N D Volkow

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Brain dopamine transporter levels in treatment and drug naïve adults with ADHD
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 34:1182-90. 2007
  2. doi request reprint Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard 6001, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA
    Curr Top Behav Neurosci 11:1-24. 2012
  3. pmc Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity
    Nora D Volkow
    Laboratory of Neuroimaging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD 20857 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD 20857
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:E3149-56. 2014
  4. pmc Brain glucose metabolism in adults with ataxia-telangiectasia and their asymptomatic relatives
    Nora D Volkow
    1 National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville MD 20857, USA2 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda MD 20892, USA
    Brain 137:1753-61. 2014
  5. pmc Association between dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and age related changes in brain glucose metabolism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e63492. 2013
  6. doi request reprint The addictive dimensionality of obesity
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:811-8. 2013
  7. pmc Predominance of D2 receptors in mediating dopamine's effects in brain metabolism: effects of alcoholism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA
    J Neurosci 33:4527-35. 2013
  8. pmc Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 64:277-83. 2013
  9. pmc Evidence that sleep deprivation downregulates dopamine D2R in ventral striatum in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 32:6711-7. 2012
  10. pmc Epigenetics of nicotine: another nail in the coughing
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Sci Transl Med 3:107ps43. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications140 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Brain dopamine transporter levels in treatment and drug naïve adults with ADHD
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 34:1182-90. 2007
    ..g., prefrontal or cingulostriatal pathways, noradrenergic neurotransmission) is necessary to account for the large differences in inattention observed between controls and ADHD subjects...
  2. doi request reprint Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard 6001, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA
    Curr Top Behav Neurosci 11:1-24. 2012
    ....
  3. pmc Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity
    Nora D Volkow
    Laboratory of Neuroimaging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD 20857 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD 20857
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:E3149-56. 2014
    ....
  4. pmc Brain glucose metabolism in adults with ataxia-telangiectasia and their asymptomatic relatives
    Nora D Volkow
    1 National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville MD 20857, USA2 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda MD 20892, USA
    Brain 137:1753-61. 2014
    ..Our finding of decreased metabolism in vermis and hippocampus of asymptomatic relatives suggests that heterozygocity influences the function of these brain regions. ..
  5. pmc Association between dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and age related changes in brain glucose metabolism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e63492. 2013
    ....
  6. doi request reprint The addictive dimensionality of obesity
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:811-8. 2013
    ....
  7. pmc Predominance of D2 receptors in mediating dopamine's effects in brain metabolism: effects of alcoholism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA
    J Neurosci 33:4527-35. 2013
    ..These findings are consistent with a predominant inhibitory effect of dopamine in the human brain that is likely mediated by the prominence of dopamine D2/D3 receptors...
  8. pmc Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 64:277-83. 2013
    ..These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (i.e. ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification...
  9. pmc Evidence that sleep deprivation downregulates dopamine D2R in ventral striatum in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 32:6711-7. 2012
    ....
  10. pmc Epigenetics of nicotine: another nail in the coughing
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Sci Transl Med 3:107ps43. 2011
    ..Nicotine enhancement of the effects can be mimicked with an inhibitor of chromatin-modifying enzymes (class I and II histone deacetylases). These findings may spur the discovery of therapeutics for the treatment of addiction...
  11. pmc Methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in ventral striatum are associated with long-term symptom improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 32:841-9. 2012
    ..It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response...
  12. pmc Inverse association between BMI and prefrontal metabolic activity in healthy adults
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:60-5. 2009
    ..These results further highlight the urgency to institute public health interventions to prevent obesity...
  13. pmc Effects of modafinil on dopamine and dopamine transporters in the male human brain: clinical implications
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    JAMA 301:1148-54. 2009
    ..Although initially launched as distinct from stimulants that increase extracellular dopamine by targeting dopamine transporters, recent preclinical studies suggest otherwise...
  14. pmc Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, MSC 9581, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    JAMA 302:1084-91. 2009
    ....
  15. pmc Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 49:2536-43. 2010
    ..This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction...
  16. ncbi request reprint Expectation enhances the regional brain metabolic and the reinforcing effects of stimulants in cocaine abusers
    Nora D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurosci 23:11461-8. 2003
    ..The enhanced cerebellar activation with expectation may reflect conditioned responses that are not linked to conscious responses...
  17. pmc Effects of low-field magnetic stimulation on brain glucose metabolism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 51:623-8. 2010
    ..This data provides preliminary evidence that EPI sequences may affect neuronal activity and merits further investigation...
  18. pmc Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11509. 2010
    ..Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic inhibition may help identify potential benefits of this medication in cocaine addiction...
  19. pmc Addiction: decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain's control circuit
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Bioessays 32:748-55. 2010
    ..Upon exposure to the drug, drug cues or stress this results in unrestrained hyperactivation of the motivation/drive circuit that results in the compulsive drug intake that characterizes addiction...
  20. pmc Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 16:1147-54. 2011
    ....
  21. pmc Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 15:37-46. 2011
    ..It is postulated that this could also be a mechanism by which overeating and the resultant resistance to homoeostatic signals impairs the function of circuits involved in reward sensitivity, conditioning and cognitive control...
  22. pmc Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15269. 2010
    ..Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body...
  23. ncbi request reprint Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:932-40. 2007
    ..There is considerable evidence that brain dopamine is involved in ADHD, but it is unclear whether dopamine activity is enhanced or depressed...
  24. pmc Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 28:8454-61. 2008
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6583-8. 2006
    ..Because craving is a key contributor to relapse, strategies aimed at inhibiting dopamine increases from conditioned responses are likely to be therapeutically beneficial in cocaine addiction...
  26. ncbi request reprint High levels of dopamine D2 receptors in unaffected members of alcoholic families: possible protective factors
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20857, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:999-1008. 2006
    ..Alcoholic subjects have low levels of dopamine D(2) receptors in striatum, and increasing D(2) receptor levels in laboratory animals reduces alcohol consumption...
  27. ncbi request reprint Low doses of alcohol substantially decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 29:295-301. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Stimulant-induced enhanced sexual desire as a potential contributing factor in HIV transmission
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 5274, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:157-60. 2007
    ..The authors investigated the effect of the stimulant drug methylphenidate (given intravenously) on sexual desire as a possible contributing factor to risky sexual behavior associated with the contraction of HIV...
  29. ncbi request reprint Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results of imaging studies and treatment implications
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274 MSC 9581, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Neurol 64:1575-9. 2007
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Imaging the effects of methylphenidate on brain dopamine: new model on its therapeutic actions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1410-5. 2005
    ..We postulate that these effects would improve school performance...
  31. ncbi request reprint Drugs and alcohol: treating and preventing abuse, addiction and their medical consequences
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 108:3-17. 2005
    ..Also, because addiction usually starts in adolescence or early adulthood and is frequently comorbid with mental illness, we need to expand our treatment interventions in this age group both for substance abuse and psychiatric disorders...
  32. ncbi request reprint Activation of orbital and medial prefrontal cortex by methylphenidate in cocaine-addicted subjects but not in controls: relevance to addiction
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA
    J Neurosci 25:3932-9. 2005
    ..It also suggests that the mesothalamic DA pathway may contribute to these processes...
  33. ncbi request reprint Profound decreases in dopamine release in striatum in detoxified alcoholics: possible orbitofrontal involvement
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 27:12700-6. 2007
    ....
  34. pmc Dopamine increases in striatum do not elicit craving in cocaine abusers unless they are coupled with cocaine cues
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda MD 20892, USA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 39:1266-73. 2008
    ....
  35. pmc Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2017. 2008
    ..This would explain why methylphenidate has beneficial effects in some individuals and contexts and detrimental effects in others...
  36. ncbi request reprint The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies
    Nora D Volkow
    Office of the Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5274, MSC 9581, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropharmacology 47:3-13. 2004
    ....
  37. pmc Low dopamine striatal D2 receptors are associated with prefrontal metabolism in obese subjects: possible contributing factors
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 42:1537-43. 2008
    ..The association between striatal D2 receptors and metabolism in somatosensory cortices (regions that process palatability) could underlie one of the mechanisms through which dopamine regulates the reinforcing properties of food...
  38. pmc Imaging dopamine's role in drug abuse and addiction
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropharmacology 56:3-8. 2009
    ....
  39. pmc Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3191-200. 2008
    ..These neuronal circuits, which are modulated by DA, interact with one another so that disruption in one circuit can be buffered by another, which highlights the need of multiprong approaches in the treatment of addiction and obesity...
  40. ncbi request reprint Drug addiction: the neurobiology of behaviour gone awry
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:963-70. 2004
    ..This, combined with new knowledge of how environmental, genetic and developmental factors contribute to addiction, should bring about changes in our approach to the prevention and treatment of addiction...
  41. ncbi request reprint Effects of expectation on the brain metabolic responses to methylphenidate and to its placebo in non-drug abusing subjects
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 32:1782-92. 2006
    ..Thus, the state of expectation needs to be considered as a variable modulating the reinforcing and therapeutic effects of drugs even in subjects who have no prior experience with the drug...
  42. pmc Addiction: pulling at the neural threads of social behaviors
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 69:599-602. 2011
    ....
  43. pmc Substance use disorders in schizophrenia--clinical implications of comorbidity
    Nora D Volkow
    1To whom correspondence should be addressed Office of the Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5274, MSC 9581, Bethesda, MD 20892 tel 301 443 6480, fax 301 443 9127, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 35:469-72. 2009
    ..It is critically important to address this comorbidity because SUD in schizophrenic patients is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and contributes significantly to their morbidity and mortality...
  44. ncbi request reprint How can drug addiction help us understand obesity?
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:555-60. 2005
  45. pmc Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    JAMA 305:808-13. 2011
    ..The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear...
  46. pmc New medications for substance use disorders: challenges and opportunities
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:290-2. 2012
    ....
  47. pmc The unrealized potential of addiction science in curbing the HIV epidemic
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, MSC 9581, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr HIV Res 9:393-5. 2011
    ..These aims will require structural changes in the health care system to overcome many of the obstacles that have inhibited the merging of substance abuse treatment with HIV programmes for far too long...
  48. pmc Addiction circuitry in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 52:321-36. 2012
    ....
  49. pmc Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15037-42. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc Positive emotionality is associated with baseline metabolism in orbitofrontal cortex and in regions of the default network
    N D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 16:818-25. 2011
    ....
  51. pmc The urgency of providing comprehensive and integrated treatment for substance abusers with HIV
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 30:1411-9. 2011
    ..But an integrated strategy will require changes in the health care system to overcome lingering obstacles that inhibit the merging of substance abuse treatment with HIV programs...
  52. pmc Reduced metabolism in brain "control networks" following cocaine-cues exposure in female cocaine abusers
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16573. 2011
    ..Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved...
  53. ncbi request reprint Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:19-26. 1999
    ..To assess whether increasing dopamine would reverse these metabolic decrements, they measured the effects of methylphenidate, a drug that increases dopamine, on brain glucose metabolism in 20 cocaine abusers...
  54. ncbi request reprint Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of striatal cholinergic activity: positron emission tomography studies with norchloro[18F]fluoroepibatidine
    Y S Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    J Neurochem 74:1514-21. 2000
    ..However, both the D1 agonist and antagonist had no significant effect. This suggests that under physiological conditions the predominant influence of endogenous dopamine on striatal ACh output is dopamine D2, not D1, receptor-mediated...
  55. ncbi request reprint Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:1325-31. 1998
    ..This study measured, for the first time, dopamine transporter occupancy by orally administered methylphenidate in the human brain and its rate of uptake in the brain...
  56. ncbi request reprint Measuring dopamine transporter occupancy by cocaine in vivo: radiotracer considerations
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 28:111-6. 1998
    ..We conclude that in vivo measurements of DAT occupancy by rapidly clearing drugs like cocaine requires the use of radiotracers having similar kinetics to the drug itself...
  57. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain
    N D Volkow
    Departments of Medical and Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC121. 2001
    ..Alternatively methylphenidate-induced increases in DA, a neurotransmitter involved with motivation and reward, could enhance the salience of the task facilitating the "interest that it elicits" and thus improving performance...
  58. ncbi request reprint Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Nature 386:830-3. 1997
    ..Moreover, they suggest a participation of thalamic dopamine pathways in cocaine addiction, a possibility that merits further investigation...
  59. ncbi request reprint Association between age-related decline in brain dopamine activity and impairment in frontal and cingulate metabolism
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:75-80. 2000
    ..This study investigates the relationship between measures of brain dopamine D(2) receptors (molecules that transmit dopamine signals) and regional brain glucose metabolism (a marker of brain function) in healthy individuals...
  60. ncbi request reprint Large receptor reserve for cannabinoid actions in the central nervous system
    A N Gifford
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288:478-83. 1999
    ..p.), completely abolished specific [131I]AM 281 binding. These experiments suggest that behavioral effects of cannabinoids, like neurochemical effects, are produced at very low receptor occupancy...
  61. ncbi request reprint Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:344-9. 1998
    ..This study assessed the relation between measures of brain dopamine activity and indexes of motor and cognitive function in healthy individuals...
  62. ncbi request reprint Prediction of reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans by brain dopamine D2 receptor levels
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 156:1440-3. 1999
    ..This study assessed whether brain dopamine D2 receptor levels, which show significant intersubject variability, predict reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans...
  63. ncbi request reprint Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain
    N D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Life Sci 65:PL7-12. 1999
    ..Other variables i.e. longer duration of methylphenidate's side effects may counterbalance its reinforcing effects...
  64. ncbi request reprint Dopamine-transporter occupancy after intravenous doses of cocaine and methylphenidate in mice and humans
    S J Gatley
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:93-100. 1999
    ..The present experiments were conducted to examine dose-occupancy and dose-effect relationships in mice for cocaine and also for methylphenidate, a dopamine uptake blocker used in pediatric psychiatry...
  65. ncbi request reprint Effects of methylphenidate on regional brain glucose metabolism in humans: relationship to dopamine D2 receptors
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N Y 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 154:50-5. 1997
    ..The authors' goals were to determine whether baseline dopamine activity contributes to response to methylphenidate and to assess the pattern of metabolic responses associated with enhanced dopamine activity...
  66. pmc Brain monoamine oxidase A inhibition in cigarette smokers
    J S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14065-9. 1996
    ..This suggests that MAO A inhibition needs to be considered as a potential contributing variable in the high rate of smoking in depression and in the development of more effective strategies for smoking cessation...
  67. ncbi request reprint Concentration and occupancy of dopamine transporters in cocaine abusers with [11C]cocaine and PET
    J Logan
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    Synapse 27:347-56. 1997
    ..The average Bmax may, however, provide an estimate of the expected concentration in humans. (2) The DVR can be used as a measure of DAT occupancy without applying an explicit model...
  68. ncbi request reprint Comparable changes in synaptic dopamine induced by methylphenidate and by cocaine in the baboon brain
    N D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 31:59-66. 1999
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of gender difference in regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam
    G J Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychiatry Res 82:37-46. 1998
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint 123I-labeled AM251: a radioiodinated ligand which binds in vivo to mouse brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors
    S J Gatley
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 307:331-8. 1996
    ..08). In in vitro binding assays with mouse hippocampal membranes, tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited binding of [123I]AM251 with an IC50 value of about 700 nM, compared with about 0.2 nM for SR141716A...
  71. ncbi request reprint Comparison between intraperitoneal and oral methylphenidate administration: A microdialysis and locomotor activity study
    M R Gerasimov
    Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 295:51-7. 2000
    ..p. routes are due to central drug bioavailability...
  72. ncbi request reprint Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence
    N D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Neurosci 21:9414-8. 2001
    ..These findings have treatment implications because they suggest that protracted abstinence may reverse some of methamphetamine-induced alterations in brain DA terminals...
  73. ncbi request reprint Smoking a single cigarette does not produce a measurable reduction in brain MAO B in non-smokers
    J S Fowler
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:325-9. 1999
    ..These results indicate that the reduction in MAO B in smokers probably occurs gradually and requires chronic tobacco smoke exposure...
  74. ncbi request reprint Relationship between blockade of dopamine transporters by oral methylphenidate and the increases in extracellular dopamine: therapeutic implications
    Nora D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 43:181-7. 2002
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Evidence that methylphenidate enhances the saliency of a mathematical task by increasing dopamine in the human brain
    Nora D Volkow
    Medical and Chemistry Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1173-80. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to assess if methylphenidate, by increasing dopamine (neurotransmitter involved in motivation) in brain, would enhance the saliency of an academic task, making it more interesting...
  76. ncbi request reprint The role of dopamine in motivation for food in humans: implications for obesity
    Gene Jack Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 6:601-9. 2002
    ..A better understanding of the role of the DA system in the motivation for food intake will help the development of better therapeutic interventions...
  77. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate in humans are associated with increases of dopamine in brain and of epinephrine in plasma
    Nora D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166:264-70. 2003
    ..However, there is some evidence that dopaminergic effects are involved in the cardiovascular actions of these drugs. Here, we evaluated this association in humans...
  78. ncbi request reprint Partial recovery of brain metabolism in methamphetamine abusers after protracted abstinence
    Gene Jack Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:242-8. 2004
    ..In this study, the authors assessed whether metabolism recovers with protracted abstinence...
  79. ncbi request reprint Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex
    Rita Z Goldstein
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, P O Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Neuropsychologia 42:1447-58. 2004
    ..Obtaining valid estimates of alcohol use in cocaine addicted subjects is essential in characterizing neurocognitive functioning in individuals addicted to drugs...
  80. ncbi request reprint Effects of chronic oral methylphenidate on cocaine self-administration and striatal dopamine D2 receptors in rodents
    Panayotis K Thanos
    Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Lab, Medical Department, Building 490, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87:426-33. 2007
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint Role of dopamine in the therapeutic and reinforcing effects of methylphenidate in humans: results from imaging studies
    Nora D Volkow
    Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 12:557-66. 2002
    ..Moreover, abuse of methylphenidate is constrained by its long half-life, which we postulate limits the frequency at which it can be administered...
  82. ncbi request reprint Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain
    Gene Jack Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Neuroimage 21:1790-7. 2004
    ..Here we assess the response of the human brain to the presentation of appetitive food stimuli during food presentation using PET and FDG...
  83. pmc The neuropsychology of cocaine addiction: recent cocaine use masks impairment
    Patricia A Woicik
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1112-22. 2009
    ..These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine...
  84. pmc Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex
    Rita Z Goldstein
    Medical Research, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 490, 30 Bell Avenue, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 159:1642-52. 2002
    ..Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction...
  85. ncbi request reprint The slow and long-lasting blockade of dopamine transporters in human brain induced by the new antidepressant drug radafaxine predict poor reinforcing effects
    Nora D Volkow
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:640-6. 2005
    ..This study measures the potency and kinetics for DAT blockade by radafaxine in human brain...
  86. ncbi request reprint Anger and depression in cocaine addiction: association with the orbitofrontal cortex
    Rita Z Goldstein
    Medical Research, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 490, 30 Bell Ave, Upton, NY, 11973 5000, USA
    Psychiatry Res 138:13-22. 2005
    ....
  87. pmc The effects of cocaine on regional brain glucose metabolism is attenuated in dopamine transporter knockout mice
    Panayotis K Thanos
    Behavioral Neuropharmacology Lab, Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    Synapse 62:319-24. 2008
    ..The greater baseline metabolism in DAT(-/-) than DAT(+/+) mice in cerebellum (brain region mostly devoid of DAT) suggests that dopamine indirectly regulates activity of these brain regions...
  88. pmc Dopamine D4 receptors modulate brain metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum at rest and in response to methylphenidate
    Michael Michaelides
    Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory, 30 Bell Avenue, Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 32:668-76. 2010
    ..The differential response to MP as a function of genotype could explain differences in brain functional responses to MP between patients with ADHD and healthy controls and between patients with ADHD with different D(4) polymorphisms...
  89. ncbi request reprint Enhanced resting activity of the oral somatosensory cortex in obese subjects
    Gene Jack Wang
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Neuroreport 13:1151-5. 2002
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Food restriction markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in a rat model of obesity as assessed with in-vivo muPET imaging ([11C] raclopride) and in-vitro ([3H] spiperone) autoradiography
    Panayotis K Thanos
    Behavioral Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    Synapse 62:50-61. 2008
    ..Here we assess DA D2 receptors (D2R) in a genetic rodent obesity model characterized by leptin-receptor deficiency and assess the influence of food restriction on these receptors...
  91. pmc Neural mechanisms of anger regulation as a function of genetic risk for violence
    Nelly Alia-Klein
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Emotion 9:385-96. 2009
    ....
  92. pmc Hyperstimulation of striatal D2 receptors with sleep deprivation: Implications for cognitive impairment
    Nora D Volkow
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 45:1232-40. 2009
    ..Alternatively, these associations may reflect a compensatory striatal dopamine response (to maintain arousal) that is superimposed on a larger response to sleep deprivation...
  93. ncbi request reprint Brain kinetics of methylphenidate (Ritalin) enantiomers after oral administration
    Yu Shin Ding
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 5000, USA
    Synapse 53:168-75. 2004
    ..These results are pertinent to the question of whether l-threo-MP contributes to the behavioral and side effect profile of MP during treatment of ADHD...
  94. pmc Dopamine transporters in striatum correlate with deactivation in the default mode network during visuospatial attention
    Dardo Tomasi
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6102. 2009
    ..Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task...
  95. pmc D2R DNA transfer into the nucleus accumbens attenuates cocaine self-administration in rats
    Panayotis K Thanos
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Synapse 62:481-6. 2008
    ..Thus strategies aimed at increasing D2R expression in NAc may be beneficial in treating cocaine abuse and addiction...
  96. pmc Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task
    Rita Z Goldstein
    Department of Medical Research, Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 5000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16667-72. 2010
    ..neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested...
  97. ncbi request reprint Role of dopamine, the frontal cortex and memory circuits in drug addiction: insight from imaging studies
    Nora D Volkow
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 78:610-24. 2002
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint Maternal and fetal 11C-cocaine uptake and kinetics measured in vivo by combined PET and MRI in pregnant nonhuman primates
    Helene Benveniste
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11793, USA
    J Nucl Med 46:312-20. 2005
    ..Here, we evaluate the utility of PET to measure the uptake and distribution of (11)C-cocaine in the third-trimester fetus...
  99. ncbi request reprint In vivo comparative imaging of dopamine D2 knockout and wild-type mice with (11)C-raclopride and microPET
    Panayotis K Thanos
    Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Nucl Med 43:1570-7. 2002
    ..MRI has been used to image brain structural changes in KO mice but, to our knowledge, the feasibility of using PET to investigate brain neurochemistry in KO mice has not been demonstrated...
  100. ncbi request reprint Comparison of monoamine oxidase a in peripheral organs in nonsmokers and smokers
    Joanna S Fowler
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    J Nucl Med 46:1414-20. 2005
    ..Because smoking exposes peripheral organs as well as the brain to MAO A-inhibitory compounds, we determined whether smokers would also have reduced MAO A in peripheral organs...
  101. ncbi request reprint Acute handling stress modulates methylphenidate-induced catecholamine overflow in the medial prefrontal cortex
    Douglas A Marsteller
    Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:163-70. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that persistent alterations in mesocorticolimbic DA-ergic activity are induced by a short exposure to restraint stress as evidenced by the altered response to MP challenge...