R A Towner


Affiliation: Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
Country: USA


  1. Towner R, Smith N, Saunders D, Lupu F, Silasi Mansat R, West M, et al. In vivo detection of free radicals using molecular MRI and immuno-spin trapping in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;63:351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel, noninvasive, in vivo diagnostic method can be applied to investigate the involvement of free radical mechanisms in ALS rodent models. ..
  2. Towner R, Garteiser P, Bozza F, Smith N, Saunders D, D Avila J, et al. In vivo detection of free radicals in mouse septic encephalopathy using molecular MRI and immuno-spin trapping. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:828-837 pubmed publisher
    ..05 for both), were elevated in septic brains compared to shams. This is the first study that has reported on the detection of in vivo and in situ levels of free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy. ..
  3. Towner R, Smith N, Asano Y, He T, Doblas S, Saunders D, et al. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging approaches used to aid in the understanding of angiogenesis in vivo: implications for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010;16:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-R2 levels in tumor tissues were also confirmed in western blots and via immunohistochemistry. Based on our results, in vivo evaluation of tissue angiogenesis using molecular MRI is possible in tissue engineering applications. ..
  4. Towner R, Smith N, Saunders D, Van Gordon S, Wisniewski A, Tyler K, et al. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool to assess bladder permeability and associated colon cross talk: preclinical studies in a rat model. J Urol. 2015;193:1394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be considered a potential clinical diagnostic method for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome that involves loss of the permeability barrier. It can also be used to assess visceral organ cross talk. ..
  5. Coutinho de Souza P, Smith N, Atolagbe O, Ziegler J, Njoku C, Lerner M, et al. OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;87:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this method can potentially be applied toward other types of cancers for the in vivo detection of macromolecular free radicals and the assessment of antioxidants. ..
  6. Towner R, Wisniewski A, Wu D, Van Gordon S, Smith N, North J, et al. A Feasibility Study to Determine Whether Clinical Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis. J Urol. 2016;195:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest that contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides an objective, quantifiable measurement of bladder permeability that could be used to stratify bladder pain patients and monitor therapy. ..
  7. Towner R, Smith N, Saunders D, De Souza P, Henry L, Lupu F, et al. Combined molecular MRI and immuno-spin-trapping for in vivo detection of free radicals in orthotopic mouse GL261 gliomas. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-localization of the anti-DMPO probe with either 3-NT or 4-hydroxynonenal was also observed. This is the first report regarding the detection of in vivo levels of free radicals from a glioma model. ..
  8. Towner R, Saunders D, Smith N, Towler W, Cruz M, Do S, et al. Assessing long-term neuroinflammatory responses to encephalopathy using MRI approaches in a rat endotoxemia model. GeroScience. 2018;40:49-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We clearly demonstrated BBB dysfunction, impaired vascularity, and decreased brain metabolites, as measures of long-term neuroinflammatory indicators, as well as increased free radicals in a LPS-induced rat SAE model. ..
  9. Towner R, Ihnat M, Saunders D, Bastian A, Smith N, Pavana R, et al. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:522 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Towner R, Smith N, Doblas S, Tesiram Y, Garteiser P, Saunders D, et al. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:174-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas. ..
  2. Towner R, Smith N, Doblas S, Garteiser P, Watanabe Y, He T, et al. In vivo detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rodent gliomas. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo assessment of iNOS levels associated with tumor development is quite feasible in heterogeneous tissues with mMRI...
  3. Towner R, Jensen R, Colman H, Vaillant B, Smith N, Casteel R, et al. ELTD1, a potential new biomarker for gliomas. Neurosurgery. 2013;72:77-90; discussion 91 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of ELTD1 was also validated in both rodent and human gliomas and may serve as an additional biomarker for gliomas in preclinical and clinical diagnosis of gliomas. ..
  4. Towner R, Gillespie D, Schwager A, Saunders D, Smith N, Njoku C, et al. Regression of glioma tumor growth in F98 and U87 rat glioma models by the Nitrone OKN-007. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..001 in F98, P < .05 in U87]), compared with untreated animals. OKN-007 may be considered as a promising therapeutic addition or alternative for the treatment of aggressive human gliomas. ..
  5. Towner R, Jensen R, Vaillant B, Colman H, Saunders D, Giles C, et al. Experimental validation of 5 in-silico predicted glioma biomarkers. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:1625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study strongly suggests that this type of bioinformatics approach has high translational potential to rapidly discern which poorly characterized proteins may be of clinical relevance. ..
  6. Towner R, Smith N. In vivo and in situ detection of macromolecular free radicals using immuno-spin trapping and molecular MRI. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;: pubmed publisher