physiol 276:E1099-104. 1999
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the effects of leptin on reproductive function are not mediated at the level of the testis but indirectly, probably through the CNS...
  57. ncbi Effects of wheatgerm agglutinin and aging on the regional brain uptake of HIV-1GP120
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MO, USA
    Life Sci 65:81-9. 1999
    ....
  58. ncbi Uptake and degradation of blood-borne insulin by the olfactory bulb
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, MO, USA
    Peptides 20:373-8. 1999
    ..This illustrates an adaptive aspect of the BBB in its regulation of the exchange of information molecules between the blood and the CNS...
  59. ncbi Partial saturation and regional variation in the blood-to-brain transport of leptin in normal weight mice
    W A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis 63106, St Louis Missouri 63104, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278:E1158-65. 2000
    ..Differences in regional uptake and saturation provide a mechanism by which leptin can control events mediated at the arcuate nucleus and other regions of the central nervous system with different regional thresholds for optimal function...
  60. ncbi Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to albumin and insulin in the young and aged SAMP8 mouse
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Missouri, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:B601-6. 2000
    ..We conclude that alterations in BBB integrity or the activity of the BBB insulin transporter do not underlie the deficits in learning and memory seen in the aged SAMP8 mouse...
  61. ncbi Enhanced leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier by alpha 1-adrenergic agents
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Brain Res 899:209-17. 2001
    ..These results show that epinephrine likely acts at a site on the luminal surface of the BBB. In conclusion, epinephrine works at an alpha1-like adrenergic, luminal side to enhance the transport of leptin across the BBB...
  62. pmc Transport of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudoviruses across the blood-brain barrier: role of envelope proteins and adsorptive endocytosis
    W A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Virol 75:4681-91. 2001
    ..These results show that free HIV-1 can cross the BBB by an event related to adsorptive endocytosis and mediated by the envelope proteins...
  63. ncbi Intravenous human interleukin-1alpha impairs memory processing in mice: dependence on blood-brain barrier transport into posterior division of the septum
    W A Banks
    Veterans Affair Meical Center, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:536-41. 2001
    ..In conclusion, these results show that exogenous, blood-borne hIL-1alpha affects memory by releasing mIL-1alpha from endogenous stores and by crossing the BBB to act at sites within the PDS...
  64. ncbi Entry of blood-borne cytokines into the central nervous system: effects on cognitive processes
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Neuroimmunomodulation 10:319-27. 2002
    ..Furthermore, this effect at the PDS is largely mediated by circulating IL-1alpha acting directly at the PDS which, in turn, depends on the ability of IL-1alpha to cross the BBB...
  65. ncbi Serum leptin levels as a marker for a syndrome X-like condition in wild baboons
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1234-40. 2003
    ..The differences were not explained by age or social status. These results show that a subgroup of wild baboons is susceptible to developing obesity and insulin resistance and that this susceptibility is not related to age or social rank...
  66. ncbi Impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier in obesity is acquired and reversible
    William A Banks
    Geriatrics Research, Educational, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, 63106, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285:E10-5. 2003
    ..These results show that, in obese CD-1 mice, the impaired transport of leptin across the BBB develops in tandem with obesity and is reversible with even modest weight reduction...
  67. pmc Efflux of human and mouse amyloid beta proteins 1-40 and 1-42 from brain: impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    W A Banks
    Geriatrics Research Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Neuroscience 121:487-92. 2003
    ..These differences in the efflux of the various forms of AbetaP among the three groups of mice supports the hypothesis that impaired efflux is an important factor in the accumulation of AbetaP in the CNS...
  68. ncbi Brain uptake of the glucagon-like peptide-1 antagonist exendin(9-39) after intranasal administration
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:469-75. 2004
    ..These results show that intranasal administration is an effective means of delivering peptide to the brain, especially the olfactory bulb...
  69. ncbi Neuroimmune networks and communication pathways: the importance of location
    William A Banks
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 18:120-2. 2004
  70. ncbi The source of cerebral insulin
    William A Banks
    Research Service 151, GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 490:5-12. 2004
    ..Insulin itself also has effects on the BBB, altering enzymatic and transporter functions. Overall, BBB transport of insulin provides a mechanism for peripheral insulin to act within the CNS as a regulatory peptide...
  71. pmc Testing the neurovascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: LRP-1 antisense reduces blood-brain barrier clearance, increases brain levels of amyloid-beta protein, and impairs cognition
    Laura B Jaeger
    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 17:553-70. 2009
    ..These results support dysfunction of LRP-1 at the BBB as a mechanism by which brain levels of Abeta could increase and AD would be promoted...
  72. ncbi The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center 151 JC, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63109, USA
    J Neurochem 84:1173-83. 2003
    ..These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction and provide evidence for a therapeutic role for antioxidants...
  73. pmc Starvation and triglycerides reverse the obesity-induced impairment of insulin transport at the blood-brain barrier
    Akihiko Urayama
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 915 North Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Endocrinology 149:3592-7. 2008
    ..Thus, circulating triglycerides are one of the systemic modulators for the transport of insulin across the BBB...
  74. ncbi Antibody to beta-amyloid protein increases acetylcholine in the hippocampus of 12 month SAMP8 male mice
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center 151 JC, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63109, USA
    Life Sci 73:555-62. 2003
    ..These results suggest that antagonism of Abeta increases acetylcholine concentrations in the hippocampus, an area important for learning and memory...
  75. pmc Obesity and hypertriglyceridemia produce cognitive impairment
    Susan A Farr
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    Endocrinology 149:2628-36. 2008
    ....
  76. ncbi Transport of antisense across the blood-brain barrier
    Laura B Jaeger
    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, St Louis University, MO, USA
    Methods Mol Med 106:237-51. 2005
  77. pmc Transport across the blood-brain barrier of pluronic leptin
    Tulin O Price
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, John Cochran Division, 915 N Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:253-63. 2010
    ..0005; 0-2 h, p < 0.001]. These studies show that the structure based Pluronic modification of leptin increased metabolic stability, reduced food intake, and allowed BBB penetration by a mechanism-independent BBB leptin transporter...
  78. pmc Nitric oxide activity and isoenzyme expression in the senescence-accelerated mouse p8 model of Alzheimer's disease: effects of anti-amyloid antibody and antisense treatments
    Abbas K Ali
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64:1025-30. 2009
    ..These results suggest a complex relation between Abeta and NOS in the SAMP8 that is largely mediated through posttranslational mechanisms...
  79. ncbi DHEAS improves learning and memory in aged SAMP8 mice but not in diabetic mice
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Life Sci 75:2775-85. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that DHEAS is more effective in reversing the cognitive impairments associated with overexpression of Abeta than with diabetes...
  80. ncbi Pathways linking depression, adiposity, and inflammatory markers in healthy young adults
    Gregory E Miller
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 17:276-85. 2003
    ..99; NNFI =.99; RMSEA =.05). It did not support a sickness behavior model in which the inflammatory molecules arising from expanded adipose tissue promote depressive symptoms...
  81. ncbi Are the extracellular [correction of extracelluar] pathways a conduit for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain?
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 10:1365-70. 2004
    ..These examples suggest that the extracellular pathways are an option for the delivery of certain therapeutics to the brain...
  82. ncbi Effects of leptin on memory processing
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Peptides 27:1420-5. 2006
    ....
  83. pmc Lipopolysaccharide alters the blood-brain barrier transport of amyloid beta protein: a mechanism for inflammation in the progression of Alzheimer's disease
    Laura B Jaeger
    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:507-17. 2009
    ..LPS paradoxically increased expression of neuronal LRP-1, a major source of Abeta. Thus, inflammation potentially increases brain levels of Abeta by three mechanisms: increased influx, decreased efflux, and increased neuronal production...
  84. ncbi Release of cytokines by brain endothelial cells: A polarized response to lipopolysaccharide
    Sulekha Verma
    Geriatrics Research Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 20:449-55. 2006
    ..Overall, these findings support the BBB as an important source of cytokines. Furthermore, the BBB can respond to immune challenges received from one side of the neuroimmune axis by releasing cytokines into the other...
  85. ncbi Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO 63109, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:971-82. 2005
    ..The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal...
  86. ncbi Blood-brain barrier and energy balance
    William A Banks
    GRECC, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, WAB, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:234S-237S. 2006
    ..Additionally, BBB secretions can be modulated by substances that affect feeding, such as adiponectin and lipopolysaccharide...
  87. ncbi Do objective measurements of physical function in ambulatory nursing home women improve assessment of functional status?
    David R Thomas
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Am Med Dir Assoc 8:469-76. 2007
    ..To compare the functional status of ambulatory women in four academic nursing homes using standardized rating scales and physical performance measures used in community settings...
  88. ncbi Opiate modulation of IL-1alpha, IL-2, and TNF-alpha transport across the blood-brain barrier
    Jessica L Lynch
    GRECC, Veterns Affairs Medical Center St Louis and Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, C O Dr William Banks Laboratory, 915 N, Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63106, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 22:1096-102. 2008
    ..Whereas IL-1alpha, IL-2, and TNF-alpha are all proinflammatory cytokines, morphine exposure has individualized effects on their blood-to-brain transport...
  89. doi Increase in presenilin 1 (PS1) levels in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) may indirectly impair memory by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing
    Vijaya B Kumar
    Division of Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO 63125, USA
    J Exp Biol 212:494-8. 2009
    ..An increased amount or mutation(s) in PS1, which alters the stoichiometric balance of the gamma-secretase complex, may be the cause of aberrant or increased processing of APP, resulting in Abeta accumulation leading to loss of memory...
  90. ncbi Alzheimer's disease through the eye of a mouse. Acceptance lecture for the 2001 Gayle A. Olson and Richard D. Olson prize
    John E Morley
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Peptides 23:589-99. 2002
    ..This decreased cholinergic activity results in a decreased ability of the P8 mouse to learn and retain new information...
  91. ncbi Effects of lipopolysaccharide on leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier
    Naoko Nonaka
    Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Brain Res 1016:58-65. 2004
    ..In conclusion, a single dose of LPS has long-lasting effects on the transport of serum leptin across the BBB that are likely mediated through self-inhibition and triglycerides...
  92. ncbi Pharmacological profiles of peptide drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    Celine Adessi
    Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, 1228 Geneva, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 278:13905-11. 2003
    ..Our results suggest that the pharmacological profile of beta-sheet breaker peptides can be improved to produce compounds with drug-like properties that might offer a new promise in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease...
  93. ncbi Antisense directed at the Abeta region of APP decreases brain oxidative markers in aged senescence accelerated mice
    H Fai Poon
    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0055, USA
    Brain Res 1018:86-96. 2004
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Abeta may contribute to the oxidative stress found in aged SAMP8 mice that have learning and memory impairments. These results are discussed in reference to AD...
  94. ncbi Passage of vasoactive intestinal peptide across the blood-brain barrier
    Dilek Dogrukol-Ak
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey
    Peptides 24:437-44. 2003
    ..After intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection, I-VIP was sequestered by brain, slowing its efflux from the CNS. In summary, VIP crosses the BBB unidirectionally from blood to brain by transmembrane diffusion...
  95. ncbi The dam breaks: disruption of the blood-brain barrier in diabetes mellitus
    William A Banks
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H2595-6. 2006
  96. ncbi HIV-1 viral proteins gp120 and Tat induce oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells
    Tulin Otamis Price
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul 81010, Turkey
    Brain Res 1045:57-63. 2005
    ..The ratio of GSH/GSSG, a widely accepted indicator of oxidative stress, was also significantly decreased. These studies show that both of these viral proteins can induce oxidative stress in immortalized BBB endothelial cells...
  97. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection
    Matthew J During
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 86716, New Zealand
    Nat Med 9:1173-9. 2003
    ..Systemic administration of [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) in wild-type animals prevents kainate-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Brain GLP-1R represents a promising new target for both cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective agents...
  98. ncbi Obesity-prone rats have normal blood-brain barrier transport but defective central leptin signaling before obesity onset
    Barry E Levin
    Neurology Service, Veterans Affairs Memorial Center, E Orange, NJ 07018 1095, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286:R143-50. 2004
    ..Defects in leptin transport appear to be an acquired defect associated with the development of obesity and possibly age...
  99. ncbi Characterizaton of short isoforms of the leptin receptor in rat cerebral microvessels and of brain uptake of leptin in mouse models of obesity
    Stanley M Hileman
    Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA
    Endocrinology 143:775-83. 2002
    ..However, the mechanisms by which obesity-related deficits in brain uptake of leptin occur remain to be defined...

Research Grants17

  1. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  2. Prion Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To cause disease, prions must cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain. We will determine how prions cross the BBB. Knowing how prions enter the brain should lead to strategies on how to prevent prion diseases. ..
  3. Oxidative Dysfunction of LRP at the Blood-brain Barrier in Alzheimer's Disease
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  4. Prion Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..To cause disease, prions must cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain. We will determine how prions cross the BBB. Knowing how prions enter the brain should lead to strategies on how to prevent prion diseases. ..
  5. Oxidative Dysfunction of LRP at the Blood-brain Barrier in Alzheimer's Disease
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  6. Prion Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will determine how prions cross the BBB. Knowing how prions enter the brain should lead to strategies on how to prevent prion diseases. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. Prion Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will determine how prions cross the BBB. Knowing how prions enter the brain should lead to strategies on how to prevent prion diseases. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Opiate Addiction and HIV-1 Induced Release of Cytokines
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  9. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  10. PTS1 Regulation of Brain Met Enk Levels in Alcoholism
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  12. PTS1 Regulation of Brain Met Enk Levels in Alcoholism
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  14. PTS1 Regulation of Brain Met Enk Levels in Alcoholism
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Mechanisms of HIV Transport Across the BBB
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  16. PTS1 Regulation of Brain Met Enk Levels in Alcoholism
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Oxidative Dysfunction of LRP at the Blood-brain Barrier in Alzheimer's Disease
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....