J Trussell

Summary

Affiliation: Princeton University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The social life of emergency contraception in the United States: disciplining pharmaceutical use, disciplining sexuality, and constructing zygotic bodies
    L L Wynn
    Office of Population Research Princeton University, USA
    Med Anthropol Q 20:297-320. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Preventing unintended pregnancy: let us count the ways
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Lancet 368:1747-8. 2006
  3. pmc Contraceptive failure in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Contraception 83:397-404. 2011
  4. pmc Understanding contraceptive failure
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, 202 Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 23:199-209. 2009
  5. doi request reprint Reduction in infection-related mortality since modifications in the regimen of medical abortion
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA The Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU6 1RX, England Electronic address
    Contraception 89:193-6. 2014
  6. pmc How effective are the components of active management of the third stage of labor?
    Wendy R Sheldon
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13:46. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint The cost of unintended pregnancy in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 75:168-70. 2007
  8. pmc Cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Contraception 79:5-14. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Cost savings from use of emergency contraceptive pills in Australia
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 45:308-11. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Talking straight about emergency contraception
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NY 08544, USA
    J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 33:139-42. 2007

Research Grants

  1. ESTIMATING EFFICACY OF A MEDICAL INTERVENTION
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2001
  2. Demography Training at Princeton
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Infrastructure for Population Research at Princeton
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. ncbi request reprint The social life of emergency contraception in the United States: disciplining pharmaceutical use, disciplining sexuality, and constructing zygotic bodies
    L L Wynn
    Office of Population Research Princeton University, USA
    Med Anthropol Q 20:297-320. 2006
    ..The discourse on access to Plan B in the United States demonstrates how women's bodies are sites of control where the politics of sexuality, discourses on public health, and medical constructions of biological processes intersect...
  2. ncbi request reprint Preventing unintended pregnancy: let us count the ways
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Lancet 368:1747-8. 2006
  3. pmc Contraceptive failure in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Contraception 83:397-404. 2011
    ..These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use...
  4. pmc Understanding contraceptive failure
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, 202 Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 23:199-209. 2009
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Reduction in infection-related mortality since modifications in the regimen of medical abortion
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA The Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU6 1RX, England Electronic address
    Contraception 89:193-6. 2014
    ....
  6. pmc How effective are the components of active management of the third stage of labor?
    Wendy R Sheldon
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13:46. 2013
    ..This analysis assessed the independent and combined effectiveness of all three interventions, and the effect of route of oxytocin administration on post-partum blood loss...
  7. ncbi request reprint The cost of unintended pregnancy in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 75:168-70. 2007
    ..Despite the many contraceptive options available in the United States, nearly half (49%) of the 6.4 million pregnancies each year are unintended; these represent a significant cost to the health care system...
  8. pmc Cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Contraception 79:5-14. 2009
    ..The study was conducted to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States from a payer's perspective...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cost savings from use of emergency contraceptive pills in Australia
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 45:308-11. 2005
    ..Emergency contraception, which prevents pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, has the potential to reduce significantly the incidence of unintended pregnancy and the consequent need for abortion and to reduce medical care costs...
  10. ncbi request reprint Talking straight about emergency contraception
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NY 08544, USA
    J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 33:139-42. 2007
  11. ncbi request reprint The role of emergency contraception
    James Trussell
    Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:S30-8. 2004
    ..Finally, ECPs are associated with financial and psychologic advantages that benefit both the individual patient and society at large...
  12. ncbi request reprint Monitoring teenage pregnancy in Hull: bespoke local data trump ONS statistics
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 34:75-7. 2008
  13. ncbi request reprint Cost savings from emergency contraceptive pills in Canada
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 97:789-93. 2001
    ..To estimate cost savings from emergency contraceptive pills in Canada...
  14. ncbi request reprint Estimating the effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pills
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 67:259-65. 2003
    ..We use this new approach to examine the absolute effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of ECPs and whether ECPs are more effective the sooner after unprotected intercourse they are initiated...
  15. ncbi request reprint Sterilization failure, sterilization reversal, and pregnancy after sterilization reversal in Quebec
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 101:677-84. 2003
    ..to examine the likelihood of pregnancy after sterilization (contraceptive failure) and of pregnancy after sterilization reversal...
  16. ncbi request reprint New estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 57:363-9. 1998
    ..6% to 82.4%. True effectiveness is likely to be at least 75% because treatment failures (observed pregnancies) include women who were already pregnant when treated and women who became pregnant after being treated...
  17. ncbi request reprint Updated estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 59:147-51. 1999
    ..9% to 79.2%. True effectiveness is likely to be > 74% because treatment failures (observed pregnancies) include women who were already pregnant when treated and women who became pregnant after being treated...
  18. ncbi request reprint Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA
    Contraception 60:119-35. 1999
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Access to emergency contraception
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 95:267-70. 2000
    ..com)...
  20. ncbi request reprint Statistical evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 93:872-6. 1999
    ..To determine whether published statistical evidence about the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception provides insight about its mechanism of action...
  21. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of a media campaign to increase knowledge about emergency contraception
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 63:81-7. 2001
    ..A public education media campaign resulted in significant increases in knowledge about emergency contraception. The first contraception advertisement ever shown on television did not provoke controversy...
  22. ncbi request reprint Bleeding after use of the levonorgestrel regimen of emergency contraception: concordance between women's reports of their menstrual periods and an objective algorithm
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 75:32-6. 2007
    ..5 mg levonorgestrel...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception by cycle day of intercourse: implications for mechanism of action
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 67:167-71. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to provide evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception by examining effectiveness by cycle day of intercourse relative to ovulation...
  24. ncbi request reprint Contraceptive failure in the United States
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Wallace Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 70:89-96. 2004
    ..These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use...
  25. pmc The effect of access to emergency contraceptive pills on women's use of highly effective contraceptives: results from a French national cohort study
    Caroline Moreau
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Am J Public Health 99:441-2. 2009
    ..Only 8.4% switched from highly effective to less effective methods...
  26. ncbi request reprint Accounting for time: insights from a life-table analysis of the efficacy of medical abortion
    Allison Hedley
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:1928-33. 2004
    ..By using life tables, we incorporate the important element of time to produce unbiased efficacy rates as well as afford insight into the medical abortion process...
  27. ncbi request reprint The impact of pharmacy access to emergency contraceptive pills in France
    Caroline Moreau
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 73:602-8. 2006
    ..The objective of this study is to determine the impact of pharmacy access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) on ECP use, risky sexual behavior and contraceptive use patterns in France...
  28. ncbi request reprint The determinants and circumstances of use of emergency contraceptive pills in France in the context of direct pharmacy access
    Caroline Moreau
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Contraception 74:476-82. 2006
    ..In France, the 1999 introduction of a dedicated emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) available without a prescription has resulted in a 72% increase in its use over the past 5 years, especially among younger women...
  29. ncbi request reprint Contraceptive discontinuation attributed to method dissatisfaction in the United States
    Caroline Moreau
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 76:267-72. 2007
    ..This study examines contraceptive discontinuation due to method dissatisfaction among women in the United States...
  30. doi request reprint Ectopic pregnancy and emergency contraceptive pills: a systematic review
    Kelly Cleland
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 115:1263-6. 2010
    ..To evaluate the existing data to estimate the rate of ectopic pregnancy among emergency contraceptive pill treatment failures...
  31. ncbi request reprint Will microbicide trials yield unbiased estimates of microbicide efficacy?
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 72:408-13. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effect of adherence and condom use on apparent efficacy of microbicides...
  32. doi request reprint Pleasure, prophylaxis and procreation: a qualitative analysis of intermittent contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy
    Jenny A Higgins
    Office of Population Research and the Center for Health and Wellbeing, Princeton University, USA
    Perspect Sex Reprod Health 40:130-7. 2008
    ..Although pregnancy ambivalence is consistently associated with poorer contraceptive use, little is known about the sexual, social and emotional dynamics at work in pregnancy ambivalence...
  33. ncbi request reprint Oral contraceptive tolerance: does the type of pill matter?
    Caroline Moreau
    CInstitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unit 822, Department of Epidemiology, University Paris Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France
    Obstet Gynecol 109:1277-85. 2007
    ..To examine the frequencies of reported symptoms by oral contraceptive pill (OCP) composition among French women...
  34. ncbi request reprint Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills
    L L Wynn
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 108:1272-6. 2006
    ..However, advance prescription does not help women who lack access to health care or women who make sexual and contraceptive decisions without consulting physicians...
  35. ncbi request reprint Women seeking emergency contraceptive pills by using the internet
    Justine Wu
    Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 110:44-52. 2007
    ..To assess barriers and attitudes related to emergency contraception access among women seeking emergency contraceptive pills by using the Internet...
  36. ncbi request reprint Contraceptive failure rates in France: results from a population-based survey
    C Moreau
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Hum Reprod 22:2422-7. 2007
    ..In the USA, 49% of pregnancies are unintended, half of which result from contraceptive failure. This study provides estimates of method-specific failure rates among French women...
  37. ncbi request reprint Condom slippage and breakage rates
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University
    Fam Plann Perspect 24:20-3. 1992
    ..Of the remaining condoms, 7.2% slipped off during withdrawal; slippage was not related to condom brand or past use of condoms, but it was significantly higher when additional lubricant was used...
  38. ncbi request reprint Condom performance during vaginal intercourse: comparison of Trojan-Enz and Tactylon condoms
    J Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, NJ 08544
    Contraception 45:11-9. 1992
    ..The reason for the difference is attributed to much more precise questioning of subjects in the current trial...
  39. ncbi request reprint The morning after on the internet: usage of and questions to the emergency contraception website
    Lisa Wynn
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 72:5-13. 2005
    ..The objective of this study is to understand the concerns of users of a medical information website on emergency contraception (EC)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Differences in efficacy, differences in providers: results from a hazard analysis of medical abortion
    Allison Hedley
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 69:157-63. 2004
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Much ado about little: obesity, combined hormonal contraceptive use and venous thrombosis
    James Trussell
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Contraception 77:143-6. 2008
  42. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of postcoital contraception
    Elizabeth Raymond
    Fertil Steril 81:1724-5; author reply 1725. 2004
  43. pmc Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth
    Kathryn Kost
    Guttmacher Institute, New York, NY 10038, USA
    Contraception 77:10-21. 2008
    ..We provide updated estimates of contraceptive failure for the most commonly used reversible methods in the United States, as well as an assessment of changes in failure rates from 1995 to 2002...
  44. ncbi request reprint Harm reduction or women's rights? Debating access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States
    L L Wynn
    Department of Anthropology, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
    Stud Fam Plann 38:253-67. 2007
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Determinants of demand: method selection and provider preference among US women seeking abortion services
    Tara Shochet
    Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Contraception 77:397-404. 2008
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Extending the time limit for starting the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception to 120 hours
    Charlotte Ellertson
    Ibis Reproductive Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 101:1168-71. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether the window for emergency hormonal contraception can be extended to 120 hours...
  47. ncbi request reprint Modifying the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception: a multicenter randomized controlled trial
    Charlotte Ellertson
    Ibis Reproductive Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 101:1160-7. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether 1). women could use combined oral contraceptives other than those containing levonorgestrel and 2). eliminating the second dose improves comfort and convenience...
  48. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of treatments for dysfunctional uterine bleeding in women who need contraception
    Paul D Blumenthal
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Contraception 74:249-58. 2006
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of action of emergency contraceptive pills
    James Trussell
    Contraception 74:87-9. 2006
  50. ncbi request reprint Bleeding patterns after use of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills
    Elizabeth G Raymond
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 73:376-81. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to describe bleeding after use of an emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) regimen consisting of 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel in a single dose...
  51. ncbi request reprint Plan B and the politics of doubt
    Frank Davidoff
    Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, Mass, USA
    JAMA 296:1775-8. 2006
  52. ncbi request reprint Re: Advance supply of emergency contraception
    James Trussell
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 19:251. 2006
  53. doi request reprint Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth
    James Trussell
    Contraception 78:85. 2008
  54. ncbi request reprint Population effect of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills: a systematic review
    Elizabeth G Raymond
    Clinical Research Division, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:181-8. 2007
    ..We systematically reviewed data on effects of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills on pregnancy rates and use of the pills...
  55. ncbi request reprint A comparison of contraceptive procurement pre- and post-benefit change
    Debbie Postlethwaite
    Kaiser Permanente, Northern California, Women s Health Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Contraception 76:360-5. 2007
    ....
  56. pmc Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention
    Elizabeth Raymond
    Bull World Health Organ 83:239; author reply 239. 2005
  57. ncbi request reprint Errors in the gross cumulative discontinuation rates for the GyneFix 200 intrauterine system
    James Trussell
    Contraception 71:315; author reply 315-6. 2005
  58. ncbi request reprint Economic analysis of contraceptives for women
    Chiun Fang Chiou
    Department of Health Services Research, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Contraception 68:3-10. 2003
    ..To examine from the health care services payer perspective the economic consequences of contraceptives available to women in the United States...
  59. ncbi request reprint Understanding risk: a randomized controlled trial of communicating contraceptive effectiveness
    Markus J Steiner
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 102:709-17. 2003
    ..To determine which of three different approaches increased women's understanding of risk of pregnancy associated with different contraceptive methods...
  60. ncbi request reprint Ectopic pregnancy following use of progestin-only ECPs
    James Trussell
    J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 29:249. 2003
  61. ncbi request reprint Minimum effectiveness of the levonorgestrel regimen of emergency contraception
    Elizabeth Raymond
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 69:79-81. 2004
    ..Because physiologic data suggests that the Yuzpe regimen does, in fact, have some efficacy, the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel regimen is likely to be higher than our minimum estimate...
  62. ncbi request reprint Communicating contraceptive effectiveness: an updated counseling chart
    Markus J Steiner
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 197:118. 2007
  63. ncbi request reprint Reproductive health, the Arab world and the internet: usage patterns of an Arabic-language emergency contraception web site
    Angel M Foster
    Ibis Reproductive Health, 2 Brattle Square Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Contraception 72:130-7. 2005
    ..Arabic web site users demonstrate significant interest in general reproductive health issues not specific to EC, suggesting a need for greater availability of Arabic-language health education resources through the Internet...
  64. ncbi request reprint Reproductive health risks in perspective
    James Trussell
    Contraception 73:437-9. 2006
  65. ncbi request reprint Canadian Consensus Guideline on Continuous and Extended Hormonal Contraception, 2007
    Edith Guilbert
    Quebec QC
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29:S1-32. 2007
    ..To serve as a guideline for health care providers on the use of continuous and extended combined hormonal contraception regimens, to prevent pregnancy, and to delay menses that affect health-related quality of life...
  66. ncbi request reprint Combined hormonal contraceptive trials: variable data collection and bleeding assessment methodologies influence study outcomes and physician perception
    Daniel R Mishell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Contraception 75:4-10. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Recommendations for standardization of data collection and analysis of bleeding in combined hormone contraceptive trials
    Daniel R Mishell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Contraception 75:11-5. 2007
    ..This manuscript provides recommendations regarding best practices in trial design, data collection and analysis regarding bleeding data in combined hormone contraception trials...
  68. ncbi request reprint Communicating contraceptive effectiveness: A randomized controlled trial to inform a World Health Organization family planning handbook
    Markus J Steiner
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:85-91. 2006
    ..The objective of the study was to compare 3 different approaches for increasing clients' understanding of contraceptive effectiveness...
  69. ncbi request reprint Reducing unintended pregnancy in the United States
    James Trussell
    Contraception 77:1-5. 2008
  70. ncbi request reprint The risk of pregnancy after vasectomy
    Denise J Jamieson
    Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 103:848-50. 2004
    ..To describe the pregnancy rates among women whose husbands underwent vasectomy...

Research Grants7

  1. ESTIMATING EFFICACY OF A MEDICAL INTERVENTION
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  2. Demography Training at Princeton
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. Infrastructure for Population Research at Princeton
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The journal Future of Children will promote effective policies and programs for children by providing policymakers, service providers, and the media with information based on the best available research. ..