Mark Schiffman

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Human papillomavirus infection and the multistage carcinogenesis of cervical cancer
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 7012, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22:553-60. 2013
  2. pmc A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria
    Megan A Clarke
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 6:12. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus: epidemiology and public health
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:930-4. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Lancet 370:890-907. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Findings to date from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS)
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:946-9. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination, cytology, and human papillomavirus testing
    Mark Schiffman
    Human Papillomavirus Research Unit, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer 111:145-53. 2007
  7. pmc A population-based prospective study of carcinogenic human papillomavirus variant lineages, viral persistence, and cervical neoplasia
    Mark Schiffman
    Divisions of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    Cancer Res 70:3159-69. 2010
  8. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus DNA remains detectable longer than related cervical cytologic abnormalities
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7066, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1169-72. 2002
  9. pmc Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 4:8. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MA, USA
    Virology 337:76-84. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications153 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Human papillomavirus infection and the multistage carcinogenesis of cervical cancer
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 7012, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22:553-60. 2013
    ..The stages of cervical carcinogenesis are better understood than for most other major cancers, providing a successful cancer etiology and prevention model...
  2. pmc A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria
    Megan A Clarke
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 6:12. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  3. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus: epidemiology and public health
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:930-4. 2003
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Lancet 370:890-907. 2007
    ..If applied wisely, HPV-related technology can minimise the incidence of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality it causes, even in low-resource settings...
  5. ncbi request reprint Findings to date from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS)
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:946-9. 2003
    ..Many additional analyses are underway...
  6. ncbi request reprint Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination, cytology, and human papillomavirus testing
    Mark Schiffman
    Human Papillomavirus Research Unit, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer 111:145-53. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, it is worth describing in broad terms for the readers of Cancer Cytopathology how successful, broad HPV vaccination of adolescent girls may affect cytology and HPV testing...
  7. pmc A population-based prospective study of carcinogenic human papillomavirus variant lineages, viral persistence, and cervical neoplasia
    Mark Schiffman
    Divisions of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    Cancer Res 70:3159-69. 2010
    ..Larger viral genomic studies are warranted, especially to identify the genetic basis for HPV16's unique carcinogenicity...
  8. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus DNA remains detectable longer than related cervical cytologic abnormalities
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7066, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1169-72. 2002
    ..001). It appears that the natural history of HPV typically includes periods before and after cytologic abnormality, in which HPV DNA is the more sensitive indicator of infection...
  9. pmc Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 4:8. 2009
    ..This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types...
  10. ncbi request reprint The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MA, USA
    Virology 337:76-84. 2005
    ..These results present several clear clues and research directions in our ongoing efforts to understand HPV carcinogenesis...
  11. ncbi request reprint A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:147-50. 2005
    ..The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer...
  12. pmc Human papillomavirus testing in the prevention of cervical cancer
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 103:368-83. 2011
    ..The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment...
  13. ncbi request reprint High load for most high risk human papillomavirus genotypes is associated with prevalent cervical cancer precursors but only HPV16 load predicts the development of incident disease
    Patti E Gravitt
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Int J Cancer 121:2787-93. 2007
    ..The extent to which these observations can be translated into clinical practice must be rigorously examined in the context of the method of viral load measurement and the type-specific differences observed for incident >/=CIN2...
  14. pmc Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of prevalent and incident cervical premalignancy in a population-based cohort
    Mahboobeh Safaeian
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 102:1794-804. 2010
    ..In a large prospective cohort, we assessed the role of C trachomatis in cervical premalignancy and addressed confounding by HPV...
  15. ncbi request reprint A comparison between real-time polymerase chain reaction and hybrid capture 2 for human papillomavirus DNA quantitation
    Patti E Gravitt
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:477-84. 2003
    ..The nonrandom distribution of multiple infections by case-control status and the apparent differential effect of viral load by genotype warrant caution when using HC 2 measurements to infer viral load associations with SIL and cancer...
  16. pmc Rapid clearance of human papillomavirus and implications for clinical focus on persistent infections
    Ana Cecilia Rodriguez
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS, Rm 5032, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 100:513-7. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that the medical community should emphasize persistence of cervical HPV infection, not single-time detection of HPV, in management strategies and health messages...
  17. pmc Human papillomavirus cofactors by disease progression and human papillomavirus types in the study to understand cervical cancer early endpoints and determinants
    Sophia S Wang
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 5104, Rockville, MD 20854 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:113-20. 2009
    ..Investigations on the molecular distinctions along the disease continuum of cervical pathogenesis by HPV type are needed...
  18. ncbi request reprint Age-related changes of the cervix influence human papillomavirus type distribution
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute NIH, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Res 66:1218-24. 2006
    ..These patterns need to be confirmed in other studies and populations. We suggest that these genetically distinct groups of HPV types may differ in tissue preferences, which may contribute to their differences in carcinogenic potential...
  19. ncbi request reprint Validation of p16INK4a as a marker of oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in cervical biopsies from a population-based cohort in Costa Rica
    Sophia S Wang
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1355-60. 2004
    ..Whereas our data support the diagnostic potential for p16INK4a, further prospective studies with detailed follow-up determining the prognostic capacity of this marker are needed...
  20. ncbi request reprint Comprehensive analysis of human leukocyte antigen class I alleles and cervical neoplasia in 3 epidemiologic studies
    Sophia S Wang
    Interdisciplinary Studies Section, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:598-605. 2002
    ..Given the relationship between HLA-C and its receptors on natural killer (NK) cells, a role is proposed for NK function in human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia...
  21. pmc Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy
    Carolina Porras
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Int J Cancer 130:1879-87. 2012
    ..Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women...
  22. ncbi request reprint The elevated 10-year risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 and the possible utility of type-specific HPV testing in clinical practice
    Michelle J Khan
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 7074, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:1072-9. 2005
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint A population-based study of vaginal human papillomavirus infection in hysterectomized women
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:458-67. 2004
    ..e., A3/A4/A15) may have a predilection for vaginal epithelium...
  24. pmc Follow-up testing after colposcopy: five-year risk of CIN 2+ after a colposcopic diagnosis of CIN 1 or less
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S69-77. 2013
    ..An important question is how many subsequent negative Pap results, or negative Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotest results, are needed before returning to an extended retesting interval...
  25. pmc Five-year risk of recurrence after treatment of CIN 2, CIN 3, or AIS: performance of HPV and Pap cotesting in posttreatment management
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S78-84. 2013
    ..It is not clear how many negative posttreatment Pap or cotest results are needed to ensure adequate safety against CIN 2+ before returning to extended retesting intervals...
  26. ncbi request reprint Determinants of human papillomavirus load among women with histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: dominant impact of surrounding low-grade lesions
    Mark E Sherman
    Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7374, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:1038-44. 2003
    ..These factors severely limit the clinical use of load measurements irrespective of HPV testing methodology...
  27. ncbi request reprint A comparison of cervical and vaginal human papillomavirus
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 34:849-55. 2007
    ..Previous studies have failed to present data on or detect a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes and/or have not carefully sampled the vagina, instead relying on self-collection that is likely contaminated with cervical cells...
  28. pmc Common genetic variation in TP53 and risk of human papillomavirus persistence and progression to CIN3/cancer revisited
    Jill Koshiol
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20852 7248, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:1631-7. 2009
    ..Although genetic variation in TP53 might affect the natural history of HPV and cervical cancer, further work is needed to elucidate the possible mechanism...
  29. ncbi request reprint Baseline cytology, human papillomavirus testing, and risk for cervical neoplasia: a 10-year cohort analysis
    Mark E Sherman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:46-52. 2003
    ..We evaluated whether simultaneous screening with a Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is useful for assessing the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or cervical cancer...
  30. ncbi request reprint Restricted cross-reactivity of hybrid capture 2 with nononcogenic human papillomavirus types
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1394-9. 2002
    ....
  31. pmc Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women with HPV-positive and HPV-negative high-grade Pap results
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S50-5. 2013
    ..We examined whether HPV testing provides useful risk stratification in this context...
  32. pmc Five-year risk of CIN 3+ to guide the management of women aged 21 to 24 years
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S64-8. 2013
    ..To inform the management of Pap test abnormalities among women aged 21 to 24 years, who have extremely low cancer risks, we compared risks of CIN 3+ among women aged 21 to 24 versus 25 to 29 years or 30 to 64 years...
  33. pmc Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women who test Pap-negative but are HPV-positive
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S56-63. 2013
    ..However, the performance of these guidelines in routine clinical practice has not been evaluated...
  34. pmc Five-year risks of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ among women with HPV-positive and HPV-negative LSIL Pap results
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S43-9. 2013
    ..Some authors have suggested that HPV triage might be effective at older ages, when the percentage of HPV positivity among women with LSIL declines...
  35. pmc Five-year risks of CIN 3+ and cervical cancer among women with HPV testing of ASC-US Pap results
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:S36-42. 2013
    ..However, despite ample data, the routine clinical performance of HPV testing of women with ASC-US has not been adequately documented...
  36. pmc Heterogeneity of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV16: implications for natural history and management
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852 7234, USA
    Int J Cancer 132:148-54. 2013
    ..Lesion size seems to be an important determinant of colposcopy and biopsy performance. Genotyping for HPV16 in cervical cancer screening can improve risk stratification but may pose challenges to finding small lesions in colposcopy...
  37. pmc Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PRDX3 and RPS19 and risk of HPV persistence and cervical precancer/cancer
    Mahboobeh Safaeian
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33619. 2012
    ..Host genetic factors might affect the risk of progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiologic agent for cervical cancer, to persistent HPV infection, and hence to cervical precancer and cancer...
  38. pmc Grading the severity of cervical neoplasia based on combined histopathology, cytopathology, and HPV genotype distribution among 1,700 women referred to colposcopy in Oklahoma
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20854 7234, USA
    Int J Cancer 124:964-9. 2009
    ..We are now using these sharpened diagnostic categories to search for novel biomarkers predicting the risk of progression and invasion...
  39. ncbi request reprint CIN2 is a much less reproducible and less valid diagnosis than CIN3: results from a histological review of population-based cervical samples
    Joseph D Carreon
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, The National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:441-6. 2007
    ..The CIN3 is a substantially more reproducible diagnosis that can be validated more frequently with HPV tests and cytological interpretations than CIN2...
  40. ncbi request reprint Risk of precancer and follow-up management strategies for women with human papillomavirus-negative atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
    Mahboobeh Safaeian
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:1325-31. 2007
    ....
  41. pmc Short term persistence of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical precancer and cancer: population based cohort study
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMJ 339:b2569. 2009
    ....
  42. pmc Common variants in immune and DNA repair genes and risk for human papillomavirus persistence and progression to cervical cancer
    Sophia S Wang
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 5104, Rockville, MD 20852 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:20-30. 2009
    ..We examined host genetic factors to identify those more common in individuals whose human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were most likely to persist and progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer...
  43. ncbi request reprint A prospective study of age trends in cervical human papillomavirus acquisition and persistence in Guanacaste, Costa Rica
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1808-16. 2005
    ..In some populations, HPV prevalence demonstrates a second peak in older women. Longitudinal data may help to explain this second peak...
  44. ncbi request reprint Relationships of human papillomavirus type, qualitative viral load, and age with cytologic abnormality
    Melinda Butsch Kovacic
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Res 66:10112-9. 2006
    ..The lack of evident severe abnormalities associated with HPV18 and related HPV types might have implications for screening for poorly detected glandular and alpha7-related lesions...
  45. pmc Risk of precancer determined by HPV genotype combinations in women with minor cytologic abnormalities
    Julia C Gage
    Divisions of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22:1095-101. 2013
    ..We evaluated genotyping for HPV16, HPV16/18, and HPV16/18/45 in carcinogenic HPV-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology...
  46. pmc Long-term risk of recurrent cervical human papillomavirus infection and precancer and cancer following excisional treatment
    Aimee R Kreimer
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Rockville, MD, USA
    Int J Cancer 131:211-8. 2012
    ..Thus, persistence of HPV infection a median of six years after treatment was uncommon but, when present, posed a substantial risk of subsequent CIN2+. Serial follow-up data from other studies would further strengthen these conclusions...
  47. pmc Long-term persistence of prevalently detected human papillomavirus infections in the absence of detectable cervical precancer and cancer
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7234, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:814-22. 2011
    ..Detailed descriptions of long-term persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the absence of cervical precancer are lacking...
  48. ncbi request reprint A prospective study of high-grade cervical neoplasia risk among human papillomavirus-infected women
    Philip E Castle
    National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1406-14. 2002
    ..However, these potential risk factors have not been adequately studied in prospective studies...
  49. ncbi request reprint The natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among young women in the Guanacaste cohort shortly after initiation of sexual life
    Ana Cecilia Rodriguez
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Rockville, Maryland 20859, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 34:494-502. 2007
    ..We wanted to explore early HPV natural history and CIN 3 prospectively...
  50. pmc A comparison of linear array and hybrid capture 2 for detection of carcinogenic human papillomavirus and cervical precancer in ASCUS-LSIL triage study
    Patti E Gravitt
    Department of Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:1248-54. 2008
    ..We were interested in comparing the performance of Linear Array (LA; Roche Molecular Systems) to Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2; Digene) for the detection of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical precancer...
  51. pmc Neither one-time negative screening tests nor negative colposcopy provides absolute reassurance against cervical cancer
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Int J Cancer 125:1649-56. 2009
    ....
  52. pmc Accuracy of cervical specimens obtained for biomarker studies in women with CIN3
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 5014, Rockville, MD 20854 7234, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 115:493-6. 2009
    ..We developed a protocol to collect representative cervical specimens based on colposcopic evaluation from women treated with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)...
  53. pmc Alterations of T-cell surface markers in older women with persistent human papillomavirus infection
    Ana Cecilia Rodriguez
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Int J Cancer 128:597-607. 2011
    ..Whether phenotypic alterations observed predispose to HPV persistence or result from it should be the focus of future studies...
  54. pmc Methylation of HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 genomes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 5024, Rockville, MD 20852 7234, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:1738-49. 2012
    ..However, the extent of methylation in other HPV types and its role in progression to cancer is poorly understood...
  55. pmc Human papillomavirus load measured by Linear Array correlates with quantitative PCR in cervical cytology specimens
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1564-70. 2012
    ..Our findings support conducting comprehensive studies of viral load and cervical cancer precursors using quantitative LA genotyping data...
  56. ncbi request reprint Immune profiling of plasma and cervical secretions using recycling immunoaffinity chromatography
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:1449-56. 2003
    ....
  57. pmc Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in women with cervical precancer and cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20:946-53. 2011
    ..Here, we present the HPV genotypes found in first ∼500 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or more severe disease (CIN3+) diagnosed at the study baseline...
  58. pmc Human papillomavirus infection with multiple types: pattern of coinfection and risk of cervical disease
    Anil K Chaturvedi
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS 7072 Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:910-20. 2011
    ..We investigated coinfection patterns for 25 human papillomavirus (HPV) types and assessed the risk conferred by multiple HPV types toward cervical disease...
  59. pmc Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for human papillomavirus exposure
    Sarah E Coseo
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 38:976-82. 2011
    ..Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated...
  60. pmc Longitudinal analysis of carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection and associated cytologic abnormalities in the Guanacaste natural history study: looking ahead to cotesting
    Sarah Coseo Markt
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:498-505. 2012
    ..The aim of this analysis was to assess the longitudinal relationship of abnormal cytology and HPV positivity in a 7-year prospective study of 2500 women in Guanacaste, Costa Rica...
  61. pmc Hierarchical clustering of human papilloma virus genotype patterns in the ASCUS-LSIL triage study
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20852 7234, USA
    Cancer Res 70:8578-86. 2010
    ..Our novel approach to study multiple genotype infections in cervical disease with the use of unsupervised hierarchical clustering can address complex genotype distributions on a population level...
  62. ncbi request reprint Smoking is a risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 among oncogenic human papillomavirus DNA-positive women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology
    Kathleen McIntyre-Seltman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Room 7074, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1165-70. 2005
    ....
  63. pmc A long-term prospective study of type-specific human papillomavirus infection and risk of cervical neoplasia among 20,000 women in the Portland Kaiser Cohort Study
    Mark Schiffman
    Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20:1398-409. 2011
    ..Adding HPV testing to cytology is recommended for women ≥30 but long-term prospective studies of HPV testing are rare...
  64. pmc Comparison between prototype hybrid capture 3 and hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus DNA assays for detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4022-30. 2003
    ..68 to 0.79). In conclusion, we suggest that HC3 (>/=0.6 RLU/PC) may be slightly more sensitive than and equally specific test as HC2 (>/=1.0 RLU/PC) for the detection of CIN3+ over the duration of typical screening intervals...
  65. ncbi request reprint Absolute risk of a subsequent abnormal pap among oncogenic human papillomavirus DNA-positive, cytologically negative women
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    Cancer 95:2145-51. 2002
    ..The absolute risk of a subsequent abnormal Pap test for these women is uncertain. Therefore, the proper counseling and clinical management of these women is also uncertain...
  66. pmc Determinants of seropositivity among HPV-16/18 DNA positive young women
    Carolina Porras
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 10:238. 2010
    ..We evaluated determinants of seropositivity among 646 women infected with HPV-16 and/or HPV-18...
  67. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus prevalence in women who have and have not undergone hysterectomies
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1702-5. 2006
    ..5% for WH) between the 2 groups of women. Although WH have a similar prevalence of carcinogenic HPV infection, compared with WNH without a cervix, they have minimal risk of HPV-induced cancer and are unlikely to benefit from HPV testing...
  68. pmc Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV 16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial
    Aimee R Kreimer
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Lancet Oncol 12:862-70. 2011
    ..Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections cause most cases of anal cancer. We assessed efficacy of an AS04-adjuvanted HPV 16 and HPV 18 vaccine against anal infection with HPV 16, HPV 18, or both (HPV 16/18)...
  69. doi request reprint The role of co-factors in the progression from human papillomavirus infection to cervical cancer
    Patricia Luhn
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20892, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 128:265-70. 2013
    ..We compared established risk factors among women with CIN2 and CIN3 to evaluate the heterogeneity of these factors in precancer and also assessed their role during cervical carcinogenesis...
  70. pmc Clinical and pathological heterogeneity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3
    Hannah P Yang
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29051. 2012
    ..To improve our understanding of CIN3 natural history, we performed a detailed characterization of CIN3 heterogeneity in a large referral population in the US...
  71. pmc Methylation of human papillomavirus type 16 genome and risk of cervical precancer in a Costa Rican population
    Lisa Mirabello
    Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS 7101, Rockville, MD 20892, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:556-65. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Comparative performance of human papillomavirus DNA testing using novel sample collection methods
    Julia C Gage
    Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, MSC 7231, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4185-9. 2011
    ..HC2 is likely more clinically specific, although possibly less sensitive, than either PCR test. Thus, use of HC2 on cervicovaginal specimens for screening could result in fewer referrals compared to LA and Amplicor...
  73. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus testing following loop electrosurgical excision procedure identifies women at risk for posttreatment cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 disease
    Aimee R Kreimer
    National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892 7333, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:908-14. 2006
    ....
  74. pmc Epidemiological study of anti-HPV16/18 seropositivity and subsequent risk of HPV16 and -18 infections
    Mahboobeh Safaeian
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Blvd, Ste 550, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 102:1653-62. 2010
    ..Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 or HPV18 elicits an antibody response, but whether the elicited antibodies protect women against subsequent infection by a homologous HPV type compared with seronegative women is unknown...
  75. ncbi request reprint Risk assessment to guide the prevention of cervical cancer
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 12:1-7. 2008
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Human papillomavirus type 16 infections and 2-year absolute risk of cervical precancer in women with equivocal or mild cytologic abnormalities
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:1066-71. 2005
    ....
  77. pmc Cervical cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: a population-based study in routine clinical practice
    Hormuzd A Katki
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20882, USA
    Lancet Oncol 12:663-72. 2011
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Comparisons of HPV DNA detection by MY09/11 PCR methods
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Med Virol 68:417-23. 2002
    ..Our data also suggest that studies reporting HPV DNA detection by PCR need to report the type of polymerase used, as well as other assay specifics, and underscore the need for worldwide standards of testing...
  79. pmc Proof-of-principle evaluation of the efficacy of fewer than three doses of a bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine
    Aimee R Kreimer
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS 7084, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 103:1444-51. 2011
    ..Three-dose regimens for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expensive and difficult to complete, especially in settings where the need for cervical cancer prevention is greatest...
  80. pmc Comparison of two PCR-based human papillomavirus genotyping methods
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 5004, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3437-45. 2008
    ..Both approaches are suitable for monitoring the impact of HPV16/18 vaccines in clinical trials...
  81. pmc Influence of loop electrosurgical excision procedure on subsequent acquisition of new human papillomavirus infections
    Philip E Castle
    Divisions of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1612-20. 2009
    ..The impact of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) treatment for cervical precancerous lesions on subsequent acquisition of new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is not well described...
  82. ncbi request reprint Persistent human papillomavirus infection is associated with a generalized decrease in immune responsiveness in older women
    Alfonso J Garcia-Pineres
    HPV Immunology Laboratory, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc National Cancer Institute Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Res 66:11070-6. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that an impairment in host immunologic responses is associated to persistent HPV infection. The fact that effects were evident for all studied stimuli is suggestive of a generalized effect...
  83. ncbi request reprint Interlaboratory reliability of Hybrid Capture 2
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 122:238-45. 2004
    ..73); among those with equivocal or abnormal cytologic findings, kappa values were 0.80 or more. These data show that HC2 is a reliable test for detecting clinically relevant oncogenic HPV DNA...
  84. ncbi request reprint PCR testing of pooled longitudinally collected cervical specimens of women to increase the efficiency of studying human papillomavirus infection
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Room 7074, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:256-60. 2005
    ..7-91.4%), respectively. We conclude that pooling specimens and testing by PCR may be useful for discriminating HPV DNA-positive from completely negative specimen sets in women who are likely to have been HPV DNA-negative.>..
  85. doi request reprint Effect of the number of biopsies on the subsequent acquisition of new human papillomavirus infections
    Philip E Castle
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 114:1057-62. 2009
    ..To analyze the effect of number of biopsies taken at enrollment with incident human papillomavirus (HPV) infections detected at the next 6-month visit...
  86. ncbi request reprint Correlates of IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in cervical secretions
    Patti E Gravitt
    Interdisciplinary Studies Section, Environmental Epidemiology Branch, DCEG, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS 7059, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Clin Immunol 23:175-83. 2003
    ..Future analyses of cervical cytokine levels and HPV infection should control for the inherent variation of local cytokine levels due to hormonal influences, hemoglobin contamination, pH, and cervical secretion volume differences...
  87. ncbi request reprint The promise of global cervical-cancer prevention
    Mark Schiffman
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2101-4. 2005
  88. ncbi request reprint A comparison of a prototype PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 for detection of carcinogenic human papillomavirus DNA in women with equivocal or mildly abnormal papanicolaou smears
    Mark Schiffman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 124:722-32. 2005
    ..Smaller amounts of material used in PCR could have limited its sensitivity, but our results demonstrate the importance of optimization and standardization of PCR-based assays for clinical applications...
  89. pmc Hierarchy of resistance to cervical neoplasia mediated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen loci
    Mary Carrington
    Basic Research Program, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Exp Med 201:1069-75. 2005
    ....
  90. pmc Utility of methylation markers in cervical cancer early detection: appraisal of the state-of-the-science
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 5012, Rockville, MD 20854 7234, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 112:293-9. 2009
    ..We wanted to identify the most promising methylation marker candidates for cervical cancer early detection...
  91. pmc Detection of precancerous cervical lesions is differential by human papillomavirus type
    Mahboobeh Safaeian
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Cancer Res 69:3262-6. 2009
    ..001). These results indicate the underrepresentation of HPV18/45 in precancers, whereas HPV16-associated CIN3+ is diagnosed much earlier. Whether the underrepresentation of 18/45 may be due to occult pathology needs further investigation...
  92. pmc A competitive serological assay shows naturally acquired immunity to human papillomavirus infections in the Guanacaste Natural History Study
    Nicolas Wentzensen
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:94-102. 2011
    ..A competitive Luminex Immunoassay (cLIA) has been developed to measure neutralizing antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18...
  93. pmc Human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Room 5004, MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:1675-81. 2010
    ..There are few large case series describing the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes found in women diagnosed with rigorously reviewed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), cervical precancer...
  94. pmc Human papillomavirus genotype specificity of hybrid capture 2
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd, Room 5030, EPS MSC 7234, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2595-604. 2008
    ..In conclusion, hc2 cross-reacts with certain untargeted, noncarcinogenic HPV genotypes that are phylogenetically related to the targeted genotypes, but the degree of cross-reactivity may be less than previously reported...
  95. ncbi request reprint Visual appearance of the uterine cervix: correlation with human papillomavirus detection and type
    Jose Jeronimo
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 197:47.e1-8. 2007
    ..Infection with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is necessary for cervical precancer and cancer, but the effects of type-specific HPV infection on cervical appearance are poorly understood...
  96. ncbi request reprint Hormonal contraceptive use, pregnancy and parity, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 among oncogenic HPV DNA-positive women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Int J Cancer 117:1007-12. 2005
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Does the interval between papanicolaou tests influence the quality of cytology?
    Jose Jeronimo
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer 105:133-8. 2005
    ..It is commonly believed that the sensitivity of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests decreases with a short interval between cytology samplings. To the authors' knowledge, there is only limited evidence to support this belief...
  98. ncbi request reprint The Bethesda Interobserver Reproducibility Study (BIRST): a web-based assessment of the Bethesda 2001 System for classifying cervical cytology
    Mark E Sherman
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 7374, USA
    Cancer 111:15-25. 2007
    ..The Bethesda System (TBS) along with its companion atlas was updated in 2001 to improve standardization, clarity, and reproducibility of cervical cytology reporting...
  99. ncbi request reprint Viral determinants of human papillomavirus persistence following loop electrical excision procedure treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3
    Aimee R Kreimer
    Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:11-6. 2007
    ..Data from Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance-Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study were used to evaluate HPV persistence and reappearance after LEEP...
  100. ncbi request reprint The relationship of community biopsy-diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 to the quality control pathology-reviewed diagnoses: an ALTS report
    Philip E Castle
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 7234, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 127:805-15. 2007
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Preparing digitized cervigrams for colposcopy research and education: determination of optimal resolution and compression parameters
    Jose Jeronimo
    Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics DCEG, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 10:39-44. 2006
    ..The National Cancer Institute and National Library of Medicine are involved in a large effort to improve colposcopic assessment and, in preparation, are conducting methodologic research...