T G Schwan

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) among Borrelia species
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1346-56. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Temporal regulation of outer surface proteins of the Lyme-disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:108-12. 2003
  3. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1151-4. 2003
  4. pmc Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:115-21. 2002
  5. pmc Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:382-8. 2000
  6. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae and the potential for tick-borne relapsing fever in Florida
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3851-9. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Rickettsia peacockii sp. nov., a new species infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, in western Montana
    M L Niebylski
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:446-52. 1997
  8. ncbi request reprint Bloodstream- versus tick-associated variants of a relapsing fever bacterium
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Science 280:1938-40. 1998
  9. pmc Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America
    Stephen F Porcella
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6647-58. 2005
  10. pmc Outer surface protein A protects Lyme disease spirochetes from acquired host immunity in the tick vector
    James M Battisti
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 76:5228-37. 2008

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) among Borrelia species
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:1346-56. 2003
    ..The unique ability of relapsing-fever spirochetes to hydrolyze phospholipids may contribute to their higher cell densities in blood than those of Lyme disease spirochetes...
  2. ncbi request reprint Temporal regulation of outer surface proteins of the Lyme-disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:108-12. 2003
    ..Future experiments in ticks with mutant spirochaetes that lack these proteins should clarify the speculative functions currently given to these proteins...
  3. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1151-4. 2003
    ..Relapsing fever should be considered when patients who reside or have vacationed in western Montana exhibit a recurring febrile illness...
  4. pmc Vector interactions and molecular adaptations of lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes associated with transmission by ticks
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:115-21. 2002
    ..We describe how B. burgdorferi and B. hermsii change their outer surface during their alternating infections in ticks and mammals, which in turn suggests biological functions for a few surface-exposed lipoproteins...
  5. pmc Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:382-8. 2000
    ..Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick...
  6. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae and the potential for tick-borne relapsing fever in Florida
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3851-9. 2005
    ..turicatae but only linear plasmids in B. parkeri, which should be of interest to investigators concerned with plasmid diversity and evolution within this group of spirochetes...
  7. ncbi request reprint Rickettsia peacockii sp. nov., a new species infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, in western Montana
    M L Niebylski
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:446-52. 1997
    ..The organism is passed transstadially and transovarially (minimal vertical transmission rate, 73.3%), and infections are localized in ovarial tissues. Attempts to cultivate R. peacockii were unsuccessful...
  8. ncbi request reprint Bloodstream- versus tick-associated variants of a relapsing fever bacterium
    T G Schwan
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Science 280:1938-40. 1998
    ..After tick-bite transmission back to mice, the process was reversed and the spirochetes resumed expression of the same Vmp present in the previous infectious blood meal...
  9. pmc Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America
    Stephen F Porcella
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6647-58. 2005
    ..Therefore, given the longevity of the tick vector and persistent infection of spirochetes in ticks, these arthropods rather than mammals may be the likely host where the exchange of spirochetal DNA occurs...
  10. pmc Outer surface protein A protects Lyme disease spirochetes from acquired host immunity in the tick vector
    James M Battisti
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 76:5228-37. 2008
    ..We conclude that OspA serves a critical antibody-shielding role during vector blood meal uptake from immune hosts and is not required for persistence in the tick vector...
  11. pmc Borrelia burgdorferi erp proteins are immunogenic in mammals infected by tick bite, and their synthesis is inducible in cultured bacteria
    B Stevenson
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 66:2648-54. 1998
    ..Several of the B31 Erp proteins were also recognized by antibodies from patients with Lyme disease and may prove to be useful antigens for diagnostic testing or as components of a protective vaccine...
  12. pmc Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3142-7. 2004
    ..The induction of a spirochetal virulence factor preceding the time and host in which it is required demonstrates a developmental sequence for transmission of this arthropod-borne pathogen...
  13. pmc Population structure of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii as indicated by polymorphism of two multigene families that encode immunogenic outer surface lipoproteins
    B J Hinnebusch
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 66:432-40. 1998
    ..This population structure may result from immune selection by the host, as has been proposed for other pathogens with polymorphic antigens...
  14. pmc Characterization of an endosymbiont infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, as a member of the genus Francisella
    M L Niebylski
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3933-40. 1997
    ..Transovarial transmission to female progeny was 95.6%, but we found no evidence of horizontal transmission...
  15. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the role of the Yersinia pestis plasminogen activator and other plasmid-encoded factors in temperature-dependent blockage of the flea
    B J Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    J Infect Dis 178:1406-15. 1998
    ..A Y. pestis strain that lacked all or part of the third plasmid of 110 kb, however, failed to colonize the flea midgut normally, indicating that one or more genes on the large plasmid may be required for vectorborne transmission...
  16. pmc Clonal polymorphism of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 MI: implications for mutagenesis in an infectious strain background
    Abdallah F Elias
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 70:2139-50. 2002
    ..Due to the instability of the genome with in vitro propagation, careful monitoring of plasmid content of derived mutants and complementation of inactivated genes will be crucial components of genetic studies with this pathogen...
  17. pmc Purine salvage pathways among Borrelia species
    Jonas Pettersson
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 S Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 75:3877-84. 2007
    ..burgdorferi. This complete pathway for purine salvage in the relapsing fever spirochetes may contribute, in part, to these spirochetes achieving high cell densities in blood...
  18. ncbi request reprint Estimation of vector infectivity rates for plague by means of a standard curve-based competitive polymerase chain reaction method to quantify Yersinia pestis in fleas
    B J Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 58:562-9. 1998
    ..pestis indicative of blockage. The method provides a means to monitor plague epizootics and associated risks of flea-borne transmission to humans, and is applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases...
  19. pmc A novel surface antigen of relapsing fever spirochetes can discriminate between relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:564-71. 2010
    ..Lastly, in silico and experimental analysis indicated that BipA is a surface-exposed lipoprotein in B. hermsii. These findings enhance the capabilities of diagnosing infection with relapsing fever spirochetes...
  20. pmc Diversity and distribution of Borrelia hermsii
    Tom G Schwan
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:436-42. 2007
    ..B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete...
  21. ncbi request reprint Characterization of anti-hemostatic factors in the argasid, Argas monolakensis: implications for the evolution of blood-feeding in the soft tick family
    Ben J Mans
    Laboratory for Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:22-41. 2008
    ..This cross-reactivity could have facilitated the switching of soft ticks from avian to mammalian hosts and can explain in part the ability of Argas ticks, to feed on humans, thereby remaining a possible health risk...
  22. pmc Comparative sialomics between hard and soft ticks: implications for the evolution of blood-feeding behavior
    Ben J Mans
    Laboratory for Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:42-58. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the ancestral tick may have possessed a simple (few members for each family), but diverse (many different protein families) salivary gland protein domain repertoire...
  23. pmc Relapsing fever spirochetes retain infectivity after prolonged in vitro cultivation
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:813-20. 2008
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection...
  24. pmc Characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick Carios kelleyi
    Tom G Schwan
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:643-7. 2009
    ..The name Borrelia johnsonii is proposed for this novel spirochete in honor of Dr. Russell C. Johnson...
  25. pmc Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia
    Job E Lopez
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Microbiology 155:2641-51. 2009
    ..hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection...
  26. pmc Relapsing fever spirochetes contain chromosomal genes with unique direct tandemly repeated sequences
    Cyril Guyard
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 S Fourth St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 73:3025-37. 2005
    ..These polymorphic proteins may be involved in the pathogenicity of these relapsing fever spirochetes and provide a mechanism for antigenic heterogeneity within their populations...
  27. ncbi request reprint High-frequency conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to Yersinia pestis in the flea midgut
    B Joseph Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 46:349-54. 2002
    ..Horizontal gene transfer in the flea may be the source of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains recently isolated from plague patients in Madagascar...
  28. ncbi request reprint Relapsing fever spirochaetes produce a serine protease that provides resistance to oxidative stress and killing by neutrophils
    Cyril Guyard
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:710-22. 2006
    ..This periplasmic enzyme may prevent the accumulation of proteins damaged by the innate immune response and contribute to the ability of the relapsing fever spirochaetes to achieve high cell densities in blood...
  29. ncbi request reprint Population dynamics of a heterogeneous Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in an experimental mouse-tick infectious cycle
    Abdallah F Elias
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 114:557-61. 2002
    ..The study provides insight into infectivity profiles and infection dynamics of different clonal populations present in a low-passage, infectious B. burgdorferi strain...
  30. ncbi request reprint Experimental infection of Ixodes scapularis larvae (Acari: Ixodidae) by immersion in low passage cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi
    Paul F Policastro
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, 903 S 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840 2932, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:364-70. 2003
    ..This method requires no special equipment and allows artificial infection of large numbers of ticks at the larval stage. It will facilitate studies of the contribution of specific B. burgdorferi genetic loci to tick colonization...
  31. ncbi request reprint Role of Yersinia murine toxin in survival of Yersinia pestis in the midgut of the flea vector
    B Joseph Hinnebusch
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Science 296:733-5. 2002
    ..pestis from a cytotoxic digestion product of blood plasma in the flea gut. By enabling colonization of the flea midgut, acquisition of this PLD may have precipitated the transition of Y. pestis to obligate arthropod-borne transmission...
  32. ncbi request reprint Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the gene in Borrelia burgdorferi encoding the immunogenic P39 antigen
    W J Simpson
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 119:381-7. 1994
    ..Comparison to sequence data bases demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequences of both P39 and ORF2 were homologous to TmpC, a putative outer or cytoplasmic membrane lipoprotein of the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum...
  33. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA
    Tom G Schwan
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1026-31. 2009
    ..hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area...
  34. ncbi request reprint Defining plasmids required by Borrelia burgdorferi for colonization of tick vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:676-84. 2005
    ..burgdorferi within the tick vector, and it begins to establish the genomic components required for persistence of this pathogen throughout its natural infectious cycle...
  35. pmc Effects of environmental pH on membrane proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi
    J A Carroll
    Rocky Mountain Laboratories Microscopy Branch, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Infect Immun 67:3181-7. 1999
    ..Environmental cues such as pH may prove important in the regulation of virulence determinants and factors necessary for the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick or mammalian microcosm...
  36. pmc Bacterial pathogens modulate an apoptosis differentiation program in human neutrophils
    Scott D Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10948-53. 2003
    ..pyogenes alters the apoptosis differentiation program in neutrophils, resulting in pathogen survival and disease...
  37. pmc Tick-borne relapsing fever
    Mark S Dworkin
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, 1603 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 22:449-68, viii. 2008
    ..Although relapsing fever is acquired in many parts of the world, this article focuses primarily on knowledge about TBRF in North America...
  38. ncbi request reprint Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America
    Mark S Dworkin
    Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Med Clin North Am 86:417-33, viii-ix. 2002
    ..Most cases have been acquired from exposure to rustic tick-infested cabins and caves. This article reviews relapsing fever, especially tick-borne relapsing fever in North America...
  39. pmc Novel relapsing fever spirochete in bat tick
    James S Gill
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:522-3. 2008
  40. pmc Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase gene (glpQ) of Borrelia lonestari identified as a target for differentiating Borrelia species associated with hard ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)
    Rendi Murphree Bacon
    Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2326-8. 2004
    ..This finding provides a basis for developing diagnostic assays to differentiate species of borrelia transmitted by hard ticks...
  41. ncbi request reprint A system for site-specific genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii
    James M Battisti
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 431:69-84. 2008
    ..The methods described here are applicable for the inactivation of other loci in B. hermsii and should be adaptable for other species of relapsing fever spirochetes...
  42. pmc Regulation of expression of the Borrelia burgdorferi beta(3)-chain integrin ligand, P66, in ticks and in culture
    Carla Cugini
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Infect Immun 71:1001-7. 2003
    ..No in vitro culture conditions in which P66 expression reflected that in the unfed tick were found, suggesting that there are aspects of B. burgdorferi-tick interaction that remain unexplored...
  43. ncbi request reprint Spirochete-platelet attachment and thrombocytopenia in murine relapsing fever borreliosis
    Kishore R Alugupalli
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave N, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Blood 102:2843-50. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that thrombocytopenia of relapsing fever is the result of platelet clearance after beta 3-independent bacterial attachment to circulating platelets...
  44. ncbi request reprint Tick-borne relapsing fever polymerase chain reaction of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii
    Erik J Uhlmann
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children s Place, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:267-9. 2007
    ..We propose the polymerase chain reaction as a possible alternative for currently used tests for the diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever...
  45. pmc Dual role of MyD88 in rapid clearance of relapsing fever Borrelia spp
    Devin D Bolz
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah, 15 North Medical Drive East 2100, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Infect Immun 74:6750-60. 2006
    ..This second defect was apparent only when antibody levels were limiting...
  46. pmc Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California
    Curtis L Fritz
    Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California 95899 7413, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1123-8. 2004
    ..Antibody to B. hermsii was detected in sera from 4 of 11 yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus); no other rodent species collected were seropositive...
  47. ncbi request reprint Spirochetemia caused by Borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in Texas
    Marlyn S Whitney
    Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Texas A and M University, Amarillo, TX, USA
    Vet Clin Pathol 36:212-6. 2007
    ..B turicatae is transmitted by the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata, and infection should be considered in dogs with spirochetemia and possible exposure to the tick vector...
  48. pmc Tickborne relapsing fever diagnosis obscured by malaria, Togo
    Annika Nordstrand
    Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:117-23. 2007
    ..The inability of microscopic analysis to detect spirochetes compared with PCR demonstrates the need for tests with greater sensitivity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Antigenic variation by Borrelia hermsii occurs through recombination between extragenic repetitive elements on linear plasmids
    Qiyuan Dai
    Department of Microbiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA
    Mol Microbiol 60:1329-43. 2006
    ..The downstream extragenic crossover site in B. hermsii contrasts with the upstream [corrected] extragenic crossover site for antigenic variation in African trypanosomes...