J T Williams

Summary

Affiliation: Oregon Health and Science University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate
    John T Williams
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
    Mol Pharmacol 86:52-61. 2014
  2. pmc Morphine desensitization and cellular tolerance are distinguished in rat locus ceruleus neurons
    Erica S Levitt
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 82:983-92. 2012
  3. pmc Desensitization and trafficking of μ-opioid receptors in locus ceruleus neurons: modulation by kinases
    Seksiri Arttamangkul
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 81:348-55. 2012
  4. pmc Agonist-specific regulation of mu-opioid receptor desensitization and recovery from desensitization
    MICHAEL S VIRK
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239
    Mol Pharmacol 73:1301-8. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Cellular and synaptic adaptations mediating opioid dependence
    J T Williams
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Physiol Rev 81:299-343. 2001
  6. pmc Properties and opioid inhibition of mesolimbic dopamine neurons vary according to target location
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2788-97. 2006
  7. pmc The time course of dopamine transmission in the ventral tegmental area
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13344-52. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Vesicular dopamine release elicits an inhibitory postsynaptic current in midbrain dopamine neurons
    Michael J Beckstead
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuron 42:939-46. 2004
  9. pmc Buprenorphine is a weak partial agonist that inhibits opioid receptor desensitization
    MICHAEL S VIRK
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7341-8. 2009
  10. pmc Kappa opioid inhibition of somatodendritic dopamine inhibitory postsynaptic currents
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:883-91. 2007

Research Grants

  1. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John T Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
  5. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
  9. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
  10. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications41

  1. pmc Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate
    John T Williams
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
    Mol Pharmacol 86:52-61. 2014
    ..The results indicate that opioid receptor desensitization reduced the number of functional receptor and that the remaining active receptors have a reduced agonist affinity. ..
  2. pmc Morphine desensitization and cellular tolerance are distinguished in rat locus ceruleus neurons
    Erica S Levitt
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 82:983-92. 2012
    ..This PKC-mediated desensitization may contribute to the previously reported PKC-dependent reversal of behavioral tolerance...
  3. pmc Desensitization and trafficking of μ-opioid receptors in locus ceruleus neurons: modulation by kinases
    Seksiri Arttamangkul
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 81:348-55. 2012
    ..The results suggest that desensitization of MOPRs may be an early step after agonist binding that is modulated by but is not dependent on kinase activity...
  4. pmc Agonist-specific regulation of mu-opioid receptor desensitization and recovery from desensitization
    MICHAEL S VIRK
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239
    Mol Pharmacol 73:1301-8. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that desensitization prevents irreversible inactivation of receptors by beta-CNA...
  5. ncbi request reprint Cellular and synaptic adaptations mediating opioid dependence
    J T Williams
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Physiol Rev 81:299-343. 2001
    ..The characterization of common pathways affected by different drugs, particularly after repeated treatment, is important in the understanding of drug abuse...
  6. pmc Properties and opioid inhibition of mesolimbic dopamine neurons vary according to target location
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2788-97. 2006
    ..Identifying the properties of projecting mesolimbic VTA dopamine neurons is crucial to understanding the action of drugs of abuse...
  7. pmc The time course of dopamine transmission in the ventral tegmental area
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13344-52. 2009
    ..Thus, dopamine transmission in the midbrain is more localized then previously proposed...
  8. ncbi request reprint Vesicular dopamine release elicits an inhibitory postsynaptic current in midbrain dopamine neurons
    Michael J Beckstead
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuron 42:939-46. 2004
    ....
  9. pmc Buprenorphine is a weak partial agonist that inhibits opioid receptor desensitization
    MICHAEL S VIRK
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 29:7341-8. 2009
    ..These observations show the unique characteristics of buprenorphine and further demonstrate the range of agonist-selective actions that are possible through G-protein-coupled receptors...
  10. pmc Kappa opioid inhibition of somatodendritic dopamine inhibitory postsynaptic currents
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:883-91. 2007
    ..The results thus demonstrate both pre- and postsynaptic actions of kappa receptor agonists. The actions of dynorphin indicate that VTA dopamine cells are selectively regulated by kappa receptors...
  11. pmc Differential activation and trafficking of micro-opioid receptors in brain slices
    Seksiri Arttamangkul
    Vollum Institute, L474, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 W Sam Jackson Park Dr, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 74:972-9. 2008
    ....
  12. pmc Noradrenaline triggers GABAA inhibition of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area
    Eric C Dumont
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 24:8198-204. 2004
    ..This mechanism might contribute to the withdrawal-induced inhibition of dopamine neurons and explain how noradrenergic drugs microinjected into the vlBNST reduce aversive aspects of opioid withdrawal...
  13. pmc Self-administration enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
    Eric C Dumont
    The Vollum Institute and Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:413-4. 2005
    ..There was no effect when cocaine or food was delivered passively, suggesting that synaptic plasticity in this area is involved in reward-seeking behaviors...
  14. ncbi request reprint Noradrenergic inhibition of midbrain dopamine neurons
    Carlos A Paladini
    The Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 24:4568-75. 2004
    ..Psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, will therefore have a direct effect on the firing pattern of dopamine neurons through a combination of actions on dopamine and alpha1 adrenoceptor activation...
  15. ncbi request reprint Long-term depression of a dopamine IPSC
    Michael J Beckstead
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 27:2074-80. 2007
    ..Reduced inhibition could increase burst firing and action potential-dependent release of dopamine in terminal regions in vivo...
  16. ncbi request reprint Decreased vesicular somatodendritic dopamine stores in leptin-deficient mice
    Aaron G Roseberry
    The Vollum Institute, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 27:7021-7. 2007
    ..These results indicate that, although basal release is not altered, the amount of dopamine that can be released is reduced in Lep(ob/ob) mice...
  17. pmc Presynaptic regulation of dendrodendritic dopamine transmission
    Michael J Beckstead
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1479-88. 2007
    ..With increased activity, the release probability decreased and a burst of activity caused a relative facilitation of dopamine release. This form of regulation would be expected to limit activity within the cell body region...
  18. pmc Modulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) by cyclic nucleotides in guinea-pig primary afferent neurons
    S L Ingram
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    J Physiol 492:97-106. 1996
    ..Positive regulation of Ih by prostaglandins produced during inflammation may lead to depolarization and facilitation of repetitive activity, and thus contribute to sensitization to painful stimuli...
  19. ncbi request reprint Amphetamine selectively blocks inhibitory glutamate transmission in dopamine neurons
    C A Paladini
    The Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:275-81. 2001
    ..Through this mechanism, amphetamine may enhance phasic release of dopamine, which is important in the neural processing of reward...
  20. pmc CRF enhancement of GIRK channel-mediated transmission in dopamine neurons
    Michael J Beckstead
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1926-35. 2009
    ..The results indicate that CRF influences dopamine- and GABA-mediated inhibition in the midbrain, suggesting implications for the chronic actions of psychostimulants and stress on dopamine-mediated behaviors...
  21. pmc Control of extracellular dopamine at dendrite and axon terminals
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University L474, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 30:6975-83. 2010
    ..The conclusion is that the time course of dopamine within the extracellular space of the VTA is dependent on both diffusion and reuptake, whereas the activation of D(2) receptors on dopamine neurons is primarily limited by reuptake...
  22. ncbi request reprint Differential regulation of synaptic inputs by constitutively released endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids
    Shane T Hentges
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97329, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9746-51. 2005
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Cocaine self-administration selectively decreases noradrenergic regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition in dopamine neurons
    Carlos A Paladini
    The Vollum Institute and Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 24:5209-15. 2004
    ..The noradrenergic system could therefore serve to alter the reward value of stimuli that have significant effects on dopamine neuron firing pattern through mGluRs...
  24. ncbi request reprint G-protein-gated potassium channels containing Kir3.2 and Kir3.3 subunits mediate the acute inhibitory effects of opioids on locus ceruleus neurons
    Maria Torrecilla
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 22:4328-34. 2002
    ..We conclude that the acute opioid inhibition of LC neurons is mediated primarily by the activation of G-protein-gated potassium channels and that the cAMP-dependent cation conductance does not contribute significantly to this effect...
  25. pmc Two intracellular pathways mediate metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced Ca2+ mobilization in dopamine neurons
    Hitoshi Morikawa
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 23:149-57. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate that an excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate uses multiple intracellular pathways to exert an inhibitory control on the excitability of dopamine neurons...
  26. pmc Dopamine controls the firing pattern of dopamine neurons via a network feedback mechanism
    Carlos A Paladini
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2866-71. 2003
    ..These data suggest that endogenously released dopamine plays a critical role in the afferent control of dopamine neuron bursting activity and that this control is exerted via a network feedback mechanism...
  27. ncbi request reprint GABA release from proopiomelanocortin neurons
    Shane T Hentges
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 24:1578-83. 2004
    ....
  28. pmc CRF facilitates calcium release from intracellular stores in midbrain dopamine neurons
    Arthur C Riegel
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuron 57:559-70. 2008
    ....
  29. pmc Characterization of acute homologous desensitization of mu-opioid receptor-induced currents in locus coeruleus neurones
    P B Osborne
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 115:925-32. 1995
    ..The mechanism by which desensitization is reversed may involve a non-calcium-dependent protein phosphatase but the processess that cause desensitization remain unclear...
  30. pmc Chronic morphine treatment reduces recovery from opioid desensitization
    Vu C Dang
    Vollum Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7699-706. 2004
    ..These results indicate that receptor resensitization maintains signaling during periods of intense and sustained stimulation. After chronic morphine treatment, desensitization is potentiated, and receptor resensitization is compromised...
  31. pmc Pre- and postsynaptic regulation of locus coeruleus neurons after chronic morphine treatment: a study of GIRK-knockout mice
    Maria Torrecilla
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:618-24. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Separation of mu-opioid receptor desensitization and internalization: endogenous receptors in primary neuronal cultures
    Seksiri Arttamangkul
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:4118-25. 2006
    ....
  33. pmc SK2 and SK3 expression differentially affect firing frequency and precision in dopamine neurons
    J Deignan
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuroscience 217:67-76. 2012
    ..The expression of SK2 in DA neurons may endow distinct signaling and subcellular localization to SK2-containing channels...
  34. ncbi request reprint Regulation of central synaptic transmission by 5-HT(1B) auto- and heteroreceptors
    H Morikawa
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 58:1271-8. 2000
    ..Furthermore, this study underscores the role played by presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors in mediating the effects of cocaine on synaptic transmission...
  35. ncbi request reprint Increase in adenosine sensitivity in the nucleus accumbens following chronic morphine treatment
    James M Brundege
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, 31812 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:1369-75. 2002
    ..The identification of these changes in the adenosine system after chronic drug exposure may help identify new therapeutic strategies aimed at easing withdrawal from opioids...
  36. ncbi request reprint Chronic morphine treatment alters endogenous opioid control of hippocampal mossy fiber synaptic transmission
    John M Harrison
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:2464-70. 2002
    ..The results suggest that the phasic inhibition of glutamate transmission mediated by endogenous opioids is reduced after chronic exposure to morphine...
  37. ncbi request reprint Differential modulation of nucleus accumbens synapses
    James M Brundege
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurophysiol 88:142-51. 2002
    ..This may reflect differences in neuronal interconnections and functional roles between subregions and may contribute to the effects of drugs acting on these systems...
  38. doi request reprint Mesoprefrontal dopamine neurons distinguish themselves
    Christopher P Ford
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neuron 57:631-2. 2008
    ....
  39. pmc Frequency-dependent synchrony in locus ceruleus: role of electrotonic coupling
    Veronica A Alvarez
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4032-6. 2002
    ..In slices from adult animals, the combination of electrotonic coupling and firing frequency are the key elements that regulate synchronous firing in this nucleus...
  40. ncbi request reprint mu-Opioid receptors: Ligand-dependent activation of potassium conductance, desensitization, and internalization
    Veronica A Alvarez
    Vollum Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5769-76. 2002
    ..Identification and characterization of the biophysical properties of agonists that favor desensitization and internalization of receptors will lead to a better understanding of opioid signaling...
  41. pmc Morphine-Induced mu-opioid receptor desensitization
    Vu C Dang
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 68:1127-32. 2005
    ..The results suggest that morphine, like other agonists, can initiate receptor desensitization to decrease signaling...

Research Grants45

  1. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John T Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  2. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation of ion channels during withdrawal form morphine may help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  3. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation of ion channels during withdrawal form morphine may help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  4. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  5. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  6. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation of ion channels during withdrawal form morphine may help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  7. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  8. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  9. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation at the cellular and synaptic levels during acute and prolonged withdrawal from morphine will help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  10. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation of ion channels during withdrawal form morphine may help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  11. Cocaine Effecs on single neurons
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  12. Cocaine Effecs on single neurons
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  13. Cocaine effects on neurons
    John T Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..From this work knowledge of dopamine-dependent transmission in many areas of the brain will be facilitated and lead to a better understanding of the disruptions in transmission in many diseases including addiction. ..
  14. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  15. Cocaine Effecs on single neurons
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  16. Cellular Mechanisms Regulating VTA Dopamine Neurons
    ARTHUR RIEGEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The training incorporated in this Career Plan will provide a solid basis upon which to develop a R01 proposal in Year-3. ..
  17. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  18. Cocaine Effecs on single neurons
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  19. Chronic Morphine: Regulation of Ion Conductances
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation of ion channels during withdrawal form morphine may help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  20. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  21. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation at the cellular and synaptic levels during acute and prolonged withdrawal from morphine will help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  22. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  23. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Since 5-HT and opioids that inhibit GABA release from these terminals. Modulation at this synapse may be important in understanding mechanisms of drug reward and sensitization. ..
  24. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation at the cellular and synaptic levels during acute and prolonged withdrawal from morphine will help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  25. COCAINE--EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Knowledge of these interactions is critical to develop an understanding of how cocaine mediates long term plasticity in a brain area involved in endogenous reward. ..
  26. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Knowledge of alterations in regulation at the cellular and synaptic levels during acute and prolonged withdrawal from morphine will help in the development of more efficient protocols for the prevention of relapse to drug use. ..
  27. CHRONIC MORPHINE--REGULATION OF ION CONDUCTANCES
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..By investigating the alteration in the regulation of ion conductances not directly affected by opioids, it may be possible to clarify the mechanisms by which the high levels of tolerance found at the behavioral level are generated...
  28. COCAINE: EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..For example, such recordings from LC neurons with patch electrodes are vital to determine the nature of the reduction in the opioid 'spare-receptor' population following chronic opioid treatment...
  29. COCAINE: EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..For example, such recordings from LC neurons with patch electrodes are vital to determine the nature of the reduction in the opioid 'spare-receptor' population following chronic opioid treatment...
  30. COCAINE: EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..For example, such recordings from LC neurons with patch electrodes are vital to determine the nature of the reduction in the opioid 'spare-receptor' population following chronic opioid treatment...
  31. COCAINE: EFFECTS ON SINGLE NEURONS
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..For example, such recordings from LC neurons with patch electrodes are vital to determine the nature of the reduction in the opioid 'spare-receptor' population following chronic opioid treatment...