Tom G Schwan

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Endemic foci of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia crocidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the potential for human infection
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1924. 2012
  2. pmc Diversity and distribution of Borrelia hermsii
    Tom G Schwan
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:436-42. 2007
  3. pmc Characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick Carios kelleyi
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:643-7. 2009
  4. pmc Outer surface protein A protects Lyme disease spirochetes from acquired host immunity in the tick vector
    James M Battisti
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 76:5228-37. 2008
  5. pmc Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3142-7. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Relapsing fever spirochaetes produce a serine protease that provides resistance to oxidative stress and killing by neutrophils
    Cyril Guyard
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:710-22. 2006
  7. pmc Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America
    Stephen F Porcella
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6647-58. 2005
  8. pmc Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Microbiology 155:2641-51. 2009
  9. pmc A novel surface antigen of relapsing fever spirochetes can discriminate between relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:564-71. 2010
  10. pmc Glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) among Borrelia species
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1346-56. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Endemic foci of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia crocidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the potential for human infection
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1924. 2012
    ....
  2. pmc Diversity and distribution of Borrelia hermsii
    Tom G Schwan
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:436-42. 2007
    ..B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete...
  3. pmc Characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick Carios kelleyi
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:643-7. 2009
    ..The name Borrelia johnsonii is proposed for this novel spirochete in honor of Dr. Russell C. Johnson...
  4. pmc Outer surface protein A protects Lyme disease spirochetes from acquired host immunity in the tick vector
    James M Battisti
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 76:5228-37. 2008
    ..We conclude that OspA serves a critical antibody-shielding role during vector blood meal uptake from immune hosts and is not required for persistence in the tick vector...
  5. pmc Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3142-7. 2004
    ..The induction of a spirochetal virulence factor preceding the time and host in which it is required demonstrates a developmental sequence for transmission of this arthropod-borne pathogen...
  6. ncbi request reprint Relapsing fever spirochaetes produce a serine protease that provides resistance to oxidative stress and killing by neutrophils
    Cyril Guyard
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:710-22. 2006
    ..This periplasmic enzyme may prevent the accumulation of proteins damaged by the innate immune response and contribute to the ability of the relapsing fever spirochaetes to achieve high cell densities in blood...
  7. pmc Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America
    Stephen F Porcella
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6647-58. 2005
    ..Therefore, given the longevity of the tick vector and persistent infection of spirochetes in ticks, these arthropods rather than mammals may be the likely host where the exchange of spirochetal DNA occurs...
  8. pmc Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Microbiology 155:2641-51. 2009
    ..hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection...
  9. pmc A novel surface antigen of relapsing fever spirochetes can discriminate between relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:564-71. 2010
    ..Lastly, in silico and experimental analysis indicated that BipA is a surface-exposed lipoprotein in B. hermsii. These findings enhance the capabilities of diagnosing infection with relapsing fever spirochetes...
  10. pmc Glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) among Borrelia species
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1346-56. 2003
    ..The unique ability of relapsing-fever spirochetes to hydrolyze phospholipids may contribute to their higher cell densities in blood than those of Lyme disease spirochetes...
  11. pmc Purine salvage pathways among Borrelia species
    Jonas Pettersson
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 S Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 75:3877-84. 2007
    ..burgdorferi. This complete pathway for purine salvage in the relapsing fever spirochetes may contribute, in part, to these spirochetes achieving high cell densities in blood...
  12. pmc Relapsing fever spirochetes contain chromosomal genes with unique direct tandemly repeated sequences
    Cyril Guyard
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 S Fourth St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:3025-37. 2005
    ..These polymorphic proteins may be involved in the pathogenicity of these relapsing fever spirochetes and provide a mechanism for antigenic heterogeneity within their populations...
  13. pmc Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:115-21. 2002
    ..We describe how B. burgdorferi and B. hermsii change their outer surface during their alternating infections in ticks and mammals, which in turn suggests biological functions for a few surface-exposed lipoproteins...
  14. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae and the potential for tick-borne relapsing fever in Florida
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3851-9. 2005
    ..turicatae but only linear plasmids in B. parkeri, which should be of interest to investigators concerned with plasmid diversity and evolution within this group of spirochetes...
  15. ncbi request reprint Defining plasmids required by Borrelia burgdorferi for colonization of tick vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:676-84. 2005
    ..burgdorferi within the tick vector, and it begins to establish the genomic components required for persistence of this pathogen throughout its natural infectious cycle...
  16. pmc Relapsing fever spirochetes retain infectivity after prolonged in vitro cultivation
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:813-20. 2008
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection...
  17. ncbi request reprint Acquisition and subsequent transmission of Borrelia hermsii by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:891-5. 2011
    ....
  18. pmc Comparative sialomics between hard and soft ticks: implications for the evolution of blood-feeding behavior
    Ben J Mans
    Laboratory for Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:42-58. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the ancestral tick may have possessed a simple (few members for each family), but diverse (many different protein families) salivary gland protein domain repertoire...
  19. pmc Borrelia hermsii acquisition order in superinfected ticks determines transmission efficiency
    Paul F Policastro
    Medical Entomology Section, Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    Infect Immun 81:2899-908. 2013
    ..These findings indicate that dual GGI-GGII spirochete infections can persist in ticks and that transmission to a vertebrate host is dependent on the order of tick acquisition and the interval between acquisition and transmission events. ..
  20. pmc Cotransmission of divergent relapsing fever spirochetes by artificially infected Ornithodoros hermsi
    Paul F Policastro
    Medical Entomology Section, Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:8494-9. 2011
    ..hermsii by immersion in spirochete suspensions, that GGI and GGII isolates can coinfect the tick vector by this method, and that these spirochetes can be cotransmitted to a rodent host...
  21. pmc Bloodmeal size and spirochete acquisition of Ornithodoros hermsi (Acari: Argasidae) during feeding
    Brandi N McCoy
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Med Entomol 47:1164-72. 2010
    ..These observations establish a basis for future studies to determine the minimum number of spirochetes required in the host's blood to allow O. hermsi to become persistently infected and transmit during subsequent bloodmeals...
  22. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA
    Tom G Schwan
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1026-31. 2009
    ..hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area...
  23. pmc Detection of Lassa virus, Mali
    David Safronetz
    National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1123-6. 2010
    ..We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever...
  24. pmc Geographic distribution and genetic characterization of Lassa virus in sub-Saharan Mali
    David Safronetz
    Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2582. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to better define the geographic distribution of LASV-infected rodents in sub-Saharan Mali...
  25. ncbi request reprint Population dynamics of a heterogeneous Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in an experimental mouse-tick infectious cycle
    Abdallah F Elias
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 114:557-61. 2002
    ..The study provides insight into infectivity profiles and infection dynamics of different clonal populations present in a low-passage, infectious B. burgdorferi strain...
  26. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1151-4. 2003
    ..Relapsing fever should be considered when patients who reside or have vacationed in western Montana exhibit a recurring febrile illness...
  27. ncbi request reprint Role of Yersinia murine toxin in survival of Yersinia pestis in the midgut of the flea vector
    B Joseph Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Science 296:733-5. 2002
    ..pestis from a cytotoxic digestion product of blood plasma in the flea gut. By enabling colonization of the flea midgut, acquisition of this PLD may have precipitated the transition of Y. pestis to obligate arthropod-borne transmission...
  28. ncbi request reprint High-frequency conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to Yersinia pestis in the flea midgut
    B Joseph Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 46:349-54. 2002
    ..Horizontal gene transfer in the flea may be the source of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains recently isolated from plague patients in Madagascar...
  29. pmc Inactivation of Genes for Antigenic Variation in the Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia hermsii Reduces Infectivity in Mice and Transmission by Ticks
    Sandra J Raffel
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1004056. 2014
    ..Thus the ability of B. hermsii to produce Vmps prolonged its survival in blood, while the synthesis of Vtp was essential for mammalian infection by the bite of its tick vector. ..
  30. ncbi request reprint Experimental infection of Ixodes scapularis larvae (Acari: Ixodidae) by immersion in low passage cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Paul F Policastro
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840 2932, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:364-70. 2003
    ..This method requires no special equipment and allows artificial infection of large numbers of ticks at the larval stage. It will facilitate studies of the contribution of specific B. burgdorferi genetic loci to tick colonization...
  31. pmc Detection of Borrelia theileri in Rhipicephalus geigyi from Mali
    Brandi N McCoy
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA Electronic address
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5:401-3. 2014
    ..We tested 184 Rhipicephalus spp. ticks by PCR that were removed from cattle at a market near Bamako, Mali. One tick, R. geigyi, was positive for B. theileri, which confirmed the presence of this spirochete in Mali...
  32. pmc First isolation of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia hermsii, from a domestic dog
    Ashley L Kelly
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5:95-9. 2014
    ..hermsii and a member of genomic group II of this species. Therefore, companion dogs that reside in rustic cabins in higher elevation forests are at risk of infection with B. hermsii. ..
  33. ncbi request reprint Characterization of anti-hemostatic factors in the argasid, Argas monolakensis: implications for the evolution of blood-feeding in the soft tick family
    Ben J Mans
    Laboratory for Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:22-41. 2008
    ..This cross-reactivity could have facilitated the switching of soft ticks from avian to mammalian hosts and can explain in part the ability of Argas ticks, to feed on humans, thereby remaining a possible health risk...
  34. pmc Clonal polymorphism of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 MI: implications for mutagenesis in an infectious strain background
    Abdallah F Elias
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 70:2139-50. 2002
    ..Due to the instability of the genome with in vitro propagation, careful monitoring of plasmid content of derived mutants and complementation of inactivated genes will be crucial components of genetic studies with this pathogen...
  35. pmc Bacterial pathogens modulate an apoptosis differentiation program in human neutrophils
    Scott D Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10948-53. 2003
    ..pyogenes alters the apoptosis differentiation program in neutrophils, resulting in pathogen survival and disease...
  36. pmc Regulation of expression of the Borrelia burgdorferi beta(3)-chain integrin ligand, P66, in ticks and in culture
    Carla Cugini
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Infect Immun 71:1001-7. 2003
    ..No in vitro culture conditions in which P66 expression reflected that in the unfed tick were found, suggesting that there are aspects of B. burgdorferi-tick interaction that remain unexplored...
  37. ncbi request reprint Spirochetemia caused by Borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in Texas
    Marlyn S Whitney
    Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Texas A and M University, Amarillo, TX, USA
    Vet Clin Pathol 36:212-6. 2007
    ..B turicatae is transmitted by the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata, and infection should be considered in dogs with spirochetemia and possible exposure to the tick vector...
  38. pmc Dual role of MyD88 in rapid clearance of relapsing fever Borrelia spp
    Devin D Bolz
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah, 15 North Medical Drive East 2100, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Infect Immun 74:6750-60. 2006
    ..This second defect was apparent only when antibody levels were limiting...
  39. ncbi request reprint Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America
    Mark S Dworkin
    Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Med Clin North Am 86:417-33, viii-ix. 2002
    ..Most cases have been acquired from exposure to rustic tick-infested cabins and caves. This article reviews relapsing fever, especially tick-borne relapsing fever in North America...
  40. ncbi request reprint A system for site-specific genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii
    James M Battisti
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 431:69-84. 2008
    ..The methods described here are applicable for the inactivation of other loci in B. hermsii and should be adaptable for other species of relapsing fever spirochetes...
  41. pmc Novel relapsing fever spirochete in bat tick
    James S Gill
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:522-3. 2008
  42. pmc Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase gene (glpQ) of Borrelia lonestari identified as a target for differentiating Borrelia species associated with hard ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)
    Rendi Murphree Bacon
    Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2326-8. 2004
    ..This finding provides a basis for developing diagnostic assays to differentiate species of borrelia transmitted by hard ticks...
  43. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever
    Mark S Dworkin
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, 1603 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 22:449-68, viii. 2008
    ..Although relapsing fever is acquired in many parts of the world, this article focuses primarily on knowledge about TBRF in North America...
  44. ncbi request reprint Spirochete-platelet attachment and thrombocytopenia in murine relapsing fever borreliosis
    Kishore R Alugupalli
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave N, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Blood 102:2843-50. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that thrombocytopenia of relapsing fever is the result of platelet clearance after beta 3-independent bacterial attachment to circulating platelets...
  45. pmc Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California
    Curtis L Fritz
    Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California 95899 7413, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1123-8. 2004
    ..Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive...
  46. ncbi request reprint Tick-borne relapsing fever polymerase chain reaction of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii
    Erik J Uhlmann
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children s Place, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:267-9. 2007
    ..We propose the polymerase chain reaction as a possible alternative for currently used tests for the diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever...
  47. ncbi request reprint Antigenic variation by Borrelia hermsii occurs through recombination between extragenic repetitive elements on linear plasmids
    Qiyuan Dai
    Department of Microbiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:1329-43. 2006
    ..The downstream extragenic crossover site in B. hermsii contrasts with the upstream [corrected] extragenic crossover site for antigenic variation in African trypanosomes...
  48. pmc Tickborne relapsing fever diagnosis obscured by malaria, Togo
    Annika Nordstrand
    Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:117-23. 2007
    ..The inability of microscopic analysis to detect spirochetes compared with PCR demonstrates the need for tests with greater sensitivity...