W R Leonard

Summary

Affiliation: Northwestern University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 27:311-27. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Assessing the influence of physical activity on health and fitness
    W R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 13:159-61. 2001
  3. doi request reprint Laboratory and field methods for measuring human energy expenditure
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 24:372-84. 2012
  4. pmc Evaluating indices of traditional ecological knowledge: a methodological contribution
    Victoria Reyes-García
    ICREA and ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:21. 2006
  5. doi request reprint Contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho to human population biology: an introduction
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:599-605. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Metabolic correlates of hominid brain evolution
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, 1810 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136:5-15. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Measuring human energy expenditure: what have we learned from the flex-heart rate method?
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 15:479-89. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Energetics and evolution: an emerging research domain
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 14:547-50. 2002
  9. doi request reprint Reduced fat oxidation and obesity risks among the Buryat of Southern Siberia
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:664-70. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon
    S Tanner
    Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 25:123-30. 2013

Research Grants

  1. Inequality, social capital and health in Boliva
    William Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 27:311-27. 2007
    ..Paleontological evidence indicates that rapid brain evolution occurred with the emergence of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago and was associated with important changes in diet, body size, and foraging behavior...
  2. ncbi request reprint Assessing the influence of physical activity on health and fitness
    W R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 13:159-61. 2001
    ..Such information is necessary for promoting lifestyle changes that will reduce the risks of obesity and other chronic diseases...
  3. doi request reprint Laboratory and field methods for measuring human energy expenditure
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 24:372-84. 2012
    ..Methods for measuring three important dimensions of human EE-resting metabolic rate, working/exercising EE, and total EE-are then presented, highlighting key areas of ongoing research...
  4. pmc Evaluating indices of traditional ecological knowledge: a methodological contribution
    Victoria Reyes-García
    ICREA and ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:21. 2006
    ..Few studies have addressed reliability of indices of traditional ecological knowledge constructed with different quantitative methods...
  5. doi request reprint Contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho to human population biology: an introduction
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:599-605. 2009
    ..Both the breadth and impact of Frisancho's work have been truly remarkable. The field of human population biology owes much to the tremendous contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho...
  6. ncbi request reprint Metabolic correlates of hominid brain evolution
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, 1810 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136:5-15. 2003
    ..Paleontological evidence indicates that the rapid brain evolution observed with the emergence of Homo erectus at approximately 1.8 million years ago was likely associated with important changes in diet and body composition...
  7. ncbi request reprint Measuring human energy expenditure: what have we learned from the flex-heart rate method?
    William R Leonard
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 15:479-89. 2003
    ..The review and analyses highlight how the flex-HR technique has improved on earlier methods of assessing energy expenditure and greatly advanced our understanding of variability in human energy requirements...
  8. ncbi request reprint Energetics and evolution: an emerging research domain
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 14:547-50. 2002
    ..It represents a starting point for further integrative research on human evolutionary energetics...
  9. doi request reprint Reduced fat oxidation and obesity risks among the Buryat of Southern Siberia
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:664-70. 2009
    ..Further longitudinal research is necessary to elucidate the pathways through which early-life undernutrition may increase risks for adulthood obesity and cardiovascular disease...
  10. doi request reprint Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon
    S Tanner
    Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 25:123-30. 2013
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Maintenance versus growth: investigating the costs of immune activation among children in lowland Bolivia
    T W McDade
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 136:478-84. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Underestimation of daily energy expenditure with the factorial method: implications for anthropological research
    W R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 103:443-54. 1997
    ..Moreover, it is likely that underrepresentation of TDEE is most problematic in rural societies of the developing world which tend to have high activity levels and great risk of malnutrition...
  13. ncbi request reprint High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiposity, and blood pressure in the Yakut of Siberia
    M V Sorensen
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516 3115, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 18:766-75. 2006
    ..Our findings underscore the need for further research on the metabolic activity of adipose tissue, blood pressure, and inflammatory activation in non-Western populations...
  14. ncbi request reprint Total energy expenditure in the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia as measured by the doubly labeled water method
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:798-806. 2006
    ..Although reduced physical activity has been implicated, few studies have accurately quantified energy expenditure in subsistence populations...
  15. ncbi request reprint Neandertal energetics and foraging efficiency
    M V Sorensen
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    J Hum Evol 40:483-95. 2001
    ..Thus, Neandertals could have been either highly active or poor foragers, but they could not have been both...
  16. doi request reprint Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia
    S Tanner
    Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 1619, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 21:651-6. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections...
  17. ncbi request reprint The China Productivity Project: results and conclusions
    A T Steegmann
    Department of Anthropology, SUNY Buffalo 14261, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 103:295-313. 1997
    ..6% of the work output variance. Simultaneous prediction by FASEM (LISREL) is also very strong...
  18. ncbi request reprint Nutrition, thyroid function and basal metabolism of the Evenki of central Siberia
    W R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Int J Circumpolar Health 58:281-95. 1999
    ..Further, they show the importance of dietary and nutritional factors for influencing thyroid function and, in turn, metabolic rates among such northern groups...
  19. ncbi request reprint Health consequences of postsocialist transition: dietary and lifestyle determinants of plasma lipids in Yakutia
    M V Sorensen
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516 3115, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 17:576-92. 2005
    ..Such variable responses to lifestyle change emphasize the need to better understand the distinct social and historical events that may influence health changes among populations in transition...
  20. ncbi request reprint Physical growth and nutritional status of Tsimane' Amerindian children of lowland Bolivia
    Z Foster
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 126:343-51. 2005
    ..Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region...
  21. ncbi request reprint Adaptive dimensions of health research among indigenous Siberians
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 19:165-80. 2007
    ..These results underscore the importance of incorporating an evolutionary approach into health research among northern populations...
  22. ncbi request reprint Predictors of C-reactive protein in Tsimane' 2 to 15 year-olds in lowland Bolivia
    T W McDade
    Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 128:906-13. 2005
    ..The measurement of CRP offers a direct, objective indicator of immune activation, and provides insights into a potentially important pathway through which environmental quality may shape child growth and health...
  23. doi request reprint Is obesity associated with lower body temperatures? Core temperature: a forgotten variable in energy balance
    Lewis Landsberg
    Northwestern University Comprehensive Center on Obesity, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Metabolism 58:871-6. 2009
    ..This review explores the hypothesis that lower body temperatures contribute to the enhanced metabolic efficiency of the obese state...
  24. ncbi request reprint Basal metabolic rate in the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 17:155-72. 2005
    ..This study provides additional evidence of metabolic elevation in indigenous circumpolar groups and has important implications for estimating the nutritional requirements of these populations...
  25. pmc Do the obese have lower body temperatures? A new look at a forgotten variable in energy balance
    Lewis Landsberg
    Northwestern University Comprehensive Center on Obesity, 750 N Lake Shore Drive, Rubloff Suite 9 976, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 120:287-95. 2009
    ..If this hypothesis is validated, new therapeutic approaches may ensue...
  26. ncbi request reprint Food for thought. Dietary change was a driving force in human evolution
    William R Leonard
    Northwestern University, USA
    Sci Am 287:106-15. 2002
  27. ncbi request reprint Climatic influences on basal metabolic rates among circumpolar populations
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 14:609-20. 2002
    ..Further research exploring the genetics of seasonal variation in thyroid function and BMR among circumpolar groups would advance understanding of the role that selection may have played in shaping metabolic variation...
  28. doi request reprint Developmental changes in the relationship between leptin and adiposity among Tsimané children and adolescents
    Katherine C B Sharrock
    Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 20:392-8. 2008
    ..These findings suggest a more important role of leptin as a signal of energy stores among females as they approach reproductive maturity, while raising questions about the function of this hormone in lean males...
  29. ncbi request reprint An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa
    S C Anton
    Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Hum Evol 43:773-85. 2002
    ..erectus facilitated by changes in ecosystem structure during the Plio-Pleistocene...
  30. doi request reprint The influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among indigenous Siberians
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 137:145-55. 2008
    ..These findings underscore the importance of considering the influence of biological adaptation to regional environmental conditions in structuring health changes associated with economic development and lifestyle change...
  31. ncbi request reprint Seasonal variation in basal metabolic rates among the yakut (Sakha) of Northeastern Siberia
    W R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
    Am J Hum Biol 26:437-45. 2014
    ..Among women, variation in food use had the strongest impact on metabolic function. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:437-445, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  32. pmc Ethnobotanical knowledge is associated with indices of child health in the Bolivian Amazon
    T W McDade
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6134-9. 2007
    ..These results underscore the importance of local cultural factors to child health and document a potential cost if ethnobotanical knowledge is lost...
  33. ncbi request reprint Anthropometric correlates of C-reactive protein among indigenous Siberians
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403, USA
    J Physiol Anthropol 26:241-6. 2007
    ..Positive associations were documented between CRP and BMI, body fat, and central adiposity...
  34. ncbi request reprint Declining growth status of indigenous Siberian children in post-Soviet Russia
    William R Leonard
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Hum Biol 74:197-209. 2002
    ..Further work is necessary to determine the proximate causes of the disturbing trends, and the potential solutions and interventions...
  35. ncbi request reprint Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic syndrome in an indigenous Siberian population
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Int J Circumpolar Health 69:87-98. 2010
    ..This study investigated the lifestyle and anthropometric correlates of impaired fasting glucose and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among an Indigenous high-latitude herding population from north-eastern Siberia...
  36. ncbi request reprint Caretakers, child care practices, and growth failure in highland Ecuador
    J P Stansbury
    Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, USA
    Med Anthropol Q 14:224-41. 2000
    ....
  37. doi request reprint Lifestyle incongruity, stress and immune function in indigenous Siberians: the health impacts of rapid social and economic change
    Mark V Sorensen
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 3115, USA
    Am J Phys Anthropol 138:62-9. 2009
    ..The findings also suggest that relative, as opposed to absolute, level of economic status or material wealth is more strongly related to stress in the Siberian context...
  38. doi request reprint Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS): the first 5 years (2002-2006) of socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropometric data available to the public
    William R Leonard
    Northwestern University, USA
    Econ Hum Biol 6:299-301. 2008
    ..The article provides a brief overview of the data covered and the steps needed to access the data...
  39. ncbi request reprint The emergence of obesity among indigenous Siberians
    J Josh Snodgrass
    Institute for Mind and Biology, The University of Chicago, IL, USA
    J Physiol Anthropol 25:75-84. 2006
    ..Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity...
  40. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status and spousal empowerment among native Amazonians
    Ricardo A Godoy
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management Waltham, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    Soc Sci Med 63:1517-30. 2006
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Human capital, wealth, and nutrition in the Bolivian Amazon
    Ricardo Godoy
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Econ Hum Biol 3:139-62. 2005
    ..Dietary quality (foods high in animal proteins), access to foraging technology, and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are related to better anthropometric indices...
  42. ncbi request reprint Income inequality and adult nutritional status: anthropometric evidence from a pre-industrial society in the Bolivian Amazon
    Ricardo Godoy
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Heller Building MS 078, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Soc Sci Med 61:907-19. 2005
    ..The use of an experimental research design might allow for better estimates of how income inequality affects social capital and individual health...
  43. ncbi request reprint Physical stature of adult Tsimane' Amerindians, Bolivian Amazon in the 20th century
    Ricardo A Godoy
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 9110, USA
    Econ Hum Biol 4:184-205. 2006
    ..The absence of a secular change likely reflects the persistence of traditional forms of social organization and production that protect health...

Research Grants1

  1. Inequality, social capital and health in Boliva
    William Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....