F X Castellanos

Summary

Affiliation: New York University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint [Syndrome of attention deficit with hyperactivity as the expression of an organic functional disorder]
    F X Castellanos
    Child Study Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Rev Neurol 35:1-11. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    JAMA 288:1740-8. 2002
  3. pmc A cooperative interaction between LPHN3 and 11q doubles the risk for ADHD
    M Jain
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:741-7. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1600, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 91:274-80. 1996
  5. ncbi request reprint Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21:1185-201. 1997
  6. ncbi request reprint Lack of an association between a dopamine-4 receptor polymorphism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic and brain morphometric analyses
    F X Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1600, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 3:431-4. 1998
  7. ncbi request reprint Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 23:571-88. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    F X Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg 10, Room 3N-202, 10 Center Dr-MSC 1600, Bethesda, MD 20892-1600, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:289-95. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder]
    F X Castellanos
    Institute of Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York NY 10016 6404, USA
    Rev Neurol 38:S131-6. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of single-dose amphetamine formulations in ADHD
    R S James
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1268-76. 2001

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint [Syndrome of attention deficit with hyperactivity as the expression of an organic functional disorder]
    F X Castellanos
    Child Study Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Rev Neurol 35:1-11. 2002
    ..The diagnosis of ADHD can be determined reliably from the clinical history, but the causes and pathophysiology of the disorder remain unclear...
  2. ncbi request reprint Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    JAMA 288:1740-8. 2002
    ..Various anatomic brain abnormalities have been reported for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with varying methods, small samples, cross-sectional designs, and without accounting for stimulant drug exposure...
  3. pmc A cooperative interaction between LPHN3 and 11q doubles the risk for ADHD
    M Jain
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:741-7. 2012
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1600, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 91:274-80. 1996
    ..These findings support anatomical studies indicating ongoing myelination of higher association areas throughout adolescence, but raise intriguing questions about anterior-posterior gradients of interhemispheric myelination...
  5. ncbi request reprint Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21:1185-201. 1997
    ..5. These sexually dimorphic patterns of brain development may be related to the observed sex differences in age of onset, prevalence, and symptomatology seen in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood...
  6. ncbi request reprint Lack of an association between a dopamine-4 receptor polymorphism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic and brain morphometric analyses
    F X Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1600, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 3:431-4. 1998
    ..These data do not support the reported association between DRD4*7R and the behavioral or brain morphometric phenotype associated with ADHD...
  7. ncbi request reprint Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 23:571-88. 1999
    ..7. The results of this longitudinal study, in addition to confirming and extending previous cross-sectional reports, provide an increasingly accurate yardstick from which to assess pathological development...
  8. ncbi request reprint Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    F X Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg 10, Room 3N-202, 10 Center Dr-MSC 1600, Bethesda, MD 20892-1600, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:289-95. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous findings for boys in the posterior-inferior lobules of the cerebellar vermis. The influence of the cerebellar vermis on prefrontal and striatal circuitry should be explored...
  9. ncbi request reprint [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder]
    F X Castellanos
    Institute of Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York NY 10016 6404, USA
    Rev Neurol 38:S131-6. 2004
    ..Specific regional differences have been found in many studies in the basal ganglia with the most prominent differences being found in the cerebellum...
  10. ncbi request reprint Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of single-dose amphetamine formulations in ADHD
    R S James
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1268-76. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Both immediate-release amphetamines demonstrated earlier onset of effects, but dextroamphetamine Spansules showed more sustained effects that were present on a wider range of measures...
  11. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in pediatric neuropsychiatric disease
    B B Mittleman
    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 159:2994-9. 1997
    ..These data provide a rationale for immune-based strategies of study and therapeutics in childhood neuropsychiatric disease...
  12. ncbi request reprint Imaging normal and abnormal brain development: new perspectives for child psychiatry
    J L Rapoport
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1600, USA
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35:272-81. 2001
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Brain imaging of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    J N Giedd
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 10, Room 4C110, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1367, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 931:33-49. 2001
    ..Although not currently of diagnostic utility, further extension and refinement of these findings may offer hope for greater understanding of the core nature of ADHD and possible subtyping to inform treatment interventions...
  14. doi request reprint A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication
    M Arcos-Burgos
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 35 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:1053-66. 2010
    ..Linkage and replicated association of ADHD with a novel non-candidate gene (LPHN3) provide new insights into the genetics, neurobiology, and treatment of ADHD...
  15. doi request reprint Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study
    A Di Martino
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2735-47. 2008
    ..This approach holds promise for studying basal ganglia dysfunction in clinical disorders...
  16. ncbi request reprint Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene 7-repeat allele with children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update
    M C Gornick
    Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1600, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144:379-82. 2007
    ..This provides further evidence of the role of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in the etiology of ADHD and suggests that this allele may be associated with a more benign form of the disorder...
  17. ncbi request reprint Altered performance on an ocular fixation task in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    T D Gould
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 50:633-5. 2001
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) replicates association and linkage between DRD4 and ADHD in multigenerational and extended pedigrees from a genetic isolate
    M Arcos-Burgos
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1852, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:252-9. 2004
    ..These results provide further evidence for the association of ADHD to genetic variation in or near to DRD4 and replicate the previously reported association between ADHD and the 7R allele...
  19. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): feasibility of linkage analysis in a genetic isolate using extended and multigenerational pedigrees
    M Arcos-Burgos
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Genet 61:335-43. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Spontaneous attentional fluctuations in impaired states and pathological conditions: a neurobiological hypothesis
    Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
    Developmental Brain and Behaviour Unit, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31:977-86. 2007
    ..Finally, we explore the putative role of default-mode interference as a cause of performance variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
  21. ncbi request reprint Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis
    James M Swanson
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA
    Neuropsychol Rev 17:39-59. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Philip Shaw
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1500, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:540-9. 2006
    ..Data from a previous prospective study of lobar volumes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reexamined using a measure of cortical thickness...
  23. ncbi request reprint Monozygotic twins discordant for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: ascertainment and clinical characteristics
    Wendy S Sharp
    Child Psychology Branch of the NIMH, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:93-7. 2003
    ..Nongenetic factors and phenomenology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for ADHD...
  24. ncbi request reprint Distinct neural mechanisms of risk and ambiguity: a meta-analysis of decision-making
    Amy L Krain
    New York University Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, 215 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuroimage 32:477-84. 2006
    ..These findings provide evidence for the dissociation of neural circuits underlying risky and ambiguous decision-making, reflecting differential involvement of affective "hot" and cognitive "cool" processes...
  25. ncbi request reprint Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, 215 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:117-23. 2006
    ..Such a reconceptualization provides a means to transcend the limits of current models of executive dysfunction in ADHD and suggests a plan for future research on cognition grounded in neurophysiological and developmental considerations...
  26. ncbi request reprint Mapping the functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex
    Daniel S Margulies
    The Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, 215 Lexington Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuroimage 37:579-88. 2007
    ..We discuss the implications of our work for understanding ACC function and potential applications to clinical populations...
  27. ncbi request reprint A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of uncertainty in adolescents with anxiety disorders
    Amy L Krain
    New York University Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:563-8. 2008
    ..As such, the present study examines the relationship between IU and neural responses to uncertainty in anxious adolescents...
  28. pmc Cingulate-precuneus interactions: a new locus of dysfunction in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:332-7. 2008
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of metoclopramide for the treatment of Tourette's disorder
    Rob Nicolson
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:640-6. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of metoclopramide in the treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders...
  30. ncbi request reprint Competition between functional brain networks mediates behavioral variability
    A M Clare Kelly
    The Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuroimage 39:527-37. 2008
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of the behavioral significance of spontaneous brain activity, in both healthy and clinical populations...
  31. doi request reprint Network homogeneity reveals decreased integrity of default-mode network in ADHD
    Lucina Q Uddin
    The Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 169:249-54. 2008
    ..Network homogeneity provides a potential alternative method for assessing functional connectivity of specific large-scale networks in clinical populations...
  32. pmc Residual functional connectivity in the split-brain revealed with resting-state functional MRI
    Lucina Q Uddin
    New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuroreport 19:703-9. 2008
    ..Such continued interhemispheric interaction suggests that, at least in part, cortical networks in the brain can be coordinated by subcortical mechanisms...
  33. ncbi request reprint Cerebellar neurotransmission in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: does dopamine neurotransmission occur in the cerebellar vermis?
    Paul E A Glaser
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, 40536, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 151:62-7. 2006
    ..The presence of DAT may therefore allow for enhanced regulation of NE and not regulation of released DA...
  34. ncbi request reprint Temporal and probabilistic discounting of rewards in children and adolescents: effects of age and ADHD symptoms
    Anouk Scheres
    Psychology Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, USA
    Neuropsychologia 44:2092-103. 2006
    ..The decrease in TD as observed in adolescents compared to children may be related to developmental changes in the (dorsolateral) prefrontal cortex. Future research needs to investigate these possibilities...
  35. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    A M Clare Kelly
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 9:401-7. 2007
    ..These developments allow us to conclude that neuroimaging studies of ADHD will increasingly inform our understanding of the neuronal substrates of ADHD...
  36. pmc Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, New York University, Child Study Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1416-23. 2005
    ..These results highlight the importance of retaining time-series data and quantitatively examining intra-subject measures of variability as a putative endophenotype for ADHD...
  37. ncbi request reprint Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes
    F Xavier Castellanos
    New York University Child Study Center, 577 First Avenue, CSC 204, New York, New York 10016 6404, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:617-28. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint Proceed, with caution: SPECT cerebral blood flow studies of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    F Xavier Castellanos
    NYU Child Study Center, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Nucl Med 43:1630-3. 2002
  39. ncbi request reprint Anatomic brain abnormalities in monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    F Xavier Castellanos
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1693-6. 2003
    ..To examine brain-behavior relationships in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the authors obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of monozygotic twins discordant for ADHD...
  40. ncbi request reprint The ipsilateral silent period in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Marjorie A Garvey
    Pediatric Movement Disorders Unit, Human Motor Control Section, MNB, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:1889-96. 2005
    ..Characterize maturation of transcallosal inhibition (ipsilateral silent period [iSP]) in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
  41. ncbi request reprint Shifting-related brain magnetic activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Fernando Mulas
    Valencian Institute of Pediatric Neurology, Valencia, Spain
    Biol Psychiatry 59:373-9. 2006
    ..Current theories suggest a role for frontal-striatal circuits in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  42. ncbi request reprint Neurologic examination abnormalities in children with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Daniel P Dickstein
    National Institute of Mental Health, Pediatrics and Developmental Neuropsychiatry Branch, 10 Center Drive MSC 1255, Building 10 Room 4N208, Bethesda MD 20892 1255, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 58:517-24. 2005
    ..To move beyond diagnosis toward unique pathophysiology, we evaluated both ADHD and BPD children for neurologic examination abnormalities (NEAs) in comparison with normal control (NC) children...
  43. ncbi request reprint Children, stress, and context: integrating basic, clinical, and experimental prevention research
    Laurie Miller Brotman
    New York University Child Study Center, NY 10016, USA
    Child Dev 74:1053-7. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of amphetamine isomers on dopamine release in the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens core
    Paul E A Glaser
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky, 306 Davis Mills Bldg, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 178:250-8. 2005
    ....
  45. pmc Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population isolate: linkage to loci at 4q13.2, 5q33.3, 11q22, and 17p11
    Mauricio Arcos-Burgos
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3717, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 75:998-1014. 2004
    ..The concordance between results from different analytical methods of linkage and the replication of data between two independent studies suggest that these loci truly harbor ADHD susceptibility genes...
  46. ncbi request reprint Functional neuroimaging of social cognition in pervasive developmental disorders: a brief review
    Adriana Di Martino
    New York University Child Study Center, 577 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1008:256-60. 2003
    ..Future studies should extend these important initial results to younger and more severely affected subjects...
  47. pmc Latent class subtyping of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid conditions
    Maria T Acosta
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3717, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:797-807. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to perform LCA in a sample of 1,010 individuals from a nationwide recruitment of unilineal nuclear families with at least one child with ADHD and another child either affected or clearly unaffected...
  48. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidities in 18 Paisa Colombian multigenerational families
    Juan D Palacio
    Neurosciences Group, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:1506-15. 2004
    ..This report describes the inclusion strategy and clinical features of participants to facilitate comparisons with other data sets...
  49. ncbi request reprint Molecular genetic studies of ADHD: 1991 to 2004
    Aaron J Bobb
    Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 132:109-25. 2005
    ..All candidate gene approaches continue to face the problem of relatively low power, given modest odds ratios for even the best replicated genes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Support for association between ADHD and two candidate genes: NET1 and DRD1
    Aaron J Bobb
    Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1600, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 134:67-72. 2005
    ..Because family-based and case-control methods gave divergent results, both should be used in genetic studies of ADHD...
  51. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor, clinical outcome, and cortical structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Philip Shaw
    Child Psychiatry Branch, Room 3N202, Bldg 10, Center Drive, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:921-31. 2007
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, and a polymorphism within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been frequently implicated in its pathogenesis...
  52. ncbi request reprint Cytogenetic abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Theresa M Bastain
    Child Psychiatry Branch of the NIMH, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:806-10. 2002
    ..To systematically assess the prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, and other cytogenetic abnormalities in a group of children with attention-defict/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders: evidence of pleiotropy and new susceptibility loci
    Mahim Jain
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3717, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1329-39. 2007
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) and substance abuse/dependence seems to represent a specific subset within the phenotypic ADHD spectrum...
  54. ncbi request reprint Brain development and ADHD
    Amy L Krain
    Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, 215 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Clin Psychol Rev 26:433-44. 2006
    ..Differences in gray and white matter have also been examined. The ultimate goal of this research is to determine the underlying neurophysiology of ADHD and how specific phenotypes may be related to alterations in brain structure...
  55. ncbi request reprint Functional MRI in pediatric neurobehavioral disorders
    Michael Seyffert
    Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, New York University Child Study Center, New York New York 10016, USA
    Int Rev Neurobiol 67:239-84. 2005
  56. ncbi request reprint Towards a neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: fractionating the phenotype
    F Xavier Castellanos
    J Neurosci Methods 151:1-4. 2006