Gregory Spear

Summary

Affiliation: Rush University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Mannose-binding lectin binds to Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins, resulting in blocking of virus interaction with DC-SIGN and complement-mediated virus neutralization
    Xin Ji
    Rush St Luke s Medical Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Gen Virol 86:2535-42. 2005
  2. pmc Comparison of the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with or without bacterial vaginosis
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1131-40. 2008
  3. pmc Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:1244-9. 2012
  4. pmc The role of bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas in HIV transmission across the female genital tract
    Paria Mirmonsef
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Curr HIV Res 10:202-10. 2012
  5. pmc Differential inhibition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) by toll-like receptor ligands mediated by interferon-beta in human foreskin fibroblasts and cervical tissue
    Sailesh C Harwani
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University, Chicago, USA
    Virol J 4:133. 2007
  6. pmc Donor variability in HIV binding to peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Joshua J Anzinger
    Section of Experimental Atherosclerosis, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 5N111, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virol J 5:95. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Human antibodies to major histocompatibility complex alloantigens mediate lysis and neutralization of HIV-1 primary isolate virions in the presence of complement
    G T Spear
    Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Department of Immunology Microbiology, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 26:103-10. 2001
  8. pmc Vaginal IL-8 levels are positively associated with Candida albicans and inversely with lactobacilli in HIV-infected women
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 78:76-9. 2008
  9. pmc Positive association between HIV RNA and IL-6 in the genital tract of Rwandan women
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:973-6. 2008
  10. pmc Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:193-200. 2010

Research Grants

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. ncbi request reprint Mannose-binding lectin binds to Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins, resulting in blocking of virus interaction with DC-SIGN and complement-mediated virus neutralization
    Xin Ji
    Rush St Luke s Medical Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Gen Virol 86:2535-42. 2005
    ..These experiments demonstrated that MBL binds to filovirus envelope glycoproteins resulting in important biological effects and suggest that MBL can interact with filoviruses during infection in humans...
  2. pmc Comparison of the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with or without bacterial vaginosis
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1131-40. 2008
    ..Whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a change in the diversity of genital microbiota in women was investigated...
  3. pmc Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:1244-9. 2012
    ..The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection...
  4. pmc The role of bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas in HIV transmission across the female genital tract
    Paria Mirmonsef
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Curr HIV Res 10:202-10. 2012
    ..This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of how these genital conditions lead to an increased risk of HIV infection in women...
  5. pmc Differential inhibition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) by toll-like receptor ligands mediated by interferon-beta in human foreskin fibroblasts and cervical tissue
    Sailesh C Harwani
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University, Chicago, USA
    Virol J 4:133. 2007
    ..Clear differences in the response to different TLR ligands suggests the explant model more closely reflects in vivo responses to genital infections...
  6. pmc Donor variability in HIV binding to peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Joshua J Anzinger
    Section of Experimental Atherosclerosis, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 5N111, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virol J 5:95. 2008
    ..In this study, we examined variability of HIV binding to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from different donors...
  7. ncbi request reprint Human antibodies to major histocompatibility complex alloantigens mediate lysis and neutralization of HIV-1 primary isolate virions in the presence of complement
    G T Spear
    Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Department of Immunology Microbiology, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 26:103-10. 2001
    ..These studies suggest that MHC antibodies mediate potent anti-viral effects on primary isolates of HIV and support the possibility that deliberately alloimmunizing humans might protect against HIV infection...
  8. pmc Vaginal IL-8 levels are positively associated with Candida albicans and inversely with lactobacilli in HIV-infected women
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 78:76-9. 2008
    ..G. vaginalis and M. hominis were not significantly associated with IL-8. This study has shown an association between C. albicans and levels of IL-8 in mucosal genital fluid...
  9. pmc Positive association between HIV RNA and IL-6 in the genital tract of Rwandan women
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:973-6. 2008
    ..This association of IL-6 with HIV RNA levels suggests that IL-6 is an indicator for conditions that induce HIV expression and that IL-6 may contribute to induction of HIV expression in the genital tract...
  10. pmc Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:193-200. 2010
    ..These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis...
  11. ncbi request reprint Relationship of HIV RNA and cytokines in saliva from HIV-infected individuals
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 45:129-36. 2005
    ..This study shows no association between inflammatory cytokine levels and HIV levels in saliva and suggests that saliva HIV levels are more influenced by blood HIV RNA levels than oral inflammation...
  12. pmc Pyrosequencing of the genital microbiotas of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women reveals Lactobacillus iners as the predominant Lactobacillus Species
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:378-81. 2011
    ..Lactobacillus iners sequences were the predominant lactobacillus sequences in 66% of HIV(+) women and 90% of HIV(-) women. This has implications for resistance of HIV(+) and HIV(-) women to genital colonization by pathogenic organisms...
  13. pmc Inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated trans infection of T cells by mannose-binding lectin
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Immunology 110:80-5. 2003
    ..This study shows that MBL prevents DC-SIGN-mediated trans infection of T cells in vitro and suggests that in infected persons, MBL may inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated uptake and spread of HIV...
  14. pmc Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin
    Gregory T Spear
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19560. 2011
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Relationship of U1 cell HIV-stimulatory activity to bacterial vaginosis and HIV genital tract virus load
    M Reza Zariffard
    Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:945-8. 2005
    ..Thus, while these data show a strong association of U1 stimulatory activity with BV, no influence of the U1 activity on genital tract HIV expression was observed...
  16. pmc Cervicovaginal levels of lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and RANTES and the effects of coexisting vaginoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative women with a high risk of heterosexual acquisition of HIV infection
    Richard M Novak
    University of Illinois at Chicago, 808 S Wood St, M C 735, Rm 888, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1102-7. 2007
    ..However, the increased RANTES levels in a higher-risk subset of high-risk women were reduced after BV treatment...
  17. ncbi request reprint Detection of bacterial vaginosis-related organisms by real-time PCR for Lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis
    M Reza Zariffard
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34:277-81. 2002
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Mannose binding lectin (MBL) and HIV
    Xin Ji
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Pkwy, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Mol Immunol 42:145-52. 2005
    ..However, further studies are needed to define the in vivo contribution of MBL to clearance and destruction of HIV, the reasons for low neutralization by MBL and ways that MBL anti-viral effects can be augmented...
  19. ncbi request reprint Interaction of mannose-binding lectin with HIV type 1 is sufficient for virus opsonization but not neutralization
    Hongyu Ying
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:327-35. 2004
    ..However, binding and opsonization of HIV by MBL may alter virus trafficking and viral-antigen presentation during HIV infection...
  20. pmc In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome
    Gregory Spear
    Department Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e52992. 2012
    ..It seems likely that results of published vaginal SIV transmission experiments in RM have been influenced by pre-existing inflammation in the animals used for the experiments...
  21. pmc Effect of mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis on HIV trans-infection mediated by dendritic cells
    Elizabeth P St John
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Virology 385:22-7. 2009
    ..However, indirect effects of DC maturation on HIV transmission cannot be ruled out...
  22. ncbi request reprint Female genital-tract HIV load correlates inversely with Lactobacillus species but positively with bacterial vaginosis and Mycoplasma hominis
    Beverly E Sha
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Rush University Medical Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:25-32. 2005
    ..Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. We examined the association between BV and BV-associated bacteria and expression of HIV in the female genital tract...
  23. pmc Utility of Amsel criteria, Nugent score, and quantitative PCR for Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Lactobacillus spp. for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women
    Beverly E Sha
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4607-12. 2005
    ..In this cohort, Amsel criteria were poorly predictive of BV. PCR quantification of G. vaginalis and M. hominis from CVL is significantly more sensitive than Amsel criteria for diagnosing BV...
  24. ncbi request reprint Glycosylation inhibitors and neuraminidase enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding and neutralization by mannose-binding lectin
    Melanie L Hart
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, 1563 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Gen Virol 84:353-60. 2003
    ..This study shows that specific alterations of the N-linked carbohydrates on HIV gp120/gp41 can enhance MBL-mediated neutralization of virus by strengthening the interaction of HIV-1 with MBL...
  25. ncbi request reprint Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) glycans with lectins of the human immune system
    Xin Ji
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Pkwy, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Curr Protein Pept Sci 7:317-24. 2006
    ..The effect of variation in glycosylation of gp120, especially with respect to clades of HIV, on binding of immune system lectins is highlighted...
  26. pmc Human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 co-infection in human cervical tissue
    Andrea M Fox-Canale
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West, Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Virology 369:55-68. 2007
    ..The cervical explants provide an ex vivo human model for examining mechanisms of virus-virus interaction and pathogenesis in clinically relevant tissue...
  27. ncbi request reprint High mannose glycans and sialic acid on gp120 regulate binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) to HIV type 1
    Melanie L Hart
    Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Department of Immunology Microbiology, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1311-7. 2002
    ..These studies provide evidence that MBL binds to HIV via high mannose carbohydrates on gp120 and shows that the interaction of MBL with virus is regulated by sialylation...
  28. ncbi request reprint Trichomonas vaginalis infection activates cells through toll-like receptor 4
    M Reza Zariffard
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Clin Immunol 111:103-7. 2004
    ..These studies show that T. vaginalis infection results in the appearance in the genital tract of substance(s) that stimulate cells through TLR4, suggesting a mechanism for the inflammation caused by this infection...
  29. pmc HSV type 2 infection increases HIV DNA detection in vaginal tissue of mice expressing human CD4 and CCR5
    M Reza Zariffard
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:1157-64. 2009
    ..These findings demonstrate that this model can be used to study the mechanisms responsible for increased susceptibility to HIV in HSV-2-infected persons and for testing preventative treatments...
  30. pmc TLR2-mediated cell stimulation in bacterial vaginosis
    Debra Mares
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 77:91-9. 2008
    ..Thus, these studies show that soluble factor(s) present in the lower genital tract of women with BV activate cells via TLR2, identifying a pathway through which BV may mediate adverse effects...
  31. pmc Activation by inflammatory stimuli increases neutrophil binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and subsequent infection of lymphocytes
    Ali M Gabali
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Pkwy, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Virol 78:10833-6. 2004
    ..It is proposed that these events may contribute to the increased risk of HIV-1 transmission at sites of mucosal infection...
  32. ncbi request reprint Induction of tumor necrosis factor- alpha secretion and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression by genital mucosal fluids from women with bacterial vaginosis
    M Reza Zariffard
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1913-21. 2005
    ..Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with complications of pregnancy and increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual transmission...
  33. pmc Dendritic cell activation and maturation induced by mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis
    Elizabeth P St John
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Cohn Bldg Rm 636a, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Clin Immunol 125:95-102. 2007
    ..Healthy flora CVL had little effect in any of the tests. This study suggests that BV, but not healthy flora, affects local dendritic cell function in vivo suggesting a mechanism through which BV affects mucosal immunity...
  34. ncbi request reprint Bacterial vaginosis and host immunity
    Elizabeth St John
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 4:22-8. 2007
    ..Further research is needed to identify the relative contributions of immune pathways and bacterial flora toward the pathogenic alterations that occur in BV...
  35. pmc A novel plasmid for delivering genes into mammalian cells with noninvasive food and commensal lactic acid bacteria
    Lin Tao
    Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Plasmid 65:8-14. 2011
    ..In conclusion, we have developed a noninvasive system using LAB as a vehicle for vaccine delivery or gene therapy, and tested this system in vitro with Caco-2 cells...
  36. ncbi request reprint HIV infection of mononuclear cells is calcium-dependent
    Joshua J Anzinger
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 W Harrison St, Cohn Building, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Virus Res 122:183-8. 2006
    ..These data indicate that a Ca(2+)-dependent cell-surface protein(s) is responsible for the majority of HIV attachment to and infection of PBMC. Further studies of this are likely to reveal novel strategies to prevent infection of PBMC...
  37. ncbi request reprint Cellular factors influence the binding of HIV type 1 to cells
    Gene G Olinger
    Department of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:259-67. 2002
    ..These experiments show that both the virus-producing cell and the target cell have a major influence on HIV binding and suggest that host cell factors incorporated into virions are important for virus binding...
  38. pmc HIV-inducing factor in cervicovaginal secretions is associated with bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-infected women
    Jonathan A Cohn
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:340-6. 2005
    ..This activity, HIV-inducing factor (HIF), changes when CVL fluid is heated. We sought to confirm a previous observation that HIF was associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV)...
  39. pmc Induction of mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by oral immunization with bovine Papillomavirus-HIV-1 gp41 chimeric virus-like particles
    Hongtao Zhang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    J Virol 78:8342-8. 2004
    ..Importantly, the sera and fecal extracts from mice orally immunized with the CVLPs neutralized HIV-1(MN) in vitro. Thus, BPV-HIV-1 gp41 CVLPs may be used to prevent and to treat HIV-1 infection...

Research Grants6

  1. ANTI-HIV-1 ACTIVITY OF MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN
    Gregory Spear; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..3. Utilize inhibitors of glycosylation to enhance biological effects of MBL. Exarnine the interaction of MBL with anti-viral antibodies in mediating anti-viral effects. Deterrnine the interaction of HIV-1 with MBL in vivo. ..
  2. Murine Model of Sexually Transmitted Disease-enhanced HIV Transmission
    Gregory Spear; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This revised application includes new data that shows infection of Tg mice by HIV can be detected both in vitro and in vivo thus indicating the feasibility of the proposed experiments. ..