J K Fredrickson

Summary

Affiliation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV) nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis
    Matthew J Marshall
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e268. 2006
  2. pmc Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus
    Dmitry A Rodionov
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:S3. 2011
  3. pmc Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus
    Dmitry A Rodionov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:494. 2010
  4. pmc Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the hanford site, washington state
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4230-41. 2004
  5. doi request reprint Towards environmental systems biology of Shewanella
    James K Fredrickson
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:592-603. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Electron transfer at the microbe-mineral interface: a grand challenge in biogeochemistry
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Geobiology 6:245-53. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Genome-assisted analysis of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:269-74. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Biotransformation of Ni-substituted hydrous ferric oxide by an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P O Box 999, MSIN P7 50, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:703-12. 2001
  9. pmc Reduction of Fe(III), Cr(VI), U(VI), and Tc(VII) by Deinococcus radiodurans R1
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2006-11. 2000
  10. ncbi request reprint Influence of electron donor/acceptor concentrations on hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) bioreduction
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Biodegradation 14:91-103. 2003

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV) nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis
    Matthew J Marshall
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 4:e268. 2006
    ..In the environment, such association of UO(2) nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O(2) or transport in soils and sediments...
  2. pmc Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus
    Dmitry A Rodionov
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:S3. 2011
    ..The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria...
  3. pmc Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus
    Dmitry A Rodionov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:494. 2010
    ....
  4. pmc Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the hanford site, washington state
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4230-41. 2004
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Towards environmental systems biology of Shewanella
    James K Fredrickson
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:592-603. 2008
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Electron transfer at the microbe-mineral interface: a grand challenge in biogeochemistry
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Geobiology 6:245-53. 2008
    ..Collectively, the grand challenge will provide a detailed view of how organisms engage with mineral surfaces to exchange energy and electron density as required for life function...
  7. ncbi request reprint Genome-assisted analysis of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:269-74. 2005
    ..It is anticipated that details of the mechanisms of metal ion respiration, and metabolism in general, will eventually be revealed by comprehensive, systems-level analyses enabled by functional genomics data...
  8. ncbi request reprint Biotransformation of Ni-substituted hydrous ferric oxide by an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P O Box 999, MSIN P7 50, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:703-12. 2001
    ....
  9. pmc Reduction of Fe(III), Cr(VI), U(VI), and Tc(VII) by Deinococcus radiodurans R1
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2006-11. 2000
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Influence of electron donor/acceptor concentrations on hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) bioreduction
    James K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Biodegradation 14:91-103. 2003
    ..The respiration driven rate of Fe(II) formation from HFO is believed to be a primary factor governing the array of ferrous and ferric iron phases formed during reduction...
  11. pmc Effect of electron donor and solution chemistry on products of dissimilatory reduction of technetium by Shewanella putrefaciens
    R E Wildung
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2451-60. 2000
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Alkaliphilus transvaalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a deep South African gold mine
    K Takai
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1245-56. 2001
    ..nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain SAGM1T = JCM 10712T = ATCC 700919T). The mechanism of generation of the highly alkaline microbial habitat and the possible source of the alkaliphile are discussed...
  13. doi request reprint Oxygen-dependent autoaggregation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    J S McLean
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA99352, USA
    Environ Microbiol 10:1861-76. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Kinetic analysis of the bacterial reduction of goethite
    C Liu
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:2482-90. 2001
    ..Using independently estimated parameters, the developed model successfully described bacterial goethite reduction with variable FeOOH and lactate concentrations...
  15. doi request reprint Electron donor-dependent radionuclide reduction and nanoparticle formation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C
    Matthew J Marshall
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laborotary, Richland, WA 99354, USA
    Environ Microbiol 11:534-43. 2009
    ..These findings expand our knowledge of the radionuclide reduction processes catalysed by Anaeromyxobacter spp. that may influence the fate and transport of radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface...
  16. pmc Global transcriptome analysis of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 exposed to different terminal electron acceptors
    A S Beliaev
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P O Box 999, MS P7 50, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:7138-45. 2005
    ..Moreover, the relative paucity and/or the constitutive nature of genes involved in electron transfer to metals is likely due to the low-specificity and the opportunistic nature of the metal-reducing electron transport pathways...
  17. ncbi request reprint Environmental processes mediated by iron-reducing bacteria
    J K Fredrickson
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington 99352, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 7:287-94. 1996
    ..In addition, the number of biotechnological applications of iron-reducing bacteria, including remediation of soils and sediments contaminated with metals, radionuclides and organics, is rapidly expanding...
  18. pmc Archaeal diversity in waters from deep South African gold mines
    K Takai
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5750-60. 2001
    ..Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including the newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea are reevaluated...
  19. doi request reprint Role of outer-membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the biomineralization of ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    C L Reardon
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
    Geobiology 8:56-68. 2010
    ..Collectively, these results highlight the importance of the outer-membrane cytochromes in the reductive transformation of FH and support a role for direct electron transfer from the OMCs at the cell surface to the mineral...
  20. ncbi request reprint Hydrogenase- and outer membrane c-type cytochrome-facilitated reduction of technetium(VII) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    Matthew J Marshall
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA
    Environ Microbiol 10:125-36. 2008
    ..c-Type cytochrome-catalysed Tc(VII) reduction could be a potentially important mechanism in environments where organic electron donor concentrations are sufficient to allow this reaction to dominate...
  21. ncbi request reprint Kinetics of microbial reduction of Solid phase U(VI)
    Chongxuan Liu
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:6290-6. 2006
    ..The results demonstrated that microbial reduction of solid-phase U(VI) is controlled by coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes...
  22. pmc Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes
    Liang Shi
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA
    Mol Microbiol 65:12-20. 2007
    ..Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1- and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope...
  23. doi request reprint Protein oxidation: key to bacterial desiccation resistance?
    James K Fredrickson
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    ISME J 2:393-403. 2008
    ..We present the case that survival of bacteria that inhabit dry-climate soils are highly dependent on mechanisms, which limit protein oxidation during dehydration...
  24. pmc Direct involvement of type II secretion system in extracellular translocation of Shewanella oneidensis outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA
    Liang Shi
    Microbiology Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:5512-6. 2008
    ....
  25. pmc Kinetics of reduction of Fe(III) complexes by outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    Zheming Wang
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6746-55. 2008
    ..The results demonstrate that ligand complexation plays an important role in microbial dissimilatory reduction and mineral transformation of iron, as well as other redox-sensitive metal species in nature...
  26. pmc Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: comparative analysis by electron microscopy
    Alice C Dohnalkova
    Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1254-62. 2011
    ..Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding the nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment...
  27. ncbi request reprint High-affinity binding and direct electron transfer to solid metals by the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane c-type cytochrome OmcA
    Yijia Xiong
    Division of Biological Sciences and Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, Biogeochemistry Grand Challenge Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 128:13978-9. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) in contaminated sediment
    Chongxuan Liu
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 43:4928-33. 2009
    ....
  29. pmc Isolation of a high-affinity functional protein complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    Liang Shi
    Microbiology Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, P O Box 999, MSIN P7 50, Richland, WA 99354, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:4705-14. 2006
    ..oneidensis MR-1...
  30. ncbi request reprint Modeling the inhibition of the bacteral reduction of U(VI) by beta-MnO2(s)
    Chongxuan Liu
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:1452-9. 2002
    ..The coupled model that was modified to account for the "effective" contact surface area between UO2(s) and beta-MnO2(s) significantly improved the simulation of microbial reduction of U(VI) in the presence of beta-MnO2(s)...
  31. ncbi request reprint Biogeochemical processes and microbial characteristics across groundwater-surface water boundaries of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River
    Duane P Moser
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P O Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 37:5127-34. 2003
    ..Although freezing modestly diminished recovery of viable bacteria, freeze core techniques proved reliable for the collection of intact hyporheic sediments...
  32. pmc Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199
    M F Romine
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    J Bacteriol 181:1585-602. 1999
    ..was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes...
  33. ncbi request reprint NMR methods for in situ biofilm metabolism studies
    Paul D Majors
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K8 98, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 62:337-44. 2005
    ..These results represent progress toward our ultimate goal of correlating time- and depth-resolved metabolism and mass transport with gene expression in live in situ biofilms using combined NMR/optical microscopy techniques...
  34. ncbi request reprint Global detection and characterization of hypothetical proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 using LC-MS based proteomics
    Dwayne A Elias
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Proteomics 5:3120-30. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of the AMT tag methodology for comprehensive profiling of the microbial proteome while confirming the expression of a large number of hypothetical genes...
  35. doi request reprint Microbial Diversity and Biogeochemical Function of the Phototrophic Microbial Mats of Epsomitic Hot Lake, WA
    S R Lindemann
    Microbiology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA
    Microsc Microanal 18:10-1. 2012
    ..Extended abstract of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2012 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, July 29 - August 2, 2012...
  36. pmc Desulfotomaculum and Methanobacterium spp. dominate a 4- to 5-kilometer-deep fault
    Duane P Moser
    Environmental Microbiology Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8773-83. 2005
    ..The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments...
  37. doi request reprint Investigations of structure and metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilms
    Jeffrey S McLean
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN P7 50, Richland, WA 99354, United States
    J Microbiol Methods 74:47-56. 2008
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Confirmation of the expression of a large set of conserved hypothetical proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
    Dwayne A Elias
    Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 66:223-33. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that 399 proteins can now be upgraded from "conserved hypothetical protein" to "expressed protein in Shewanella," 19 of which appeared to be expressed under specific culture conditions...
  39. pmc Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling
    Haizhen Zhang
    Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    J Proteome Res 9:2160-9. 2010
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean
    Haichun Gao
    Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1911-6. 2006
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is PV-4(T) (=ATCC BAA-1088(T)=DSM 17748(T))...
  41. ncbi request reprint Deinococcus radiodurans engineered for complete toluene degradation facilitates Cr(VI) reduction
    Hassan Brim
    Department of Microbiology and Cancer Center, Howard University, 2041 Georgia Avenue N W, Washington, DC 20060, USA
    Microbiology 152:2469-77. 2006
    ..As such, the Tod/Xyl strain could provide a model for examining the reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide-contaminated sediments...
  42. pmc Engineering Deinococcus geothermalis for bioremediation of high-temperature radioactive waste environments
    Hassan Brim
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4575-82. 2003
    ..These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 degrees C...
  43. pmc Metal reduction and iron biomineralization by a psychrotolerant Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Shewanella sp. strain PV-4
    Yul Roh
    Institute for Environmental Genomics, and Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3236-44. 2006
    ..The genome size of this strain is about 4.5 Mb. Strain PV-4 is sensitive to a variety of commonly used antibiotics except ampicillin and can acquire exogenous DNA (plasmid pCM157) through conjugation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions
    Melanie R Mormile
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65401, USA
    Environ Microbiol 5:1094-102. 2003
    ..The described method of retrieving particle-containing brine from fluid inclusions offers a robust approach for assessing the antiquity of microorganisms associated with evaporites...
  45. pmc Current production and metal oxide reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and mutants
    Orianna Bretschger
    Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7003-12. 2007
    ..Overall, these data suggest a very complex picture of electron transfer to solid and soluble substrates by S. oneidensis MR-1...
  46. pmc In vivo identification of the outer membrane protein OmcA-MtrC interaction network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells using novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linkers
    Haizhen Zhang
    Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
    J Proteome Res 7:1712-20. 2008
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Molecular analysis of deep subsurface Cretaceous rock indicates abundant Fe(III)- and S(zero)-reducing bacteria in a sulfate-rich environment
    William P Kovacik
    Microbial Ecology Program, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, 59812, USA
    Environ Microbiol 8:141-55. 2006
    ..The presence of a phylogenetically and functionally diverse microbial community in this deep subsurface environment likely reflects the complex nature of the primary energy and carbon sources, kerogen associated with the shale...
  48. pmc The influence of cultivation methods on Shewanella oneidensis physiology and proteome expression
    Dwayne A Elias
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Arch Microbiol 189:313-24. 2008
    ..By decreasing cell to cell variability, higher quality samples will allow for the interpretive accuracy necessary for drawing conclusions relevant to microbial systems biology research...
  49. pmc Protein oxidation implicated as the primary determinant of bacterial radioresistance
    Michael J Daly
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e92. 2007
    ..We present the case that protein, rather than DNA, is the principal target of the biological action of IR in sensitive bacteria, and extreme resistance in Mn-accumulating bacteria is based on protein protection...
  50. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium
    Scott C Brooks
    Environmental Sciences Division, P O Box 2008, MS 6038, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 6038, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1850-8. 2003
    ..The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O4- under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca...
  51. pmc Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations
    Eugene Kolker
    BIATECH, 19310 North Creek Parkway, Suite 115, Bothell, WA 98011, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2099-104. 2005
    ..We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome...
  52. pmc Deinococcus geothermalis: the pool of extreme radiation resistance genes shrinks
    Kira S Makarova
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 2:e955. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint How radiation kills cells: survival of Deinococcus radiodurans and Shewanella oneidensis under oxidative stress
    Debabrota Ghosal
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:361-75. 2005
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Identification of diverse carbon utilization pathways in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 via expression profiling
    Michael E Driscoll
    Boston University, St Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Genome Inform 18:287-98. 2007
    ..In sum, these results indicate that S. oneidensis possesses a broader capacity for carbon utilization than previously reported, a view with implications for optimizing its role in microbial fuel cell and bioremediative applications...
  55. pmc Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by Shewanella sp. strain HN-41
    Ji Hoon Lee
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering and International Environmental Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712, Republic of Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20410-5. 2007
    ..The As-S nanotubes produced by Shewanella may provide useful materials for novel nano- and opto-electronic devices...