P A Lee

Summary

Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Lack of differences between males with or without perceived same sex attraction
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:115-9. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term outcome and adjustment among patients with DSD born with testicular differentiation and masculinized external genital genitalia
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 10:140-51. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with gender identification and transgender disorders
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 25:521-7. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Cryptorchidism
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 20:210-6. 2013
  5. ncbi request reprint Cognitive and psychosocial development concerns in children born small for gestational age
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 10:209-16. 2012
  6. doi request reprint A method to determine the likelihood of transition to puberty in a heterogeneous prepubertal age group
    James Frane
    Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 25:843-6. 2012
  7. pmc Effect of 4 years of growth hormone therapy in children with Noonan syndrome in the American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER) Program® registry
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, The Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:15. 2012
  8. pmc Early diagnosis and treatment referral of children born small for gestational age without catch-up growth are critical for optimal growth outcomes
    Christopher P Houk
    Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033 0850, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:11. 2012
  9. pmc Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observatio
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033 0850, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:22. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of leuprolide acetate 3-month depot 11.25 milligrams or 30 milligrams for the treatment of central precocious puberty
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, P O Box 850, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1572-80. 2012

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. ncbi request reprint Lack of differences between males with or without perceived same sex attraction
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:115-9. 2006
    ..There were no differences in demographics, family structure, religious beliefs, socio-economic status, knowledge of puberty, inter-personal relationships or sources of information about sexuality...
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term outcome and adjustment among patients with DSD born with testicular differentiation and masculinized external genital genitalia
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 10:140-51. 2012
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with gender identification and transgender disorders
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 25:521-7. 2013
    ..It is crucial that the diagnosis be verified as persistent, since gender confusion among those young persists among only a portion...
  4. doi request reprint Cryptorchidism
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 20:210-6. 2013
    ..The frequency of the problem makes cryptorchidism an area where diagnostic knowledge is particularly important for healthcare professionals...
  5. ncbi request reprint Cognitive and psychosocial development concerns in children born small for gestational age
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 10:209-16. 2012
    ..These data need to be interpreted with caution since study populations do not define etiology of SGA and definitions of SGA vary. Further, generalized group data are not applicable to individuals...
  6. doi request reprint A method to determine the likelihood of transition to puberty in a heterogeneous prepubertal age group
    James Frane
    Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 25:843-6. 2012
    ..This model could also be used to estimate the proportion of children who would be expected to have changes in their pubertal status over a given period, for example, in an interventional trial of growth promoting agents...
  7. pmc Effect of 4 years of growth hormone therapy in children with Noonan syndrome in the American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER) Program® registry
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, The Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:15. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  8. pmc Early diagnosis and treatment referral of children born small for gestational age without catch-up growth are critical for optimal growth outcomes
    Christopher P Houk
    Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033 0850, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:11. 2012
    ....
  9. pmc Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observatio
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033 0850, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2012:22. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of leuprolide acetate 3-month depot 11.25 milligrams or 30 milligrams for the treatment of central precocious puberty
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, P O Box 850, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1572-80. 2012
    ..GnRH agonist (GnRHa) monthly injections are frequently used in the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP). The 3-month leuprolide depot 11.25- and 30-mg formulations are newly approved treatment options...
  11. pmc Efficacy of Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty (CPP): Growth Outcomes During a Prospective, Longitudinal Study
    Peter A Lee
    The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2011:7. 2011
    ..Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are the treatment of choice for CPP. We investigated growth in GnRHa-naïve subjects, treated with leuprolide acetate 1-month depot for CPP...
  12. doi request reprint Optimizing potential for fertility: fertility considerations for the pediatrician
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, MC H085, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatr Clin North Am 58:1201-15, x. 2011
    ..For adolescent subjects who have sufficient gonadal development and reserve, sperm, oocytes, and ovarian cortex can be retrieved as among adults...
  13. ncbi request reprint Impact of environment upon gender identity and sexual orientation: a lesson for parents of children with intersex or gender confusion
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:625-30. 2005
    ..These two cases illustrate the tremendous influence played by environment and parental input on the sexual perspectives of developing children...
  14. ncbi request reprint Surgical, medical and psychological dilemmas of sex reassignment: report of a 46,XY patient assigned female at birth
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:111-4. 2006
    ..The glans was left intact at the anterior base of the phallus. Genital responsiveness during sexual activity and satisfaction are as yet unknown...
  15. ncbi request reprint Fertility after cryptorchidism: epidemiology and other outcome studies
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    Urology 66:427-31. 2005
  16. ncbi request reprint Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex
    Peter A Lee
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey School Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:235-40. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: initial assignment as male, reassigned female
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:125-32. 2005
    ..Thus, while outcome is satisfactory, it is realized that for most, expression of sexual orientation and adult life adjustments have not yet occurred...
  18. ncbi request reprint Outcome studies among men with micropenis
    Peter A Lee
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:1043-53. 2004
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders. International Consensus Conference on Intersex
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, MC 085, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Box 850, 500 University Dr, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatrics 118:e488-500. 2006
  20. ncbi request reprint Use of GnRH agonists in GH-deficient patients: arguments for and against. The case for GnRH agonists in GH-deficient patients
    Peter A Lee
    Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 5:744-9. 2008
    ..This review debates the use of GnRH agonist therapy in GH-deficient children...
  21. doi request reprint Disorders of sexual differentiation in the adolescent
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, MC H085, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, P O Box 850, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1135:67-75. 2008
    ..This care ideally involves specialists in endocrinology and medical therapy, psychology and, if required, surgery. A brief discussion of the needs of the adolescent with DSDs is presented...
  22. ncbi request reprint Physical and psychosexual pubertal development: physiology and pathophysiology of puberty with lessons learned from those with disorders of sex development
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey, Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 6:248-56. 2008
    ..The relative role of hormone exposure during fetal life or later are still unclear...
  23. doi request reprint Optimizing potential for fertility: fertility preservation considerations for the pediatric endocrinologist
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 38:761-75. 2009
    ..For adolescent subjects who have sufficient gonadal development and reserve, sperm, oocytes, and ovarian cortex can be retrieved as among adults...
  24. doi request reprint Should male gender assignment be considered in the markedly virilized patient With 46,XX and congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
    Peter A Lee
    Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    J Urol 184:1786-92. 2010
    ..We assess the outcome in 46,XX men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were born with Prader 4 or 5 genitalia and assigned male gender at birth...
  25. pmc Luteinizing hormone, testosterone and inhibin B levels in the peripubertal period and racial/ethnic differences among boys aged 6-11 years: analyses from NHANES III, 1988-1994
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 73:744-51. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Identification of factors associated with good response to growth hormone therapy in children with short stature: results from the ANSWER Program®
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Milton S, Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2011:6. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  27. ncbi request reprint Communicating with parents of the newborn with intersex: transcript of an interview
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:925-30. 2004
    ..The diagnosis had not yet been made, and a decision concerning sex of rearing had not yet been made. This text illustrates numerous important issues concerning communications with parents of infants with intersex...
  28. ncbi request reprint Fertility after bilateral cryptorchidism. Evaluation by paternity, hormone, and semen data
    P A Lee
    Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Horm Res 55:28-32. 2001
    ..Evaluation of the fertility of a cohort of formerly bilaterally cryptorchid men in comparison with a group of formerly unilaterally cryptorchid men, and a group of control men...
  29. ncbi request reprint Persistent short stature, other potential outcomes, and the effect of growth hormone treatment in children who are born small for gestational age
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    Pediatrics 112:150-62. 2003
  30. ncbi request reprint The effects of manipulation of puberty on growth
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Horm Res 60:60-7. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Age of puberty: data from the United States of America
    P A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey 17033 0850, USA
    APMIS 109:81-8. 2001
    ..In summary, earlier secular trends over recent decades related to better health, improved nutrition or socio-economic status, or any putative influence by endocrine disrupters cannot be verified...
  32. ncbi request reprint A perspective on the approach to the intersex child born with genital ambiguity
    Peter A Lee
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:133-40. 2004
    ..A medical team approach is advocated, with the goal of striking the best balance between outcome data and differing opinions...
  33. ncbi request reprint Genital surgery among females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: changes over the past five decades
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 15:1473-7. 2002
    ..The primary impetus for this shift apparently has not been to preserve the vascular and neural supply to enhance sexual responsiveness, since parents in the past assumed that such could be preserved with appropriate surgical techniques...
  34. ncbi request reprint Summary of consensus statement on intersex disorders and their management. International Intersex Consensus Conference
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Backus Children s Hospital, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, Georgia, USA
    Pediatrics 118:753-7. 2006
  35. ncbi request reprint No relationship of testicular size at orchiopexy with fertility in men who previously had unilateral cryptorchidism
    P A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Urol 166:236-9. 2001
    ..8%), abnormal hormone levels, a lower sperm count or decreased testicular volume in adulthood...
  36. ncbi request reprint Inhibin B: comparison with indexes of fertility among formerly cryptorchid and control men
    P A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:2576-84. 2001
    ..Low inhibin B levels together with elevated FSH levels and decreased sperm density are indicative of a high risk of infertility...
  37. ncbi request reprint Paternity after bilateral cryptorchidism. A controlled study
    P A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 151:260-3. 1997
    ..To compare paternity among men with former bilateral cryptorchidism (referred to as the bilateral group) with a group of men with former unilateral cryptorchidism (referred to as the unilateral group) and a control group...
  38. ncbi request reprint Hyperandrogenism and manifesting heterozygotes for 21-hydroxylase deficiency
    S F Witchel
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Biochem Mol Med 62:151-8. 1997
    ..Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine if heterozygosity for 21-hydroxylase deficiency predicts risk for PCOS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Fertility after unilateral cryptorchidism. Paternity, time to conception, pretreatment testicular location and size, hormone and sperm parameters
    K D Miller
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, USA
    Horm Res 55:249-53. 2001
    ..No correlation was found between success at paternity and the age of orchiopexy, preoperative testicular size or preoperative testicular location. Inhibin B levels were lower while FSH, LH, T and sperm parameters did not differ...
  40. ncbi request reprint No association between body mass index and beta(3)-adrenergic receptor variant (W64R) in children with premature pubarche and adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism
    S F Witchel
    Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Fertil Steril 73:509-15. 2000
    ..To determine if the Trp(64)Arg (W64R) variant of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) could be used as a genetic marker to define risk for polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS) and/or obesity in children and adolescents...
  41. ncbi request reprint Insulin-like 3/relaxin-like factor gene mutations are associated with cryptorchidism
    M Tomboc
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:4013-8. 2000
    ..The frequency of INSL3/RLF gene mutations as a cause of cryptorchidism is low, because only 2 of 145 (1.4%) formerly cryptorchid patients were found to have mutations...
  42. ncbi request reprint Identification of heterozygotic carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency: sensitivity of ACTH stimulation tests
    S F Witchel
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Am J Med Genet 76:337-42. 1998
    ..Thus, a normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to ACTH stimulation testing does not exclude carrier status for 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Molecular genotype analysis is a more reliable method to determine 21-hydroxylase heterozygotes...
  43. ncbi request reprint Disorders of sex development
    Zeina M Nabhan
    Section of Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetology, Department of Pediatrics, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 19:440-5. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of histrelin subdermal implant in children with central precocious puberty: a multicenter trial
    Erica A Eugster
    Pediatric Endocrinology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana Uniuversity School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1697-704. 2007
    ..GnRH analog (GnRHa) therapy for central precocious puberty (CPP) typically involves im injections. The histrelin implant is a new treatment that provides a continuous slow release of the GnRHa histrelin...
  45. doi request reprint Assignment of the sex of rearing in the neonate with a disorder of sex development
    Jakub Mieszczak
    Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 21:541-7. 2009
    ..The goal is to discuss, in light of recent publications, information required to make rational management decisions and provide our perspective...
  46. ncbi request reprint ACTH stimulation tests and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women with hirsutism
    S F Siegel
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA
    N Engl J Med 323:849-54. 1990
    ..Measurements of basal steroid levels are not helpful in differentiating among the causes of increased androgen production in such patients and may be misleading...
  47. ncbi request reprint Genital size: a common adolescent male concern
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylania State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, 17033, USA
    Adolesc Med 13:171-80, viii. 2002
    ..Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques...
  48. pmc Diminished paternity and gonadal function with increasing obesity in men
    Eric M Pauli
    Department of Surgery, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    Fertil Steril 90:346-51. 2008
    ..To examine the relationship of male obesity and reproductive function...
  49. ncbi request reprint Genital ambiguity with a Y chromosome: does gender assignment matter?
    Christopher P Houk
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:825-39. 2004
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint The diagnosis and care of transsexual children and adolescents: a pediatric endocrinologists' perspective
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:103-9. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Intersex classification scheme: a response to the call for a change
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:735-8. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Intersexed states: diagnosis and management
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 34:791-810, xi. 2005
    ..This article reviews these issues, attempts to formulate a contemporary approach, and acknowledges the gaps that remain in our knowledge...
  53. ncbi request reprint Choice of gender in 5alpha-reductase deficiency: a moving target
    Christopher P Houk
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:339-45. 2005
    ....
  54. doi request reprint Consensus statement on terminology and management: disorders of sex development
    C P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Backus Children s Hospital, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA
    Sex Dev 2:172-80. 2008
    ..Also, blatantly lacking are adequate data concerning the impact of prenatal androgen on the fetal central nervous system regarding subsequent development of gender and sexual issues...
  55. ncbi request reprint Delayed puberty
    Edward O Reiter
    Department of Pediatrics, Bayside Medical Center Children s Hospital, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sprinfield, Massachusetts 01199, USA
    Adolesc Med 13:101-18, vii. 2002
    ..Diagnostic assessment and varied therapeutic modalities are discussed. The issues of androgen or estrogen therapy are important to assess, and growth hormone treatment remains a difficult dilemma...
  56. doi request reprint The impact of assay sensitivity in the assessment of diseases and disorders in children
    Samar N Rahhal
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5225, USA
    Steroids 73:1322-7. 2008
    ....
  57. doi request reprint Approach to assigning gender in 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia with male external genitalia: replacing dogmatism with pragmatism
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4501-8. 2010
    ..In this paper, we propose consideration of male assignment for these 46,XX patients who have fully developed male genitalia based on available outcome data...
  58. ncbi request reprint International Small for Gestational Age Advisory Board consensus development conference statement: management of short children born small for gestational age, April 24-October 1, 2001
    Peter A Lee
    Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania
    Pediatrics 111:1253-61. 2003
    ..To provide pediatric endocrinologists, general pediatricians, neonatologists, and primary care physicians with recommendations for the management of short children born small for gestational age (SGA)...
  59. ncbi request reprint Variants of the type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene in children with premature pubic hair and hyperandrogenic adolescents
    S Nayak
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 64:184-92. 1998
    ..Since obligate heterozygotic carriers for congenital adrenal hyperplasia are typically asymptomatic, other genetic or environmental influences may contribute to the expression of hyperandrogenic symptoms in our patients...
  60. ncbi request reprint Time to conception after orchidopexy: evidence for subfertility?
    M T Coughlin
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Fertil Steril 67:742-6. 1997
    ..To determine whether time to conception is increased among men who were formerly bilaterally or unilaterally cryptorchid compared with a group of matched control men...
  61. ncbi request reprint Medical treatment of intersex: parental perspectives
    Jennifer E Dayner
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033 0850, USA
    J Urol 172:1762-5; discussion 1765. 2004
    ..The parents of these intersex patients, on the other hand, often report that they were not given sufficient input into the treatment decisions for their children...
  62. doi request reprint Endocrinology of male puberty
    Katherine Lewis
    Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 16:5-9. 2009
    ..To review recent information leading to a better understanding of the endocrinology of male puberty, including information from earlier stages of life...
  63. ncbi request reprint Normal adult height among girls treated for central precocious puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog therapy
    Zeina M Nabhan
    Section of Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetology, Department of Pediatrics, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 22:309-16. 2009
    ..To evaluate adult height (AH) among girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) and to assess the impact of posttreatment growth on AH...
  64. ncbi request reprint The diagnostic value of a brief GnRH analogue stimulation test in girls with central precocious puberty: a single 30-minute post-stimulation LH sample is adequate
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Backus Children s Hospital, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 21:1113-8. 2008
    ..Clinical data were reviewed to establish the diagnosis of CPP. GnRHa stimulation testing with one LH measurement obtained 30 minutes after stimulation is adequate for evaluating girls with CPP and as reliable as GnRH stimulation testing...
  65. doi request reprint Adequacy of a single unstimulated luteinizing hormone level to diagnose central precocious puberty in girls
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA
    Pediatrics 123:e1059-63. 2009
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Leydig cell function after cryptorchidism: evidence of the beneficial result of early surgery
    Peter A Lee
    Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey and Graduate School of Public Health, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Urol 167:1824-7. 2002
    ..We determined whether there are differences indicative of the function of the Leydig cell-pituitary axis in formerly unilateral cryptorchid men. Parameters were compared with those in control men...
  67. ncbi request reprint Communicating with parents with full disclosure: a case of cloacal extrophy with genital ambiguity
    Catherine Myers
    Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:273-9. 2004
    ..Intersex most commonly involves disorders of steroidogenesis or gonadal function, but may include multiple cloacal anomalies, such as presented here...
  68. ncbi request reprint The single testis: paternity after presentation as unilateral cryptorchidism
    Peter A Lee
    Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Urol 168:1680-2; discussion 1682-3. 2002
    ..The group of men with an absent testis was determined among males presenting during childhood with only 1 descended testis...
  69. ncbi request reprint The relationship of cryptorchidism to fertility
    J C Trussell
    Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    Curr Urol Rep 5:142-8. 2004
    ..Fortunately, based on recent research, the correlation between testis maldescent and infertility may not be as prevalent as previously reported...
  70. pmc Hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinism in children of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a controlled study
    Sarah C Kent
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:1662-9. 2008
    ..Hyperandrogenia and insulin resistance are heritable family traits, likely to cluster in children of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mothers...
  71. ncbi request reprint National estimates of the timing of sexual maturation and racial differences among US children
    Shumei S Sun
    The Lifespan Health Research Center Departments of Community Health, Pediatrics, and Mathematics and Statistics, Wright State University, School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio 45420, USA
    Pediatrics 110:911-9. 2002
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Reproductive hormone levels in infants with cryptorchidism during postnatal activation of the pituitary-testicular axis
    Julia S Barthold
    Surgery Urology, Nemours Children s Clinic and A I DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA
    J Urol 172:1736-41; discussion 1741. 2004
    ..To better characterize this phenomenon, we studied a range of hormones that normally increase in boys during the first few months of life...
  73. doi request reprint Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends: panel findings
    Susan Y Euling
    National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA
    Pediatrics 121:S172-91. 2008
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Is sexual maturity occurring earlier among U.S. children?
    Shumei S Sun
    The Lifespan Health Research Center, Department of Community Health, Wright State University, School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio, USA
    J Adolesc Health 37:345-55. 2005
    ..To compare the onset and completion of sexual maturation among U.S. children between 1966 and 1994...
  75. ncbi request reprint Concordant and discordant sexual maturation among U.S. children in relation to body weight and BMI
    Christine M Schubert
    Department of Community Health, School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA
    J Adolesc Health 37:356-62. 2005
    ..Discordant children with large differences in weight and BMI may require additional monitoring of their growth during adolescence...
  76. ncbi request reprint Genotype analysis of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 and NPY Y5 receptor genes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious gonadarche
    Mandi Barker-Gibb
    Fertil Steril 82:491-4. 2004
  77. ncbi request reprint Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls
    William Cameron Chumlea
    Lifespan Health Research Center, Department of Community Health, Wright State University, School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio, USA
    Pediatrics 111:110-3. 2003
    ..Previous reports have been sparse and interpretation has been limited because of the racial composition and ages of the samples...