Gerald V Naccarelli

Summary

Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint A review of clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of newer antiarrhythmic drugs in atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 9:215-22. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: prognostic significance and management
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Penn State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:S281-6. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: expanding indications
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 19:317-22. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Does it make sense to train plumbers as electricians?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 44:1358-60. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint New antiarrhythmic treatment of atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State University Heart and Vascular Institute, The Electrophysiology Program, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Dr, Room H 1 511, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 5:707-14. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Carvedilol's antiarrhythmic properties: therapeutic implications in patients with left ventricular dysfunction
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Clin Cardiol 28:165-73. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Antiadrenergic therapy in the control of atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University, College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 10:S33-43. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Does carvedilol have antiarrhythmic properties?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2:338-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Post myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, and the expanding role of cardiac implantable electrical devices
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Clin Cardiol 28:I51-7. 2005
  10. pmc Angiotensin II receptor blockers in the prevention of complications from atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 3907, USA
    Vasc Health Risk Manag 5:783-91. 2009

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint A review of clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of newer antiarrhythmic drugs in atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 9:215-22. 2003
    ..Newer antiarrhythmic agents, some with novel mechanisms of action, will add to the pharmacologic armamentarium in treating atrial fibrillation...
  2. ncbi request reprint Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: prognostic significance and management
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Penn State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:S281-6. 2003
    ..The article presents an overview of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure and reviews the prevalence, prognostic significance, and efficacy of various antiarrhythmic agents for the conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm...
  3. ncbi request reprint Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: expanding indications
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 19:317-22. 2004
    ..This article reviews multiple secondary and primary prevention trials that have expanded the indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs)...
  4. ncbi request reprint Does it make sense to train plumbers as electricians?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 44:1358-60. 2004
    ..In this paper, a pathway is presented that would combine training in HF/transplantation and cardiac implantable electrical devices...
  5. ncbi request reprint New antiarrhythmic treatment of atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State University Heart and Vascular Institute, The Electrophysiology Program, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Dr, Room H 1 511, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 5:707-14. 2007
    ..Future studies will clarify the role of these drugs in treating AF...
  6. ncbi request reprint Carvedilol's antiarrhythmic properties: therapeutic implications in patients with left ventricular dysfunction
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Clin Cardiol 28:165-73. 2005
    ..Recent trials of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators added to pharmacologic therapy, especially beta blockers, have shown a further reduction in arrhythmic deaths in these patients...
  7. ncbi request reprint Antiadrenergic therapy in the control of atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University, College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 10:S33-43. 2005
    ..Carvedilol is effective, alone or in combination, with digoxin in such heart failure patients with AF, and has been shown to reduce mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure during prolonged therapy...
  8. ncbi request reprint Does carvedilol have antiarrhythmic properties?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2:338-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Post myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, and the expanding role of cardiac implantable electrical devices
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Clin Cardiol 28:I51-7. 2005
    ..Implanted devices must be followed up appropriately, with periodic interrogation and program adjustment to reduce the risk for pacing-induced desynchronization and to optimize hemodynamic benefit...
  10. pmc Angiotensin II receptor blockers in the prevention of complications from atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 3907, USA
    Vasc Health Risk Manag 5:783-91. 2009
    ..Large-scale hypertension trials and heart failure trials have indicated the potential value of angiotensin II receptor blockers in the treatment of AF...
  11. doi request reprint Atrial fibrillation and the expanding role of catheter ablation: do antiarrhythmic drugs have a future?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State University Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 52:203-9. 2008
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Vernakalant: pharmacology electrophysiology, safety and efficacy
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Drugs Today (Barc) 44:325-9. 2008
    ..In addition, preliminary data suggest that it could also suppress recurrences when used orally. This paper reviews the pharmacology, electrophysiology, efficacy and safety of intravenous and oral vernakalant...
  13. ncbi request reprint Advances in the treatment of atrial fibrillation: the future is now
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 10:77-8. 2004
  14. ncbi request reprint Vernakalant--a promising therapy for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 500 University Dr Room H 1 511, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 17:805-10. 2008
    ..In addition, this drug has important rate-dependent sodium channel blocking properties...
  15. ncbi request reprint Maintaining stability of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation: antiarrhythmic drugs versus ablation
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Hershey Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Curr Cardiol Rep 4:418-25. 2002
    ..Hybrid therapy using drugs in combination with nonpharmacologic approaches will be used more frequently in the future for refractory patients...
  16. ncbi request reprint Old and new antiarrhythmic drugs for converting and maintaining sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation: comparative efficacy and results of trials
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology and the Penn State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Am J Cardiol 91:15D-26D. 2003
    ..In post-myocardial infarction patients, sotalol is an additional agent to consider for treatment of AF in this setting...
  17. doi request reprint Intracardiac echocardiography in complex cardiac catheter ablation procedures
    Javier E Banchs
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, H047, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 28:167-84. 2010
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Dofetilide reduces the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies
    Giselle A Baquero
    Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 23:296-301. 2012
    ..Dofetilide has only been approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The role of dofetilide in the control of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with an ICD has not been established...
  19. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of dofetilide in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
    Javier E Banchs
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University, 500 University Drive, P O Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033 0850, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 23:111-5. 2008
    ..It is not known, however, whether pharmacological conversion with dofetilide predicts maintenance of sinus rhythm. In addition, there is limited information comparing the efficacy of dofetilide in persistent versus paroxysmal AF/AFL...
  20. ncbi request reprint Selection of drugs in pursuit of rate control strategy
    Soraya M Samii
    Division of Cardiology, Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 48:146-52. 2005
    ..Adequate rate control can be achieved by atrioventricular nodal blocking agents both in the acute and chronic settings. In refractory patients, other methods such as atrioventricular node ablation can be used to control rate...
  21. doi request reprint A review of the appropriate and inappropriate use of dronedarone: lessons learned from controlled studies and regulatory submission
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 15:24S-30S. 2010
    ..Dronedarone is a novel, multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic agent that may have some pleiotropic effects in addition to its ability to suppress and maintain sinus rhythm and control the rate during AF/AFL recurrences...
  22. ncbi request reprint Atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure
    B John Hynes
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 18:32-8. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Complications of biventricular pacing
    Luna Bhatta
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State Cardiovascular Center, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 19:31-5. 2004
    ..This review summarizes the data derived from major clinical trials about the complications related to implantation, hardware, and programming of biventricular devices...
  24. doi request reprint Rates and implications for hospitalization of patients ≥65 years of age with atrial fibrillation/flutter
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Cardiol 109:543-9. 2012
    ..Measures that lower inpatient admission rates, particularly readmission rates, may reduce the increasing cost of treating patients with AF or AFL with Medicare supplemental insurance...
  25. doi request reprint Cost burden of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality in ATHENA-like patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter in the United States
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Clin Cardiol 33:270-9. 2010
    ..001) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL)...
  26. doi request reprint CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to predict first cardiovascular hospitalization among atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter patients
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Cardiol 109:1526-33. 2012
    ..In conclusion, CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were predictive of first CV hospitalization in patients with AF or AFL and may be helpful in identifying "at-risk" patients and guiding therapy...
  27. doi request reprint Post-ATHENA and beyond
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 31:55-60. 2011
    ..These results raise the hypothesis that many of the benefits noted from this trial may be secondary to more than the antiarrhythmic properties of dronedarone. Future studies will clarify the mechanisms of this beneficial effect...
  28. ncbi request reprint Paroxysmal atrioventricular block following a ventricular premature beat
    Javier E Banchs
    Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 18:230. 2007
  29. ncbi request reprint Role of intracardiac ultrasound in interventional electrophysiology
    B John Hynes
    Division of Cardiology and Pennsylvania State Cardiovascular Center, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 19:52-7. 2004
    ..This paper reviews the rapid development and utilization of ICE in interventional electrophysiology...
  30. doi request reprint Optimizing the management of atrial fibrillation: focus on current guidelines and the impact of new agents on future recommendations
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 15:244-56. 2010
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Distal balloon occlusion allows epicardial lead placement in a tortuous branch of the great cardiac vein
    Parag Patel
    Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 25:159-61. 2009
    ..This approach can be used in navigating lead placement to branches thought to be unreachable. Techniques such as this can decrease the failure rate of CRT implants...
  32. pmc Safety and efficacy of dronedarone in the treatment of atrial fibrillation/flutter
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Penn State Hershey Heart and Vascular Institute, Cardiac Electrophysiology Program, Hershey, PA, USA
    Clin Med Insights Cardiol 5:103-19. 2011
    ..In addition, the recent results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF...
  33. doi request reprint Device therapies in the post-myocardial infarction patient with left ventricular dysfunction
    Alan H Kadish
    Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Am J Cardiol 102:29G-37G. 2008
    ..Further risk stratification studies of post-MI LVD patients will allow ICD therapy to be applied in a more cost-effective manner...
  34. ncbi request reprint The Brugada syndrome
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 17:19-23. 2002
    ..Because of the poor prognosis of such patients, symptomatic patients should be treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator...
  35. ncbi request reprint Biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: a boost toward finer living
    Jerry C Luck
    Pennsylvania State University, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Opin Cardiol 17:96-101. 2002
    ..The acute hemodynamic studies suggest that resynchronization pacing therapy may predict a positive long-term benefit for many patients with congestive heart failure...
  36. ncbi request reprint Entrainment of ventricular tachycardia with a permanent biventricular pacemaker
    Jerry C Luck
    Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University 17003, USA
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 7:105-11. 2002
    ..The entrance and exit points of the loop for VT appeared to rest between the two pacing sites in the intraventricular septum. This case illustrates one of the sensing limitations of today's biventricular pacing defibrillator systems...
  37. doi request reprint Increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and flutter in the United States
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    Pennsylvania State Heart and Vascular Institute, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Cardiol 104:1534-9. 2009
    ..The current and projected increases in the prevalence of AF are greater than predicted by a previous sentinel study and might reflect more than the aging of the population...
  38. ncbi request reprint Left ventricular aneurysm as a consequence of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
    Patrick H McNulty
    Cardiovascular Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 55:385-8. 2002
  39. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of angiotensin II signaling and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in AFFIRM
    Katherine T Murray
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    Heart Rhythm 1:669-75. 2004
    ..We investigated whether inhibition of endogenous angiotensin II signaling reduces the recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients enrolled in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study...
  40. ncbi request reprint ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 guideline update for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to
    Gabriel Gregoratos
    Circulation 106:2145-61. 2002
  41. ncbi request reprint NASPE training requirements for cardiac implantable electronic devices: selection, implantation, and follow-up
    David L Hayes
    North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Natick, Massachusetts 01760 2499, USA
    Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 26:1556-62. 2003
  42. ncbi request reprint Do ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II antagonists reduce total mortality and arrhythmic mortality? A critical review of controlled clinical trials
    Franco Naccarella
    Cardiology Department, Day Hospital Tiarini Corticella, Azienda USL, Citta di Bologna, Cardiology University of Parma, Italy
    Curr Opin Cardiol 17:6-18. 2002
    ..Finally, according to these clinical evidences, in the last part of the review, we stress the need for a more widespread implementation of ACE-I and AII-a in treating CHF patients...
  43. ncbi request reprint Task Force 6: training in specialized electrophysiology, cardiac pacing, and arrhythmia management: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    J Am Coll Cardiol 47:904-10. 2006
  44. doi request reprint Task force 6: training in specialized electrophysiology, cardiac pacing, and arrhythmia management endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    J Am Coll Cardiol 51:374-80. 2008
  45. ncbi request reprint Can we predict antiarrhythmic efficacy or inefficacy of amiodarone or any other antiarrhythmic? What this patient needs is a doctor!
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 15:1155-6. 2004
  46. doi request reprint Pathophysiology and disease progression of atrial fibrillation: importance of achieving and maintaining sinus rhythm
    Marc Cohen
    Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey 07112, USA
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 19:885-90. 2008
    ..Because of the limited efficacy and adverse effects of current antiarrhythmics, new antiarrhythmic drugs need to be developed that provide safer and more effective rhythm control in AF...
  47. ncbi request reprint A practical guide for clinicians who treat patients with amiodarone: 2007
    Nora Goldschlager
    University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Heart Rhythm 4:1250-9. 2007
    ..The recommendations included herein are based on the best available data and the collective experience of the member of the writing committee...
  48. ncbi request reprint Antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation: are the guidelines guiding clinical practice?
    James A Reiffel
    Columbia University Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Ave, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Clin Cardiol 29:97-102. 2006
    ..However, market research and clinical study data indicate a growing use of class III agents (mainly amiodarone) despite long-term safety and tolerability concerns, suggesting that clinical practice does not adhere to current guidelines...
  49. ncbi request reprint Can incremental innovation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems become disruptive to patient care? Moore's law gone awry
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 17:621-2. 2006
  50. ncbi request reprint Fast-track training of nonelectrophysiologists to implant defibrillators: is it needed?
    Brian Olshansky
    University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 29:627-31. 2006
    ..We are particularly concerned about the disruption of training pathways in medicine and how this can affect patient care and can influence established training pathways in medicine...
  51. ncbi request reprint ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 guideline update for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices: summary article. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to
    Gabriel Gregoratos
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13:1183-99. 2002
  52. ncbi request reprint ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for Implantation of Cardiac Pacemakers and Antiarrhythmia Devices--summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to
    Gabriel Gregoratos
    Resource Center, American College of Cardiology Foundation, 9111 Old Georgetown Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 1699, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1703-19. 2002
  53. ncbi request reprint Ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring: has mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry changed the playing field?
    Gerald V Naccarelli
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 18:248-9. 2007
  54. ncbi request reprint Working group 1: How to increase the output of cardiologists
    Kenneth Lee Baughman
    J Am Coll Cardiol 44:233-7. 2004