Zheng Xiong Xi

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:162-71. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist NGB 2904 inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects and cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1393-405. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 inhibits cocaine-primed relapse in rats: role of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8531-6. 2006
  4. pmc A single high dose of methamphetamine increases cocaine self-administration by depletion of striatal dopamine in rats
    Z X Xi
    Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Boulevard, BRC Room 05A705, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuroscience 161:392-402. 2009
  5. pmc N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) inhibits intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 58:304-13. 2010
  6. pmc Pharmacological actions of NGB 2904, a selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, in animal models of drug addiction
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    CNS Drug Rev 13:240-59. 2007
  7. pmc Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:57-65. 2004
  8. pmc Inhibition of NAALADase by 2-PMPA attenuates cocaine-induced relapse in rats: a NAAG-mGluR2/3-mediated mechanism
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 112:564-76. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of non-vesicular glutamate release by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    J Neurochem 87:1204-12. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists attenuate cocaine's rewarding effects: experiments with self-administration and brain-stimulation reward in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1735-45. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:162-71. 2002
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist NGB 2904 inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects and cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1393-405. 2006
    ..Owing to these properties and to its lack of rewarding effects (as assessed by BSR and by substitution during drug self-administration), NGB 2904 merits further investigation as a potential agent for treatment of cocaine addiction...
  3. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 inhibits cocaine-primed relapse in rats: role of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8531-6. 2006
    ....
  4. pmc A single high dose of methamphetamine increases cocaine self-administration by depletion of striatal dopamine in rats
    Z X Xi
    Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Boulevard, BRC Room 05A705, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuroscience 161:392-402. 2009
    ....
  5. pmc N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) inhibits intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 58:304-13. 2010
    ..These data suggest a potential utility for 2-PMPA or NAAG in the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  6. pmc Pharmacological actions of NGB 2904, a selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, in animal models of drug addiction
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    CNS Drug Rev 13:240-59. 2007
    ..In addition, NGB 2904 may also act as a useful tool to study the role of D3 receptors in drug addiction...
  7. pmc Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:57-65. 2004
    ..We have previously shown that selective D3 receptor blockade by the novel D3 antagonist SB-277011A inhibits cocaine's reinforcing action and cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior...
  8. pmc Inhibition of NAALADase by 2-PMPA attenuates cocaine-induced relapse in rats: a NAAG-mGluR2/3-mediated mechanism
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 112:564-76. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that 2-PMPA is effective in attenuating cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior, likely by attenuating cocaine-induced increases in NAc DA and glutamate via pre-synaptic mGluR2/3s...
  9. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of non-vesicular glutamate release by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    J Neurochem 87:1204-12. 2003
    ..Together, these data indicate that group III mGluRs regulate in vivo extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens by inhibiting non-vesicular glutamate release...
  10. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists attenuate cocaine's rewarding effects: experiments with self-administration and brain-stimulation reward in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1735-45. 2008
    ..Thus, AM 251 or other more potent CB1 receptor antagonists deserve further study as potentially effective anti-cocaine medications...
  11. pmc Hypothesis-driven medication discovery for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Drug Abuse Rev 1:303-27. 2008
    ..We conclude that hypothesis-based medication development strategies could significantly promote medication discovery for the effective treatment of psychostimulant addiction...
  12. pmc Brain cannabinoid CB₂ receptors modulate cocaine's actions in mice
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:1160-6. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that brain CB(2) receptors modulate cocaine's rewarding and locomotor-stimulating effects, likely by a dopamine-dependent mechanism...
  13. pmc Levo-tetrahydropalmatine inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects: experiments with self-administration and brain-stimulation reward in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 53:771-82. 2007
    ..Together, the present data, combined with previous findings, support the potential use of l-THP for treatment of cocaine addiction...
  14. pmc Acute administration of SB-277011A, NGB 2904, or BP 897 inhibits cocaine cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats: role of dopamine D3 receptors
    Jeremy G Gilbert
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 57:17-28. 2005
    ....
  15. pmc The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions
    Arlene C Pak
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 9:585-602. 2006
    ..The results suggest that selective D3 receptor antagonism constitutes a new and promising pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of nicotine dependence...
  16. pmc Blockade of dopamine D3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and central amygdala inhibits incubation of cocaine craving in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Addict Biol 18:665-77. 2013
    ..These data suggest that DA D3 Rs in both the NAc and the CeA play an important role in incubation of cocaine craving in rats and support the potential utility of D3 R antagonists in the treatment of cocaine addiction. ..
  17. pmc Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 modulates the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats: involvement of a ventral pallidal GABAergic mechanism
    Xia Li
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1783-96. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonism by SB-277011A attenuates cocaine reinforcement as assessed by progressive-ratio and variable-cost-variable-payoff fixed-ratio cocaine self-administration in rats
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 21:3427-38. 2005
    ..If these results extrapolate to humans, SB-277011A or similar selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  19. pmc The preferential dopamine D3 receptor antagonist S33138 inhibits cocaine reward and cocaine-triggered relapse to drug-seeking behavior in rats
    Xiao Qing Peng
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 56:752-60. 2009
    ....
  20. pmc Oral administration of the NAALADase inhibitor GPI-5693 attenuates cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats
    Xiao Qing Peng
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 627:156-61. 2010
    ..These data suggest that orally effective NAAG peptidase inhibitors deserve further study as potential agents for the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  21. doi request reprint Fenobam sulfate inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats: implications for addiction treatment in humans
    Thomas M Keck
    Medicinal Chemistry Section, Molecular Targets and Medications Discovery Branch, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 229:253-65. 2013
    ..However, neither MPEP nor MTEP have been evaluated in humans due to their off-target actions and rapid metabolism...
  22. ncbi request reprint The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate
    David A Baker
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9134-41. 2002
    ..These results suggest that nonvesicular release from the cystine-glutamate antiporter is the primary source of in vivo extracellular glutamate and that this glutamate can modulate both glutamate and dopamine transmission...
  23. ncbi request reprint GABA transmission in the nucleus accumbens is altered after withdrawal from repeated cocaine
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3498-505. 2003
    ..The increase may be mediated in part by functional desensitization of GABA(B) receptors, likely the result of diminished Ser phosphorylation of the GABA(B2) receptor...
  24. pmc Gamma-vinyl GABA inhibits cocaine-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats by a non-dopaminergic mechanism
    Xiao Qing Peng
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 97:216-25. 2008
    ....
  25. pmc The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists SB-277011A and NGB 2904 and the putative partial D3 receptor agonist BP-897 attenuate methamphetamine-enhanced brain stimulation reward in rats
    Krista Spiller
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:533-42. 2008
    ..We have previously reported that selective antagonism of brain D3 receptors by SB-277011A or NGB 2904 significantly attenuates cocaine- or nicotine-enhanced brain stimulation reward (BSR)...
  26. pmc The metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) allosteric agonist AMN082 modulates nucleus accumbens GABA and glutamate, but not dopamine, in rats
    Xia Li
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 54:542-51. 2008
    ..In contrast to its modulatory effect on GABA and glutamate, the mGluR7 receptor does not appear to modulate NAc DA release...
  27. pmc Effects of gabapentin on cocaine self-administration, cocaine-triggered relapse and cocaine-enhanced nucleus accumbens dopamine in rats
    Xiao Qing Peng
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 97:207-15. 2008
    ..This is in striking contrast to positive findings in the same animal models shown by another GABAmimetic--gamma-vinyl GABA (see companion piece to present article)...
  28. pmc Varenicline attenuates nicotine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward by activation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in rats
    Krista Spiller
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 57:60-6. 2009
    ....
  29. pmc Activation of mGluR7s inhibits cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by a nucleus accumbens glutamate-mGluR2/3 mechanism in rats
    Xia Li
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 114:1368-80. 2010
    ..The present findings support the potential use of mGluR7 agonists for the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  30. ncbi request reprint Modulation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by chronic cocaine
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, BSB 403, Charleston, SC 29464, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:608-15. 2002
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that repeated cocaine produces an enduring reduction in mGluR2/3 function in the nucleus accumbens...
  31. pmc PG01037, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, inhibits the effects of methamphetamine in rats
    Amanda E Higley
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
    J Psychopharmacol 25:263-73. 2011
    ....
  32. pmc Is slow-onset long-acting monoamine transport blockade to cocaine as methadone is to heroin? Implication for anti-addiction medications
    Xiao Qing Peng
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:2564-78. 2010
    ..Ideal agonist substitutes for cocaine should fully emulate methadone's actions, that is, functionally antagonizing cocaine's action while blocking monoamine transporters to augment synaptic DA...
  33. pmc Gamma-vinyl GABA increases nonvesicular release of GABA and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens in rats via action on anion channels and GABA transporters
    Xiao Qing Peng
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 208:511-9. 2010
    ..We have recently reported that gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG), an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, elevates extracellular GABA but fails to alter dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
  34. pmc Dopamine D(3) receptor deletion or blockade attenuates cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice
    Rui Song
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 72:82-7. 2013
    ....
  35. pmc Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands on male sexual behavior in rats
    Xia Li
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 66:373-81. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that compounds that target mGluR5 or mGluR7, but not mGluR2/3, may have short-term inhibitory effects on male sexual performance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'...
  36. pmc Dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist SB-277011A inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking in rats
    Amanda E Higley
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Eur J Pharmacol 659:187-92. 2011
    ....
  37. pmc Attenuation of basal and cocaine-enhanced locomotion and nucleus accumbens dopamine in cannabinoid CB1-receptor-knockout mice
    Xia Li
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Chemical Biology Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:1-11. 2009
    ..Effect of cannabinoid CB1 receptor deletion on cocaine's actions is controversial. This is partly based on findings in CB1-receptor-knockout (CB1(-/-)) mice with CD1 genetic background...
  38. pmc A novel mGluR5 antagonist, MFZ 10-7, inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats
    Thomas M Keck
    Medicinal Chemistry Section, Molecular Targets and Medications Discovery Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Addict Biol 19:195-209. 2014
    ....
  39. pmc Blockade of D3 receptors by YQA14 inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects and relapse to drug-seeking behavior in rats
    Rui Song
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China
    Neuropharmacology 77:398-405. 2014
    ..These findings suggest that YQA14 may have pharmacotherapeutic potential in attenuating cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior. Thus, YQA14 deserves further investigation as a promising agent for treatment of cocaine addiction...
  40. pmc Increased vulnerability to cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D3 receptors
    Rui Song
    Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:17675-80. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that D(3)R deletion increases vulnerability to cocaine, and that reduced D(3)R availability in the brain may constitute a risk factor for the development of cocaine addiction...
  41. ncbi request reprint Opiate self-administration
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Methods Mol Med 84:251-64. 2003
  42. ncbi request reprint Opiate tolerance by heroin self-administration: an fMRI study in rat
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Magn Reson Med 52:108-14. 2004
    ..Together, these data suggest that repeated heroin-SA produces tolerance or desensitization of opiate actions in the rat brain, which may in turn potentiate drug SA behavior and drug intake...
  43. pmc Lower glutamate levels in rostral anterior cingulate of chronic cocaine users - A (1)H-MRS study using TE-averaged PRESS at 3 T with an optimized quantification strategy
    Shaolin Yang
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA, National Institutes of Health NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychiatry Res 174:171-6. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Glutamate transmission and addiction to cocaine
    Peter W Kalivas
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29464, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1003:169-75. 2003
    ..These adaptations are hypothesized to facilitate glutamate release in response to a cocaine injection or acute stress and lead to the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior...
  45. pmc Mechanism-based medication development for the treatment of nicotine dependence
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 30:723-39. 2009
    ..For drugs in each category, we discuss the mechanistic rationale for their potential anti-nicotine efficacy, major findings in preclinical and clinical studies, and future research directions...
  46. pmc Cocaine-induced brain activation detected by dynamic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI)
    Hanbing Lu
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2489-94. 2007
    ..These data suggest that MEMRI may serve as a tool for investigating the effects of pharmacological agents and opens an application of MRI to study CNS drug effects at a systems level...
  47. ncbi request reprint Agents in development for the management of cocaine abuse
    David A Gorelick
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drugs 64:1547-73. 2004
    ..A recent phase I trial of a "cocaine vaccine" found it to be well tolerated and producing detectable levels of anti-cocaine antibodies for up to 9 months after immunisation...
  48. pmc Cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behaviors in rats remain stable after systemic administration of GYKI 52466: a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist
    Ratika Srivastava
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neurosci Lett 508:106-9. 2012
    ..We suggest that although AMPA receptors may be involved in cocaine reward and addiction, the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 has low therapeutic potential for cocaine addiction treatment...
  49. ncbi request reprint GABAergic mechanisms of opiate reinforcement
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Alcohol Alcohol 37:485-94. 2002
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Attenuation of brain response to heroin correlates with the reinstatement of heroin-seeking in rats by fMRI
    Feng Luo
    Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Neuroimage 22:1328-35. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area reduces heroin reinforcement in rat
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164:144-50. 2002
    ....
  52. pmc The role of central dopamine D3 receptors in drug addiction: a review of pharmacological evidence
    Christian A Heidbreder
    Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery in Psychiatry, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 37135 Verona, Italy
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49:77-105. 2005
    ..Provided these results can be extrapolated to human drug addicts, they suggest that selective DA D3 receptor antagonists may prove effective as potential pharmacotherapeutic agents to manage drug dependence and addiction...
  53. ncbi request reprint GABAergic mechanisms of heroin-induced brain activation assessed with functional MRI
    Zheng Xiong Xi
    Biophysics Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Magn Reson Med 48:838-43. 2002
    ..Administration of GVG altered these mechanisms and further suggested that involvement of the opiate's pharmacological actions can, at least in part, be mediated by inhibiting brain GABA release...