C W Schindler

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Modification of pharmacokinetic and abuse-related effects of cocaine by human-derived cocaine hydrolase in monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Addict Biol 18:30-9. 2013
  2. pmc Accelerating cocaine metabolism as an approach to the treatment of cocaine abuse and toxicity
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Future Med Chem 4:163-75. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on locomotor activity in male and female rats
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72:857-63. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Interactions between cocaine and dopamine agonists on cardiovascular function in squirrel monkeys
    C W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:180-7. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Effects of cocaine and cocaine metabolites on cardiovascular function in squirrel monkeys
    C W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 431:53-9. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Second-order schedules of drug self-administration in animals
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:327-44. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Lack of adenosine A1 and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated modulation of the cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse NIH DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 484:269-75. 2004
  8. pmc Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 144:642-50. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, National Instiututes of Health National Ististute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 442:231-5. 2002
  10. pmc Effects of kappa opioid agonists alone and in combination with cocaine on heart rate and blood pressure in conscious squirrel monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore MD CWS, ZG, JPG, SRG, United States
    Eur J Pharmacol 576:107-13. 2007

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Modification of pharmacokinetic and abuse-related effects of cocaine by human-derived cocaine hydrolase in monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Addict Biol 18:30-9. 2013
    ..The ability of Albu-CocH to attenuate the abuse-related effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys indicates that further investigation of BChE mutants as potential treatment for cocaine abuse and toxicity is warranted...
  2. pmc Accelerating cocaine metabolism as an approach to the treatment of cocaine abuse and toxicity
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Future Med Chem 4:163-75. 2012
    ..Of these two approaches, the human butyrylcholinesterase mutants show the most immediate promise as they would not be expected to evoke an immune response in humans...
  3. ncbi request reprint Effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on locomotor activity in male and female rats
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72:857-63. 2002
    ..These results suggest that the differences between males and females in their locomotor response to cocaine can be at least partially attributed to differences in the function of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors...
  4. ncbi request reprint Interactions between cocaine and dopamine agonists on cardiovascular function in squirrel monkeys
    C W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:180-7. 2002
    ..Caution may be warranted, however, with the use of dopamine autoreceptor antagonists in the treatment of cocaine abuse...
  5. ncbi request reprint Effects of cocaine and cocaine metabolites on cardiovascular function in squirrel monkeys
    C W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 431:53-9. 2001
    ..The one metabolite that might be expected to contribute to cocaine's overall cardiovascular effect is cocaethylene, although the degree of this contribution is not clear...
  6. ncbi request reprint Second-order schedules of drug self-administration in animals
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:327-44. 2002
    ..This active area of research holds great promise for delineating specific brain regions critical to different aspects of drug addiction...
  7. ncbi request reprint Lack of adenosine A1 and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated modulation of the cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse NIH DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 484:269-75. 2004
    ....
  8. pmc Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 144:642-50. 2005
    ..The blood pressure decreasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists is most probably mediated in the periphery...
  9. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, National Instiututes of Health National Ististute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 442:231-5. 2002
    ..1-5.6 mg/kg). These results suggest that males and females differ in their response to methamphetamine for only some behavioral tasks...
  10. pmc Effects of kappa opioid agonists alone and in combination with cocaine on heart rate and blood pressure in conscious squirrel monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore MD CWS, ZG, JPG, SRG, United States
    Eur J Pharmacol 576:107-13. 2007
    ..When given in combination with cocaine, EKC produced effects that were sub-additive, suggesting that the kappa agonists may be used safely as cocaine abuse treatments...
  11. pmc Effect of rate of delivery of intravenous cocaine on self-administration in rats
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93:375-81. 2009
    ..The results with food suggest that these findings represent general principles of behavior and are not unique to drug self-administration...
  12. pmc Effects of cannabinoid receptor antagonists on maintenance and reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Eur J Pharmacol 633:44-9. 2010
    ..These results indicate that cannabinoid receptor antagonists might have therapeutic effects for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence...
  13. pmc Comparison of the effects of methamphetamine, bupropion, and methylphenidate on the self-administration of methamphetamine by rhesus monkeys
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 19:1-10. 2011
    ..Although the most robust effects occurred with a high dose of methamphetamine, safety and abuse liability considerations suggest that bupropion should also be considered for further evaluation as a methamphetamine addiction treatment...
  14. pmc Rapid delivery of cocaine facilitates acquisition of self-administration in rats: an effect masked by paired stimuli
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99:301-6. 2011
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Attenuation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity by butyrylcholinesterase
    G N Carmona
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:274-9. 1998
    ..These results suggest that systemic administration of BChE can increase the metabolism of cocaine sufficiently to alter a behavioral effect of cocaine and thus should be investigated as a potential treatment for cocaine abuse...
  16. ncbi request reprint Plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and cocaine half-life differ significantly in rhesus and squirrel monkeys
    G N Carmona
    Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Life Sci 59:939-43. 1996
    ..These results indicate that BChE level can vary between species of non-human primates, a factor that should be taken into account when studying drugs such as cocaine which are metabolized by BChE...
  17. ncbi request reprint The role of central and autonomic neural mechanisms in the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in conscious squirrel monkeys
    S R Tella
    Preclinical Pharmacology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 252:491-9. 1990
    ..None of the above pharmacological interventions were effective in preventing this initial, moderate reduction in HR in three monkeys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  18. doi request reprint Effects of orbitofrontal cortex lesions on cocaine self-administration
    I Grakalic
    DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuroscience 165:313-24. 2010
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint The GABAB agonist baclofen modifies cocaine self-administration in rats
    M Shoaib
    Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 9:195-206. 1998
    ..tested repeatedly for 5 days decreased the number of cocaine injections self-administered. The present findings demonstrate that modulation of GABA systems may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of psychomotor stimulant abuse...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of morphine, ethylketocyclazocine, U-50,488H and naloxone on the acquisition of a classically conditioned response in the rabbit
    C W Schindler
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 243:1010-7. 1987
    ....
  21. pmc A comparison of drug-seeking behavior maintained by D-amphetamine, L-deprenyl (selegiline), and D-deprenyl under a second-order schedule in squirrel monkeys
    Sevil Yasar
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neurosciences Research Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:413-21. 2006
    ..Under conditions where drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors are actively maintained by D-amphetamine, L-deprenyl, at doses that specifically inhibit type B monoamine oxidase, may not be effective as a treatment...
  22. ncbi request reprint Chlorisondamine, a non-competitive ganglionic blocker, antagonizes the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in conscious squirrel monkeys
    S R Tella
    Behavioral Pharmacology and Genetics Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224
    Pharmacol Res 27:233-9. 1993
    ..7 +/- 10 beats/min) effects of cocaine, while 5 mg/kg chlorisondamine completely prevented these effects of cocaine. This finding supports the conclusion that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine are centrally mediated...
  23. ncbi request reprint Stimulus compounding enhances conditioned suppression produced by cocaine-paired stimuli
    L V Panlilio
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:6-13. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that multiple drug-related cues interact in a predictable manner to influence both operant and classically conditioned behavior...
  24. pmc Effects of compounding drug-related stimuli: escalation of heroin self-administration
    L V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 73:211-24. 2000
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Conditioned locomotor-activating and reinforcing effects of discrete stimuli paired with intraperitoneal cocaine
    L V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21244, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 8:691-8. 1997
    ..In this respect, the drug-conditioning effects seen in rodents appear to be analogous to the conditioned responses observed when human drug abusers are presented with discrete, drug-related stimuli...
  26. ncbi request reprint Butyrylcholinesterase accelerates cocaine metabolism: in vitro and in vivo effects in nonhuman primates and humans
    G N Carmona
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 28:367-71. 2000
    ..Therefore, BChE may be useful as a treatment for cocaine addiction and toxicity...
  27. ncbi request reprint Self-administration of remifentanil, an ultra-short acting opioid, under continuous and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats
    L V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:61-6. 2000
    ..Evaluating remifentanil's effects within the self-administration model of drug abuse may provide insight into the relationship between a drug's duration of action and its effectiveness as a reinforcer...
  28. ncbi request reprint Effects of morphine, ethylketocyclazocine, N-allylnormetazocine and naloxone on locomotor activity in the rabbit
    C W Schindler
    NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 101:172-7. 1990
    ....
  29. pmc Blocking of conditioning to a cocaine-paired stimulus: testing the hypothesis that cocaine perpetually produces a signal of larger-than-expected reward
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:774-7. 2007
    ....
  30. pmc A stimulus-control account of regulated drug intake in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:441-50. 2008
    ..Thus, interoceptive effects of the drug might function as a discriminative stimulus, signaling when additional drug will be reinforcing and when it will not...
  31. pmc A stimulus-control account of dysregulated drug intake
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH DHHS, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:439-47. 2009
    ..These results suggest that a failure of interoceptive cues to control pausing might contribute to the dysregulated drug intake that is associated with addiction...
  32. ncbi request reprint Variability of drug self-administration in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:9-19. 2003
    ..Although temporal patterns of drug self-administration in animals are known to be highly regular, this regularity has rarely been quantified or systematically compared across reinforcers...
  33. pmc Automatic recording of mediating behavior in delayed matching- and nonmatching-to-position procedures in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214:495-504. 2011
    ..The ubiquitous nature of mediating behavior suggests it might be analogous to rehearsal, an important component of learning and memory in humans...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effects of stress modulation on morphine-induced conditioned place preferences and plasma corticosterone levels in Fischer, Lewis, and Sprague-Dawley rat strains
    Ivana Grakalic
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:277-86. 2006
    ..Interestingly, this relationship has not been established in the inbred Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rat strains that are often used as animal models of susceptibility to drug use...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cocaine self-administration under variable-dose schedules in squirrel monkeys
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 84:235-43. 2006
    ..The dose-dependency of run rates suggests that post-injection pauses reflect not only motivational factors, such as satiety, but also the direct effects of cocaine on leverpressing...
  36. ncbi request reprint Reinstatement of punishment-suppressed opioid self-administration in rats: an alternative model of relapse to drug abuse
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:229-35. 2003
    ..However, there is a lack of information concerning the reinstatement of responding that has ceased for reasons other than extinction...
  37. ncbi request reprint Reduced cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine following treatment with selegiline
    Charles W Schindler
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 72:133-9. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Human cocaine-seeking behavior and its control by drug-associated stimuli in the laboratory
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:433-43. 2005
    ..The similarity of the response patterns in humans and animals also supports the use of second-order schedules in animals as a valid model of human drug seeking...
  39. ncbi request reprint Lorazepam reinstates punishment-suppressed remifentanil self-administration in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:374-82. 2005
    ..The potential value of this punishment-based model of relapse depends on its sensitivity to relapse-inducing events that are ineffective in the widely used extinction-based model...
  40. pmc Differential involvement of dopamine receptors in conditioned suppression induced by cocaine
    Ivana Grakalic
    Neuroscience Research Branch, Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 573:116-23. 2007
    ..Thus, dopamine at least partially mediates both the acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced conditioned suppression, with activation of dopamine D(1)- and D(2)-like receptors underlying these respective processes...
  41. ncbi request reprint Chronic methamphetamine increases fighting in mice
    Boris P Sokolov
    Molecular Neuropsychiatry Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77:319-26. 2004
    ..Thus, intermittent administration of METH might be useful as a pharmacological model to study the biochemical and molecular bases of aggressiveness...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cocaine reward and MPTP toxicity: alteration by regional variant dopamine transporter overexpression
    D M Donovan
    Molecular Neurobiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD 20857, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 73:37-49. 1999
    ..These results document a model for allelic variation at a gene locus that can exert significant effects in murine models of human substance abuse vulnerability and dopaminergic neurodegeneration...
  43. ncbi request reprint Enabling role of adenosine A1 receptors in adenosine A2A receptor-mediated striatal expression of c-fos
    Marzena Karcz-Kubicha
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA, IRP, Baltimore MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 18:296-302. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Abuse liability and stimulant properties of dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine combinations in rats
    Jae H Jun
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, DHHS NIH NIDA Intramural Research, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 172:277-82. 2004
    ..The abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) medications has been widely reported. However, there are few preclinical studies examining the behavioral effects of OTC medications at higher, abused doses...
  45. ncbi request reprint Intravenous butyrylcholinesterase administration and plasma and brain levels of cocaine and metabolites in rats
    Gilberto N Carmona
    Intramural Research Programs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 517:186-90. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that butyrylcholinesterase treatment may have benefits in enhancing cocaine metabolism and in increasing levels of ecgonine methylester, which may have a protective action against cocaine...
  46. ncbi request reprint Heterozygous VMAT2 knockout mice display prolonged QT intervals: possible contributions to sudden death
    K Itokawa
    Molecular Neurobiology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 71:354-7. 1999
    ..These findings provide likely contributions to differences in vulnerability to lethal arrhythmias in these animals, and a candidate gene for contributions to human interindividual differences in vulnerability to cardiac arrhythmias...
  47. ncbi request reprint Reduction of cocaine seeking by a food-based inhibitor in rats
    Stanley J Weiss
    Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:359-67. 2007
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Conditioned inhibition of cocaine seeking in rats
    David N Kearns
    Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 31:247-53. 2005
    ..These results suggest ways to improve cue-oriented behavioral treatments for drug abuse...
  49. pmc Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration
    Stanley J Weiss
    Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 79:111-35. 2003
    ..The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior...
  50. ncbi request reprint Peri-response pharmacokinetics of remifentanil during a self-administration session indicates that neither blood nor brain levels are titrated
    Jose A Crespo
    Division of Neurochemistry, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1074:497-504. 2006
    ..Thus, our findings strongly suggest that titration of blood or brain RMF levels does not determine a rat's intra-session operant response...