J E Ledoux

Summary

Affiliation: New York University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
  2. doi request reprint The slippery slope of fear
    Joseph E LeDoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 6 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 17:155-6. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint The self: clues from the brain
    Joseph LeDoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1001:295-304. 2003
  4. pmc Emotional memory and psychopathology
    J E Ledoux
    Department of Psychology, New York University, NY 10003, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352:1719-26. 1997
  5. ncbi request reprint Activation of ERK/MAP kinase in the amygdala is required for memory consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 20:8177-87. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Memory consolidation of auditory pavlovian fear conditioning requires protein synthesis and protein kinase A in the amygdala
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 20:RC96. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Intra-amygdala blockade of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor disrupts the acquisition but not the expression of fear conditioning
    S M Rodrigues
    W. M. Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 21:6889-96. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Pavlovian fear conditioning regulates Thr286 autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at lateral amygdala synapses
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 24:3281-8. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 is required for fear memory formation and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5219-29. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory
    J C Repa
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:724-31. 2001

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. ncbi request reprint Emotion circuits in the brain
    J E Ledoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155-84. 2000
    ..With so much research being done in this area today, it is important that the mistakes of the past not be made again. It is also time to expand from this foundation into broader aspects of mind and behavior...
  2. doi request reprint The slippery slope of fear
    Joseph E LeDoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 6 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 17:155-6. 2013
    ..Restricting the use of 'fear' to denote feelings and using 'threat-induced defensive reactions' for the responses would help avoid misunderstandings about the brain mechanisms involved...
  3. ncbi request reprint The self: clues from the brain
    Joseph LeDoux
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1001:295-304. 2003
    ..It is instead, just a way of understanding how these other aspects of who we are relate, deep down, to the brain...
  4. pmc Emotional memory and psychopathology
    J E Ledoux
    Department of Psychology, New York University, NY 10003, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352:1719-26. 1997
    ..Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved...
  5. ncbi request reprint Activation of ERK/MAP kinase in the amygdala is required for memory consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 20:8177-87. 2000
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that ERK/MAPK activation is necessary for both memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the amygdala...
  6. ncbi request reprint Memory consolidation of auditory pavlovian fear conditioning requires protein synthesis and protein kinase A in the amygdala
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 20:RC96. 2000
    ..Findings suggest that the LA is essential for memory consolidation of auditory fear conditioning and that this process is PKA and protein-synthesis dependent...
  7. ncbi request reprint Intra-amygdala blockade of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor disrupts the acquisition but not the expression of fear conditioning
    S M Rodrigues
    W. M. Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 21:6889-96. 2001
    ..NMDA receptors in LA are thus involved in fear conditioning, and the NR2B subunit appears to make unique contributions to the underlying plasticity...
  8. ncbi request reprint Pavlovian fear conditioning regulates Thr286 autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at lateral amygdala synapses
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 24:3281-8. 2004
    ..Together, the results of these experiments provide the first comprehensive view of the role of CaMKII in the amygdala during fear conditioning...
  9. ncbi request reprint The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 is required for fear memory formation and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5219-29. 2002
    ..Collectively, the results of this study indicate that mGluR5 in the LA plays a crucial role in fear conditioning and in plasticity at synapses involved in fear conditioning...
  10. ncbi request reprint Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory
    J C Repa
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:724-31. 2001
    ..These anatomically distinct cells in LAd may be differentially involved in the initiation of learning and long-term memory storage...
  11. pmc Damage to the lateral and central, but not other, amygdaloid nuclei prevents the acquisition of auditory fear conditioning
    K Nader
    W.M. Keck Foundation Laboratory for Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Learn Mem 8:156-63. 2001
    ..These findings show that only the lateral and central nuclei are necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear response to an auditory conditioned stimulus...
  12. ncbi request reprint Myosin light chain kinase regulates synaptic plasticity and fear learning in the lateral amygdala
    R Lamprecht
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory for Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuroscience 139:821-9. 2006
    ..Impairment of this mechanism could contribute to pathological fear learning...
  13. ncbi request reprint Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning requires nitric oxide signaling in the lateral amygdala
    Glenn E Schafe
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Ave, Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 22:201-11. 2005
    ..Collectively, the findings suggest that NO signaling is an important component of memory formation of auditory fear conditioning, possibly as a retrograde signal that participates in presynaptic aspects of plasticity in the LA...
  14. ncbi request reprint Auditory fear conditioning and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala require ERK/MAP kinase signaling in the auditory thalamus: a role for presynaptic plasticity in the fear system
    Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 25:5730-9. 2005
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Ventral medial prefrontal cortex and emotional perseveration: the memory for prior extinction training
    Maria A Morgan
    Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    Behav Brain Res 146:121-30. 2003
    ..Third, contextual cues processed by mPFCv may influence extinction performance...
  16. ncbi request reprint The induction of c-Fos in the NTS after taste aversion learning is not correlated with measures of conditioned fear
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Behav Neurosci 114:99-106. 2000
    ..Further, exposure to a taste CS did not selectively lead to increases in MAP or HR. Results suggest that induction of c-FLI in the iNTS may reflect the activation of a cell population whose function is unique to the CTA paradigm...
  17. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala
    M T Rogan
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 390:604-7. 1997
    ..LTP-like associative processes thus occur during fear conditioning, and these may underlie the long-term associative plasticity that constitutes memory of the conditioning experience...
  18. ncbi request reprint Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning: a cellular and molecular perspective
    G E Schafe
    W M Keck Foundation, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Trends Neurosci 24:540-6. 2001
    ....
  19. pmc Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction
    Mauricio R Delgado
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Neuron 59:829-38. 2008
    ..These findings further suggest that humans may have developed complex cognition that can aid in regulating emotional responses while utilizing phylogenetically shared mechanisms of extinction...
  20. pmc Dissociable roles for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in fear extinction: NR2B contribution
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Cereb Cortex 19:474-82. 2009
    ....
  21. pmc The amygdala encodes specific sensory features of an aversive reinforcer
    Jacek Debiec
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:536-7. 2010
    ..Thus, specific features of the unconditioned stimulus appear to be encoded in the amygdala as part of fear memories stored there...
  22. ncbi request reprint Fear learning transiently impairs hippocampal cell proliferation
    K Pham
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuroscience 130:17-24. 2005
    ..Instead, the effect of context conditioning on cell proliferation appears to be specifically due to the formation of an association between the context and shock during training, an amygdala dependent function...
  23. doi request reprint From fear to safety and back: reversal of fear in the human brain
    Daniela Schiller
    Psychology Department, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11517-25. 2008
    ..These results elucidate how fear is readjusted to appropriately track environmental changes, and the brain mechanisms underlying the flexible control of fear...
  24. pmc The role of amygdala nuclei in the expression of auditory signaled two-way active avoidance in rats
    June Seek Choi
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Learn Mem 17:139-47. 2010
    ..The CE is not required, and may in fact constrain the instrumental avoidance response by mediating the generation of competing Pavlovian responses, such as freezing...
  25. ncbi request reprint Synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala: a cellular hypothesis of fear conditioning
    H T Blair
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Learn Mem 8:229-42. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Repeated restraint stress facilitates fear conditioning independently of causing hippocampal CA3 dendritic atrophy
    C D Conrad
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1104, USA
    Behav Neurosci 113:902-13. 1999
    ..These data argue that different neural substrates underlie spatial recognition memory and fear conditioning...
  27. ncbi request reprint Lesions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupt corticosterone and freezing responses elicited by a contextual but not by a specific cue-conditioned fear stimulus
    G M Sullivan
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 41, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuroscience 128:7-14. 2004
    ..The results are also not consistent with the hypothesis that BNST is only involved in unconditioned aspects of fear and anxiety...
  28. pmc Directly reactivated, but not indirectly reactivated, memories undergo reconsolidation in the amygdala
    Jacek Debiec
    WM Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, Room 809, NY 10003, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3428-33. 2006
    ....
  29. pmc Fear and safety learning differentially affect synapse size and dendritic translation in the lateral amygdala
    Linnaea E Ostroff
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9418-23. 2010
    ..We conclude that LA synapse size changes bidirectionally with learning and that the spine apparatus has a central role in regulating synapse size and local translation...
  30. ncbi request reprint Brain mechanisms of fear extinction: historical perspectives on the contribution of prefrontal cortex
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:329-36. 2006
    ..We also consider the role of the mPFC in a broader neural circuit for extinction that includes the amygdala and hippocampus...
  31. ncbi request reprint Tracking the fear engram: the lateral amygdala is an essential locus of fear memory storage
    Glenn E Schafe
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Neurosci 25:10010-4. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology, New York University, 4 6 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Neuron 48:175-87. 2005
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: linking fear learning to memory consolidation
    Marie H Monfils
    Center for Neural Science, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York University, New York, NY 10003 6621, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 72:235-7. 2007
    ..Each induces phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein, which binds to the BDNF promoter, leading to BDNF expression in the LA, and contributes to fear memory consolidation...
  34. pmc Noradrenergic enhancement of reconsolidation in the amygdala impairs extinction of conditioned fear in rats--a possible mechanism for the persistence of traumatic memories in PTSD
    Jacek Debiec
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    Depress Anxiety 28:186-93. 2011
    ..We previously reported that noradrenergic blockade in the rat amygdala impairs reconsolidation of fear memories. Here we investigated the effects of noradrenergic enhancement on reconsolidation of learned fear...
  35. ncbi request reprint Noradrenergic signaling in the amygdala contributes to the reconsolidation of fear memory: treatment implications for PTSD
    Jacek Debiec
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Pl, Room 809, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071:521-4. 2006
    ..This suggests that noradrenergic blockade may be useful in attenuating traumatic memories, even well-consolidated old memories, in PTSD...
  36. ncbi request reprint Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: a cellular mechanism of fear learning and memory
    Torfi Sigurdsson
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuropharmacology 52:215-27. 2007
    ..The results gained from these studies may shed light not only on fear conditioning, but may also help unravel more general cellular mechanisms of learning and memory...
  37. pmc Antagonism of lateral amygdala alpha1-adrenergic receptors facilitates fear conditioning and long-term potentiation
    Stephanie C Lazzaro
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Learn Mem 17:489-93. 2010
    ..Since alpha1 blockers are prescribed for hypertension and post-traumatic stress disorder, these results may have important clinical implications...
  38. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in fear: isolating fear reactivity and fear recovery phenotypes
    David E A Bush
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    J Trauma Stress 20:413-22. 2007
    ..Because clinical disorders may reflect extreme phenotypes, identification of the biological basis for these differences could provide insights into human individual differences in fear...
  39. ncbi request reprint Escape from fear: a detailed behavioral analysis of two atypical responses reinforced by CS termination
    Christopher K Cain
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, NY 10003, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:451-63. 2007
    ..Successful EFF learning also resulted in better long-term elimination of a passive fear reaction (freezing). Factors important for EFF experiments and theoretical considerations are discussed...
  40. pmc Evidence for recovery of fear following immediate extinction in rats and humans
    Daniela Schiller
    Psychology Department, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Learn Mem 15:394-402. 2008
    ..Thus, our data do not support the hypothesis that immediate extinction erases the original memory trace, nor do they suggest that a close temporal proximity of therapeutic intervention to the traumatic event might be advantageous...
  41. pmc Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: key to persistent attenuation of fear memories
    Marie H Monfils
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Science 324:951-5. 2009
    ..This procedure permanently attenuates the fear memory without the use of drugs...
  42. ncbi request reprint Acquisition of fear extinction requires activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the lateral amygdala
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1929-40. 2007
    ..Thus, our results support a previously not known role for NMDA-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala during the acquisition of fear extinction...
  43. ncbi request reprint Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase- mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation of auditory fear conditioning
    Sevil Duvarci
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, NY, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 21:283-9. 2005
    ..Our data show that activation of ERK-MAPK signalling pathway and protein synthesis in the LA are required for reconsolidation of auditory fear memories...
  44. pmc Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms
    Daniela Schiller
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 463:49-53. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate the adaptive role of reconsolidation as a window of opportunity to rewrite emotional memories, and suggest a non-invasive technique that can be used safely in humans to prevent the return of fear...
  45. ncbi request reprint NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels contribute to long-term potentiation and different components of fear memory formation in the lateral amygdala
    Elizabeth P Bauer
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5239-49. 2002
    ..Collectively, the results suggest that two pharmacologically distinct forms of LTP can be isolated in the LA in vitro and that a combination of both contribute to the formation of fear memories in vivo at the cellular level...
  46. ncbi request reprint Heterosynaptic long-term potentiation of inhibitory interneurons in the lateral amygdala
    Elizabeth P Bauer
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 24:9507-12. 2004
    ..Plasticity of inhibitory transmission within the LA may therefore contribute significantly to LA-mediated functions, such as fear conditioning...
  47. ncbi request reprint Fear memory formation involves p190 RhoGAP and ROCK proteins through a GRB2-mediated complex
    Raphael Lamprecht
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory for Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 36:727-38. 2002
    ..Thus, the p190 RhoGAP/ROCK pathway, which regulates the morphology of dendrites and axons during neural development, plays a central role, through a GRB2-mediated molecular complex, in fear memory formation in the lateral amygdala...
  48. ncbi request reprint Emotional perseveration: an update on prefrontal-amygdala interactions in fear extinction
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003 6621, USA
    Learn Mem 11:525-35. 2004
    ..Based on this result, we propose an updated model for integrating hippocampal-based contextual information with prefrontal-amygdala circuitry...
  49. ncbi request reprint Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC
    Elizabeth A Phelps
    Department of Psychology and New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 43:897-905. 2004
    ..These results provide evidence that the mechanisms of extinction learning may be preserved across species...
  50. ncbi request reprint Conclusions: from self-knowledge to a science of the self
    Jacek Debiec
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1001:305-15. 2003
    ..This conference and volume explored areas where some of the different approaches to the self overlap and will, it is hoped, promote the establishment of a richer, more coherent image of what the self is...
  51. ncbi request reprint Serotonin modulation of sensory inputs to the lateral amygdala: dependency on corticosterone
    G E Stutzmann
    New York University, Center for Neural Science, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 18:9529-38. 1998
    ..Via this mechanism, 5-HT modulates the processing of sensory information within the LA and thus may regulate amygdala-related functions...
  52. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of the mesoamygdala dopaminergic pathway impairs the retrieval of conditioned fear associations
    K Nader
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Behav Neurosci 113:891-901. 1999
    ..Infusions of the D1 agonist SKF 38393 into the LBA had no effect. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that the VTA-LBA dopaminergic projection modulates the retrieval of an association between a CS and footshock US...
  53. ncbi request reprint The labile nature of consolidation theory
    K Nader
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 1:216-9. 2000
    ..Our findings open up a new dimension in the study of memory consolidation. We argue that consolidation is not a one-time event, but instead is reiterated with subsequent activation of the memories...
  54. ncbi request reprint Localization of glucocorticoid receptors at postsynaptic membranes in the lateral amygdala
    L R Johnson
    NIMH Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Fear and Anxiety Center for Neural Science, 4 Washington Place, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuroscience 136:289-99. 2005
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Long-term potentiation in freely moving rats reveals asymmetries in thalamic and cortical inputs to the lateral amygdala
    Valérie Doyère
    W M Keck Foundation, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, NYU, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 17:2703-15. 2003
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Associative plasticity in neurons of the lateral amygdala during auditory fear conditioning
    Hugh T Blair
    Department of Psychology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 985:485-7. 2003
  57. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms underlying emotional learning and memory in the lateral amygdala
    Sarina M Rodrigues
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 44:75-91. 2004
    ..Given that the neural circuit underlying fear conditioning has been implicated in emotional disorders in humans, the molecular mechanisms of fear conditioning are potential targets for psychotherapeutic drug development...
  58. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning drives profilin into amygdala dendritic spines
    Raphael Lamprecht
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory for Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:481-3. 2006
    ..A greater proportion of profilin-containing spines with enlarged PSDs could contribute to the enhancement of associatively induced synaptic responses in the lateral amygdala following fear learning...
  59. pmc Distribution of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at thalamo-amygdaloid dendritic spines
    Jason J Radley
    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Brain Res 1134:87-94. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a dynamic gatekeeper of neural plasticity
    Kiriana K Cowansage
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, USA
    Curr Mol Pharmacol 3:12-29. 2010
    ..We conclude by emphasizing the importance of characterizing BDNF signaling cascades in behaviorally-relevant networks, to identify potential drug targets for novel therapeutic interventions...
  61. pmc Asymmetries in long-term and short-term plasticity at thalamic and cortical inputs to the amygdala in vivo
    Torfi Siguròsson
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 31:250-62. 2010
    ..These results highlight the divergent nature of short- and long-term plasticity at thalamic and cortical sensory inputs to the LA, pointing to their different roles in the fear learning system...
  62. ncbi request reprint Disruption of reconsolidation but not consolidation of auditory fear conditioning by noradrenergic blockade in the amygdala
    J Debiec
    W M Keck Foundation, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuroscience 129:267-72. 2004
    ..That the systemic effects of propranolol on reconsolidation are achieved via an action in the amygdala is especially important in light of the fact that PTSD involves alterations in the amygdala [Arch Gen Psychiatry 53 (1996) 380]...
  63. ncbi request reprint Human fear-related motor neurocircuitry
    T Butler
    Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Box 140, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuroscience 150:1-7. 2007
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint A-kinase anchoring proteins in amygdala are involved in auditory fear memory
    Marta A P Moita
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:837-8. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Rodent doxapram model of panic: behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala
    Gregory M Sullivan
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 53:863-70. 2003
    ..Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant that reliably evokes panic attacks in patients with panic disorder. We examined doxapram in four rodent models of anxiety and sought to identify brain regions involved in its behavioral effects...
  66. pmc Acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase conditioned fear expression: blockade with a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist
    Nesha S Burghardt
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York 10032 2695, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1111-8. 2007
    ..Here, we extend our findings by assessing the effects of acute SSRI treatment on the expression of previously acquired conditioned fear...
  67. ncbi request reprint Rethinking the fear circuit: the central nucleus of the amygdala is required for the acquisition, consolidation, and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    Ann E Wilensky
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Neurosci 26:12387-96. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that CE is not only involved in fear expression but, like LA, is also involved in the learning and consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning...
  68. pmc Optical activation of lateral amygdala pyramidal cells instructs associative fear learning
    Joshua P Johansen
    Center for Neural Science, Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12692-7. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate in vivo optogenetic control of LA neurons and provide compelling support for the idea that fear learning is instructed by aversive stimulus-induced activation of LA pyramidal cells...
  69. pmc Sidman instrumental avoidance initially depends on lateral and basal amygdala and is constrained by central amygdala-mediated Pavlovian processes
    Gabriel Lazaro-Munoz
    WM Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:1120-7. 2010
    ..Pavlovian freezing was simultaneously assessed to examine the contributions of amygdala nuclei to the transition from reactive to active defensive responding...
  70. ncbi request reprint Unconditioned stimulus pathways to the amygdala: effects of posterior thalamic and cortical lesions on fear conditioning
    E Lanuza
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuroscience 125:305-15. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Redefining the tonotopic core of rat auditory cortex: physiological evidence for a posterior field
    Neot N Doron
    W M Keck Laboratories of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Comp Neurol 453:345-60. 2002
    ..Furthermore, our physiological characterization of TE1 reveals that it is larger than suggested by previous anatomical characterizations...
  72. ncbi request reprint The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram increases fear after acute treatment but reduces fear with chronic treatment: a comparison with tianeptine
    Nesha S Burghardt
    W M Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:1171-8. 2004
    ..In this study, we used fear conditioning to begin to understand how acute and chronic SSRI treatment might differentially affect well-characterized fear circuits...
  73. ncbi request reprint Parallels between cerebellum- and amygdala-dependent conditioning
    Javier F Medina
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, W M Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neurobiology, University of California, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Room HSE 808, San Francisco, California 94143 0444, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:122-31. 2002
    ..So, anatomically distinct cell populations might contribute differentially to the initial encoding and the long-term storage of memory in these two systems...
  74. ncbi request reprint Cellular and systems reconsolidation in the hippocampus
    Jacek Debiec
    Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, 31 501, Cracow, Poland
    Neuron 36:527-38. 2002
    ..Thus, hippocampal memories can undergo reconsolidation at both the cellular and systems levels...
  75. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal place cells acquire location-specific responses to the conditioned stimulus during auditory fear conditioning
    Marta A P Moita
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 37:485-97. 2003
    ..These findings may help to elucidate how the hippocampus contributes to context-specific memory formation during associative learning...
  76. ncbi request reprint Synapse-specific reconsolidation of distinct fear memories in the lateral amygdala
    Valérie Doyère
    Neurobiologie de l Apprentissage, de la Mémoire et de la Communication NAMC, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, UMR8620, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay, France
    Nat Neurosci 10:414-6. 2007
    ..Thus, both retrieval and reconsolidation alter memories via synaptic plasticity at selectively targeted synapses...
  77. ncbi request reprint Associative Pavlovian conditioning leads to an increase in spinophilin-immunoreactive dendritic spines in the lateral amygdala
    Jason J Radley
    Laboratory for Neuronal Structure and Function, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:876-84. 2006
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint A robust automated method to analyze rodent motion during fear conditioning
    Charles D Kopec
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Jones Building, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuropharmacology 52:228-33. 2007
    ..This automated analysis of fear conditioning will permit a more rapid and accurate assessment of the role of LTP in memory...
  79. ncbi request reprint New vistas on amygdala networks in conditioned fear
    DENIS PARE
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers State University, 197 University Ave, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    J Neurophysiol 92:1-9. 2004
    ..Thus plasticity in both LA and CE would be necessary for acquisition of conditioned fear. This revised model also accounts for inhibition of conditioned fear after extinction...
  80. ncbi request reprint Putting fear in its place: remapping of hippocampal place cells during fear conditioning
    Marta A P Moita
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Sciencia, P 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    J Neurosci 24:7015-23. 2004
    ....