Carol L Shields


Affiliation: Ocular Oncology Service
Country: USA


  1. Shah S, Shields C, Bianciotto C, Iturralde J, Al Dahmash S, Say E, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab at 4-month intervals for prevention of macular edema after plaque radiotherapy of uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:269-275 pubmed publisher
  2. Fung A, Pellegrini M, Shields C. Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium: enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography in 18 cases. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:251-256 pubmed publisher
    ..A prominent feature is outer retinal loss, generally involving the outer nuclear layer to photoreceptors, occasionally with a characteristic subretinal cleft. ..
  3. Shields C, Pellegrini M, Kligman B, Bianciotto C, Shields J. Ciliary body and choroidal pseudomelanoma from ultrasonographic imaging of hypermature cataract in 20 cases. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2546-2551 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrasonographic confusion with a ciliary body and choroidal melanoma can occur because the dome-shaped cataract can simulate a dome-shaped melanoma. ..
  4. Kaliki S, Shields C, Eagle R, Vemuganti G, Almeida A, Manjandavida F, et al. Ciliary body medulloepithelioma: analysis of 41 cases. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2552-2559 pubmed publisher
    ..Medulloepithelioma most commonly occurs in children. Systemic association with pleuropulmonary blastoma rarely is found. Patients with extrascleral medulloepithelioma are at risk for metastasis. ..
  5. Shields C, Kaliki S, Al Dahmash S, Lally S, Shields J. American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) clinical classification predicts conjunctival melanoma outcomes. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;28:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Melanoma classified as T2 and T3 (compared with T1) showed significantly higher rates of local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and death. ..
  6. Shields C, Kels J, Shields J. Melanoma of the eye: revealing hidden secrets, one at a time. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33:183-96 pubmed publisher
    ..One at a time, we have uncovered the secrets of ocular melanoma and we forge ahead with the goal to solve the riddle of this challenging disease. ..
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    Shields C, Chong W, Ehya H, Shields J. Sequential bilateral solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the ciliary body. Cornea. 2007;26:759-61 pubmed
    ..Extramedullary plasmacytoma can involve the uvea and rarely manifest multiplicity. Long-term monitoring for systemic plasma cell dyscrasia is warranted. ..
  8. Shields C, Thangappan A, Hartzell K, Valente P, Pirondini C, Shields J. Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in 77 consecutive patients visual outcome based on macular versus extramacular tumor location. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:2246-2252.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE can cause profound visual acuity loss, particularly with macular tumors. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
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    Shields C, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, Berman E, Zahler J, Hoberman D, et al. Visual acuity in 3422 consecutive eyes with choroidal nevus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1501-7 pubmed
    ..72). Mild vision loss over many years should be anticipated in patients with subfoveolar choroidal nevus, particularly those with overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment, orange pigment, and foveal edema. ..

More Information


  1. Shields C, Kaliki S, Kim H, Al Dahmash S, Shah S, Lally S, et al. Interferon for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in 81 cases: outcomes based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Cornea. 2013;32:248-56 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN?2b, when appropriately combined with surgical excision for OSSN, provides complete control in 95% of cases overall, specifically in 90% Tis, in 100% T1, in 100% T2, in 94% T3, and in 100% T4. ..
  2. Shields C, Furuta M, Berman E, Zahler J, Hoberman D, Dinh D, et al. Choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma: analysis of 2514 consecutive cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:981-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Shields C, Pirondini C, Bianciotto C, Materin M, Harmon S, Shields J. Autofluorescence of choroidal nevus in 64 cases. Retina. 2008;28:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Choroidal nevus shows little intrinsic autofluorescence. Overlying RPE alterations show dramatic autofluorescence ranging from dark hypoautofluorescence of RPE atrophy to bright hyperautofluorescence of orange pigment. ..
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    Shields C, Pirondini C, Bianciotto C, Harmon S, Shields J. Autofluorescence of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Retina. 2007;27:1097-100 pubmed
    ..The lacunae showed general mild hyperautofluorescence that might correlate with scleral autofluorescence. ..
  5. Pellegrini M, Shields C, Arepalli S, Shields J. Choroidal melanocytosis evaluation with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:257-261 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced depth imaging OCT revealed that choroidal melanocytosis shows increased subfoveal choroidal thickness with an apparent increase in the choroidal perivascular stromal tissue and minimal effect on the overlying retina. ..
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    Shields C, Shields J, Eagle R, Cangemi F. Progressive enlargement of acquired retinal astrocytoma in 2 cases. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:363-8 pubmed
    ..Retinal astrocytoma can show progressive enlargement, retinal detachment, and vitreous seeding, findings that can mislead the clinician toward the diagnosis of retinoblastoma or choroidal melanoma. ..
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    Shields C, Bianciotto C, Pirondini C, Materin M, Harmon S, Shields J. Autofluorescence of orange pigment overlying small choroidal melanoma. Retina. 2007;27:1107-11 pubmed
    ..The melanoma was isoautofluorescent. Intracellular lipofuscin overlying small choroidal melanomas shows discrete and bright hyperautofluorescence. The brightness correlates directly with the clinically visible orange pigment. ..
  8. Shields C, Kaliki S, Furuta M, Fulco E, Alarcón C, Shields J. American Joint Committee on Cancer classification of posterior uveal melanoma (tumor size category) predicts prognosis in 7731 patients. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk for metastasis and death increased 2-fold with each increasing melanoma category. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  9. Shields C, Kaliki S, Furuta M, Fulco E, Alarcón C, Shields J. American Joint Committee on Cancer Classification of Uveal Melanoma (Anatomic Stage) Predicts Prognosis in 7,731 Patients: The 2013 Zimmerman Lecture. Ophthalmology. 2015;122:1180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Early detection of posterior uveal melanoma, at a point when the tumor is small, can be lifesaving. ..
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    Shields C, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, Berman E, Zahler J, Hoberman D, et al. Clinical spectrum of choroidal nevi based on age at presentation in 3422 consecutive eyes. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:546-552.e2 pubmed
    ..Symptomatic nevi are more likely to be nonpigmented, beneath the foveola, and with subfoveolar fluid. ..
  11. Shields C, Schoenberg E, Kocher K, Shukla S, Kaliki S, Shields J. Lesions simulating retinoblastoma (pseudoretinoblastoma) in 604 cases: results based on age at presentation. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common pseudoretinoblastomas include Coats' disease, PFV, and vitreous hemorrhage, but the spectrum varies depending on patient age. ..
  12. Shields C, Kancherla S, Bianciotto C, Lally S, Shields J. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma) of the socket: management of extensive tumors with interferon. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients wearing ophthalmic prosthesis over a socket should be monitored for the development of OSSN. Combined topical and injection IFNa2b could represent a potentially effective therapy for this condition. ..
  13. Shields C, Kaliki S, Shah S, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Shields J. Effect of intraarterial chemotherapy on retinoblastoma-induced retinal detachment. Retina. 2012;32:799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Eyes with retinoblastoma-induced total or partial retinal detachment showed complete resolution of detachment after IAC in 43% and 100%, respectively. ..
  14. Shields C, Shields J. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: the beginning of a long journey. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite its allure, intra-arterial chemotherapy should be used with caution, as in other fields of paediatric oncology it has been found to provide no advantage over intravenous chemotherapy. Time will tell. ..
  15. Shields C, Salazar P, Mashayekhi A, Shields J. Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy simulating choroidal melanoma in 173 eyes. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..After observation (mean 15 months), lesion regression or stability was found in 80 eyes (89%) and progression was found in 10 eyes (11%). PEHCR is a hemorrhagic retinal degenerative process that simulates choroidal melanoma. ..
  16. Shields C, Materin M, Marr B, Krepostman J, Shields J. Resolution of exudative retinal detachment from retinal astrocytoma following photodynamic therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:273-4 pubmed publisher
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    Shields C, Meadows A, Shields J, Carvalho C, Smith A. Chemoreduction for retinoblastoma may prevent intracranial neuroblastic malignancy (trilateral retinoblastoma). Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1269-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether neoadjuvant intravenous chemotherapy (chemoreduction) for retinoblastoma reduces the risk for associated intracranial neuroblastic tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma)...
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    Shields C, Mashayekhi A, Cater J, Shelil A, Ness S, Meadows A, et al. Macular retinoblastoma managed with chemoreduction: analysis of tumor control with or without adjuvant thermotherapy in 68 tumors. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:765-73 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of chemoreduction alone and chemoreduction with thermotherapy for macular retinoblastoma...
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    Shields C, Mashayekhi A, Dai V, Materin M, Shields J. Optical coherence tomographic findings of combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in 11 patients. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1746-50 pubmed
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    Shields C, Shields J. Basic understanding of current classification and management of retinoblastoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006;17:228-34 pubmed
    ..The current classification and management strategies for retinoblastoma are discussed...
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    Furuta M, Shields C, Shields L, Uysal Y, Shields J. Bilateral primary choroidal melanoma treated with bilateral plaque radiotherapy: a report of three cases. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:879-82 pubmed
    ..To report three cases of bilateral primary choroidal melanoma treated with bilateral plaque radiotherapy...
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    Shields C, Perez B, Materin M, Mehta S, Shields J. Optical coherence tomography of choroidal osteoma in 22 cases: evidence for photoreceptor atrophy over the decalcified portion of the tumor. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:e53-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the retinal status overlying choroidal osteoma using optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  23. Shields C, Ghassemi F, Tuncer S, Thangappan A, Shields J. Clinical spectrum of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma in 34 consecutive eyes. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:2253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the clinical features and management of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma...
  24. Shields C, Fulco E, Arias J, Alarcon C, Pellegrini M, Rishi P, et al. Retinoblastoma frontiers with intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal chemotherapy. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral retinoblastoma is most often managed with IVC and unilateral retinoblastoma with IAC, but if advanced stage, combination IVC plus IAC or enucleation...
  25. Shields C, Shah S, Bianciotto C, Emrich J, Komarnicky L, Shields J. Iris melanoma management with iodine-125 plaque radiotherapy in 144 patients: impact of melanoma-related glaucoma on outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the outcomes of iris melanoma managed with plaque radiotherapy on the basis of the initial presence or absence of glaucoma...
  26. Shields C, Kaliki S, Rojanaporn D, Al Dahmash S, Bianciotto C, Shields J. Intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: what have we learned?. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the recent literature on two methods of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma using intravenous versus intra-arterial route...
  27. Shields C, Kancherla S, Patel J, Vijayvargiya P, Suriano M, Kolbus E, et al. Clinical survey of 3680 iris tumors based on patient age at presentation. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the spectrum of iris lesions based on patient age at presentation...
  28. Shields C, Kaliki S, Shah S, Bianciotto C, Liu D, Jabbour P, et al. Minimal exposure (one or two cycles) of intra-arterial chemotherapy in the management of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the efficacy of less than 3 cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma...
  29. Shields C, Kligman B, Suriano M, Viloria V, Iturralde J, Shields M, et al. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type in 7 patients: combination of ocular pigmentation (melanocytosis or melanosis) and nevus flammeus with risk for melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:746-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the features of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (cesioflammea type)...
  30. Shields C, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Ramasubramanian A, Lally S, Griffin G, et al. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: report No. 1, control of retinal tumors, subretinal seeds, and vitreous seeds. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe tumor control following intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma...
  31. Shields C, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Griffin G, Ramasubramanian A, Rosenwasser R, et al. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: report No. 2, treatment complications. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe treatment complications following intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma...
  32. Shields C, Belinsky I, Romanelli Gobbi M, Guzman J, Mazzuca D, Green W, et al. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography of conjunctival nevus. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:915-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate conjunctival nevi using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
  33. Bianciotto C, Shields C, Iturralde J, Sarici A, Jabbour P, Shields J. Fluorescein angiographic findings after intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:843-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate fluorescein angiography (FA) findings after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma...
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    Shields C, Sun H, Demirci H, Shields J. Factors predictive of tumor growth, tumor decalcification, choroidal neovascularization, and visual outcome in 74 eyes with choroidal osteoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1658-66 pubmed
    ..To evaluate choroidal osteoma for tumor growth, tumor decalcification, related choroidal neovascularization, visual acuity loss, and poor visual acuity...
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    Shields C, Shields J, Armstrong T. Management of conjunctival and corneal melanoma with surgical excision, amniotic membrane allograft, and topical chemotherapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:576-8 pubmed
    ..To illustrate a novel method of management for extensive conjunctival and corneal melanoma...