Henry F McFarland

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Unique clinical and pathological features in HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted MBP 111-129-specific humanized TCR transgenic mice
    Jacqueline A Quandt
    Department of Neurology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, 683 Hoes Ln, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    J Exp Med 200:223-34. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint The future of multiple sclerosis therapies: redesigning multiple sclerosis clinical trials in a new therapeutic era
    H F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mult Scler 11:669-76. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint The role of MRI as a surrogate outcome measure in multiple sclerosis
    H F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 8:40-51. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:913-9. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Examination of the role of MRI in multiple sclerosis: a problem orientated approach
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Results Probl Cell Differ 51:287-301. 2010
  6. pmc Effect of anti-CD25 antibody daclizumab in the inhibition of inflammation and stabilization of disease progression in multiple sclerosis
    Bibiana Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Room 5C103, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1400, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Neurol 66:483-9. 2009
  7. pmc Treatment with the phosphodiesterase type-4 inhibitor rolipram fails to inhibit blood--brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis
    Bibiana Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 15:1206-14. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Quality and quantity of diffuse and focal white matter disease and cognitive disability of patients with multiple sclerosis
    Giuseppe Bomboi
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    J Neuroimaging 21:e57-63. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Heterogeneity in response to interferon beta in patients with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year monthly imaging study
    Annie W Chiu
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Arch Neurol 66:39-43. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Different development of myelin basic protein agonist- and antagonist-specific human TCR transgenic T cells in the thymus and periphery
    Kazuyuki Kawamura
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 181:5462-72. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. pmc Unique clinical and pathological features in HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted MBP 111-129-specific humanized TCR transgenic mice
    Jacqueline A Quandt
    Department of Neurology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, 683 Hoes Ln, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    J Exp Med 200:223-34. 2004
    ..This notion may help to explain the clinical and pathological heterogeneity of MS...
  2. ncbi request reprint The future of multiple sclerosis therapies: redesigning multiple sclerosis clinical trials in a new therapeutic era
    H F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mult Scler 11:669-76. 2005
    ..The discussions resulting from the workshop should provide a basis for the examination and implementation of innovative clinical trial designs in MS...
  3. ncbi request reprint The role of MRI as a surrogate outcome measure in multiple sclerosis
    H F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 8:40-51. 2002
    ..Thus, before MRI is used as a primary outcome measure, new approaches to trial design must be given careful consideration...
  4. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:913-9. 2007
    ..Careful analysis of the alterations in immune processes should further advance knowledge of the relationship between the inflammatory component of this disease and the more diffuse degeneration of progressive multiple sclerosis...
  5. doi request reprint Examination of the role of MRI in multiple sclerosis: a problem orientated approach
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Results Probl Cell Differ 51:287-301. 2010
    ..We will provide some comments on the use of MRI in clinical trials as well as in clinical practice. Finally, we will end with a brief discussion of future challenges...
  6. pmc Effect of anti-CD25 antibody daclizumab in the inhibition of inflammation and stabilization of disease progression in multiple sclerosis
    Bibiana Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Room 5C103, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1400, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Neurol 66:483-9. 2009
    ..Several questions arise concerning the use of the anti-CD25 antibody daclizumab to treat multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  7. pmc Treatment with the phosphodiesterase type-4 inhibitor rolipram fails to inhibit blood--brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis
    Bibiana Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 15:1206-14. 2009
    ..We conclude that the reasons underlying the discrepancy between the therapeutic efficacy of rolipram in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis versus multiple sclerosis are at present not clear...
  8. doi request reprint Quality and quantity of diffuse and focal white matter disease and cognitive disability of patients with multiple sclerosis
    Giuseppe Bomboi
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    J Neuroimaging 21:e57-63. 2011
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Heterogeneity in response to interferon beta in patients with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year monthly imaging study
    Annie W Chiu
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Arch Neurol 66:39-43. 2009
    ..To investigate the heterogeneity in magnetic resonance image (MRI) patterns of response to interferon beta across patients with multiple sclerosis or within an individual patient over time...
  10. ncbi request reprint Different development of myelin basic protein agonist- and antagonist-specific human TCR transgenic T cells in the thymus and periphery
    Kazuyuki Kawamura
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 181:5462-72. 2008
    ..These results suggest that thymic and peripheral development of MBP-specific T cells are different; however, dual TCR expression can facilitate their development...
  11. doi request reprint T1 cortical hypointensities and their association with cognitive disability in multiple sclerosis
    Francesca Bagnato
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Mult Scler 16:1203-12. 2010
    ..Neocortical lesions (NLs) largely contribute to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS), although their relevance in patients' disability remains unknown...
  12. pmc Myelin basic protein-specific TCR/HLA-DRB5*01:01 transgenic mice support the etiologic role of DRB5*01:01 in multiple sclerosis
    Jacqueline A Quandt
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 189:2897-908. 2012
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Effects of interferon beta-1b on black holes in multiple sclerosis over a 6-year period with monthly evaluations
    Francesca Bagnato
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Arch Neurol 62:1684-8. 2005
    ..Although the effects of interferon beta-1b in reducing the formation of new BHs are established, it is not clear whether the drug may reduce BH duration after these lesions are formed...
  14. doi request reprint Relationship of cortical atrophy to fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Clelia Pellicano
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Arch Neurol 67:447-53. 2010
    ..Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies reported that damage of the corticostriatothalamocortical circuit is critical in its occurrence...
  15. ncbi request reprint Immunopathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis lesion
    S Markovic-Plese
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5B-16, 10 Center Drive MSC 1400, Bethesda, MD 20892-1400, USA
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 1:257-62. 2001
    ..Hopefully, they will enable us to more accurately monitor disease activity and evaluate the effects of new therapies on the progression of the disease...
  16. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of phosphodiesterase type 4-specific inhibition on human autoreactive myelin-specific T cell clones
    M Pette
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 98:147-56. 1999
    ..This profile suggest that rolipram differs from other currently used immunomodulatory drugs...
  17. ncbi request reprint VLA-4/CD49d downregulated on primed T lymphocytes during interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis
    P A Muraro
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC1400, 20892 1400, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 111:186-94. 2000
    ..These effects may play an important role in the reduction of central nervous system cell trafficking and inflammation in MS...
  18. ncbi request reprint Limited repertoire of HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted MBP111-129-specific T cells in HLA-DRB1*0401 Tg mice and their pathogenic potential
    Jaebong Huh
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 5B16, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 151:94-102. 2004
    ..In the spinal cord, the inflammation was observed in the peripheral nerve roots as well as in the CNS. These data suggest the pathogenic potential of HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted MBP111-129-specific T cells in humans...
  19. pmc Humanized anti-CD25 (daclizumab) inhibits disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients failing to respond to interferon beta
    Bibiana Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8705-8. 2004
    ..Daclizumab was very well tolerated and led to a 78% reduction in new contrast-enhancing lesions and to a significant improvement in several clinical outcome measures...
  20. ncbi request reprint MRI as a marker for disease heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis
    B Bielekova
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Neurology 65:1071-6. 2005
    ....
  21. pmc CD4+CD28- costimulation-independent T cells in multiple sclerosis
    S Markovic-Plese
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1400, USA
    J Clin Invest 108:1185-94. 2001
    ..The CD4+CD28- population is expanded in a subgroup of MS patients. Myelin basic protein-specific cells detected in this cell subset may play an important role in the inflammatory response within the central nervous system...
  22. ncbi request reprint Relationship between inflammatory lesions and cerebral atrophy in multiple sclerosis
    N D Richert
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Neurology 66:551-6. 2006
    ..4 to 10) years...
  23. ncbi request reprint In vivo detection of cortical plaques by MR imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis
    F Bagnato
    Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:2161-7. 2006
    ..Among them is the low contrast between small cortical lesions and surrounding cortical gray matter offered by present techniques...
  24. pmc Immunodominance of a low-affinity major histocompatibility complex-binding myelin basic protein epitope (residues 111-129) in HLA-DR4 (B1*0401) subjects is associated with a restricted T cell receptor repertoire
    P A Muraro
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
    J Clin Invest 100:339-49. 1997
    ..This study provides new insight about MBP recognition and proposes an alternative mechanism for immunodominance of self-antigen T cell epitopes in humans...
  25. ncbi request reprint Interferon-beta-1b slows progression of atrophy in RRMS: Three-year follow-up in NAb- and NAb+ patients
    J A Frank
    Experimental Neuroimaging Section, Lab of Diagnostic Radiology Research, NINDS, NIH, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA
    Neurology 62:719-25. 2004
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint How to participate in a multiple sclerosis clinical trial
    J A Frank
    Laboratory of Diagnostic Radiology Research, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1074, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimaging Clin N Am 10:817-30 ,x. 2000
    ..Discussion includes the use of conventional and newer MR imaging techniques in clinical trials, current thoughts regarding the role of MR imaging as a surrogate outcome measure, and various types of trial designs...
  27. ncbi request reprint In vitro modulation of human, autoreactive MBP-specific CD4 + T-cell clones by cyclosporin A
    M Pette
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 76:91-9. 1997
    ..Our observations are in line with results obtained in different experimental systems. The discrepancy between the profound inhibition of T-cells and the modest therapeutic effects on MS is discussed...
  28. ncbi request reprint Contrast-enhanced MRI lesions during treatment with interferonbeta-1b predict increase in T1 black hole volume in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
    K Morgen
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mult Scler 11:146-8. 2005
    ..In patients without CEL, the T1 BH volume remained stable, whereas it increased in patients with CEL. The occurrence of CEL in patients treated with IFNbeta may indicate a heightened risk of accumulating T1 BH...
  29. pmc Clustering of non-major histocompatibility complex susceptibility candidate loci in human autoimmune diseases
    K G Becker
    Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:9979-84. 1998
    ..This nonrandom clustering supports a hypothesis that, in some cases, clinically distinct autoimmune diseases may be controlled by a common set of susceptibility genes...
  30. pmc Age dependence of clinical and pathological manifestations of autoimmune demyelination. Implications for multiple sclerosis
    M E Smith
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Pathol 155:1147-61. 1999
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint T cell response to 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in multiple sclerosis patients
    P A Muraro
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bldg 10, Room 5B 16, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC1400, 20892, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 130:233-42. 2002
    ..These data provide the immunological basis for further investigation of CNPase as a potential target self-antigen in MS...
  32. ncbi request reprint Molecular mimicry and antigen-specific T cell responses in multiple sclerosis and chronic CNS Lyme disease
    R Martin
    Neuroimmunology Branch, NINDS, NIH Building, 10 Room 5B 16, 10 Center DR MSC 1400, Bethesda, MD, 20892 1400, USA
    J Autoimmun 16:187-92. 2001
    ..Thus, we provide firm evidence that the basic principles of cross-recognition and their pathogenetic significance are relevant in MS...
  33. ncbi request reprint Interferon beta-1b and intravenous methylprednisolone promote lesion recovery in multiple sclerosis
    N D Richert
    Laboratory of Diagnostic Radiology Research, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 7:49-58. 2001
    ..The additional benefit of IVMP compared to IFNbeta-1b may be related to its inhibitory effect on demyelination...
  34. ncbi request reprint Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years
    Francesca Bagnato
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5B16, 10 Center Drive MSC 1400, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Brain 126:1782-9. 2003
    ..002) than those preceded by CELs visible on > or =2 monthly MRIs. The formation of a new PBH was found to be related to CELs activity; however, duration of PBHs is most likely a consequence of the duration of the enhancement...
  35. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profile in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: identifying pathways relevant to disease
    Roberto Bomprezzi
    Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Bldg 50 Room 5150, Bethesda, MD 20892 8000, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 12:2191-9. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Conventional magnetic resonance imaging features in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis
    Francesca Bagnato
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Neurovirol 11:525-34. 2005
    ..Hence, conventional magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive but not highly specific tool for diagnosis of tropical spastic paraparesis...
  37. ncbi request reprint Complex immunomodulatory effects of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis include the upregulation of T helper 1-associated marker genes
    K P Wandinger
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1400, USA
    Ann Neurol 50:349-57. 2001
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the NIH minipig
    B A Singer
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bldg 10, Rm 5B16, Bethesda, MA 20892, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 105:7-19. 2000
    ..Pathology and in vitro SCH responses implicate a central role of CD4(+) lymphocytes in swine EAE...
  39. ncbi request reprint Contribution of individual amino acids within MHC molecule or antigenic peptide to TCR ligand potency
    B Hemmer
    Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 164:861-71. 2000
    ..The results indicate that a specific MHC molecule not only selects certain peptides, but also is crucial for setting an affinity threshold for TCR recognition, which determines the flexibility in peptide recognition for a given TCR...
  40. ncbi request reprint Methylprednisolone effect on brain volume and enhancing lesions in MS before and during IFNbeta-1b
    A B Rao
    Laboratory of Diagnostic Radiology Research, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurology 59:688-94. 2002
    ..To determine the effect of IV methylprednisolone (IVMP) on brain fraction volume (BFV), contrast-enhancing (CE) lesions, and white matter lesion load (WMLL) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated for acute exacerbations...
  41. doi request reprint The B cell--old player, new position on the team
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:664-5. 2008
  42. pmc Thymic output generates a new and diverse TCR repertoire after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis patients
    Paolo A Muraro
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 201:805-16. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Increased detection of serum HHV-6 DNA sequences during multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations and correlation with parameters of MS disease progression
    Rossana Berti
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurovirol 8:250-6. 2002
    ..Moreover, the findings presented in this study have confirmed previous reports supporting an association between MS and HHV-6 and suggest a role for this human herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of MS...
  44. ncbi request reprint Ring-enchancement in multiple sclerosis: marker of disease severity
    K Morgen
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 7:167-71. 2001
    ..The findings suggest that the pathological process reflected by ring-enhancing lesions may contribute to more severe clinical disease...
  45. ncbi request reprint Interferon-beta-1b effects on re-enhancing lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis
    S Gupta
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 11:658-68. 2005
    ..Thus, IFNbeta appears to be effective in reducing the degree of severity of inflammation among Re-CELs, as reflected by their reduced maximal lesion sizes and durations of enhancement...
  46. pmc Ring and nodular multiple sclerosis lesions: a retrospective natural history study
    M Davis
    NIB National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH Building 10, Room 5C103, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Neurology 74:851-6. 2010
    ..Based upon shape, CELs may be defined as nodular (nCEL) or ring (rCEL) lesions. Several short-term studies pointed towards the assumption that rCELs represent areas of a more aggressive inflammatory process...
  47. ncbi request reprint Epitope spreading occurs in active but not passive EAE induced by myelin basic protein
    R R Voskuhl
    Laboratory of Viral and Molecular Pathogenesis, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 70:103-11. 1996
    ..Implications of these findings with regard to epitope spreading in MS are discussed...
  48. ncbi request reprint Expression profiling identifies responder and non-responder phenotypes to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis
    S St├╝rzebecher
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain 126:1419-29. 2003
    ..These findings will help to better elucidate the mechanism of action of IFN-beta in relation to different disease patterns and eventually lead to optimized therapy...
  49. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal MRI study: the effects of azathioprine in MS patients refractory to interferon beta-1b
    S Markovic-Plese
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Neurology 60:1849-51. 2003
    ..A 69% reduction in the number of contrast-enhancing lesions was observed during the combination therapy (p = 0.002)...
  50. ncbi request reprint Molecular tracking of antigen-specific T cell clones in neurological immune-mediated disorders
    Paolo A Muraro
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Brain 126:20-31. 2003
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Central nervous system disease in primary Sjogrens syndrome: the role of magnetic resonance imaging
    Katrin Morgen
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Semin Arthritis Rheum 34:623-30. 2004
    ..To examine the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) disease in primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS) and indicate ways in which cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help determine the significance of CNS involvement...
  52. pmc A case study on the effect of neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta 1b in multiple sclerosis patients followed for 3 years with monthly imaging
    A W Chiu
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 150:61-7. 2007
    ..Multiple MRI and NAb measurements performed within the same individual allow for a better description of the complex heterogeneous response to IFN-beta-1b with respect to NAb occurrence...
  53. ncbi request reprint ELI-spot of Th-1 cytokine secreting PBMC's in multiple sclerosis: correlation with MRI lesions
    P A Calabresi
    Neuroimmunology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 85:212-9. 1998
    ..The association between IFN-gamma and LT-alpha secretion and MRI lesions is less clear...
  54. ncbi request reprint Analysis of gene expression in mutiple sclerosis lesions using cDNA microarrays
    L W Whitney
    Molecular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1400, USA
    Ann Neurol 46:425-8. 1999
    ..Thus, cDNA microarray technology represents a powerful new tool for the identification of genes not previously associated with the MS disease process...
  55. ncbi request reprint Elevated serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of soluble human herpesvirus type 6 cellular receptor, membrane cofactor protein, in patients with multiple sclerosis
    S S Soldan
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann Neurol 50:486-93. 2001
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that elevated levels of soluble CD46 may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis...
  56. ncbi request reprint Microarray analysis of gene expression in multiple sclerosis and EAE identifies 5-lipoxygenase as a component of inflammatory lesions
    L W Whitney
    Molecular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, NIH, Bldg. 10/Rm 5B-16, Bethesda, MD 20892-1400, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 121:40-8. 2001
    ..Although these findings are not specific for MS, they identify a potentially important component of pro-inflammatory activity in the demyelinating process in MS and suggest a possible target for anti-inflammatory therapy in MS...
  57. ncbi request reprint FLAIR and magnetization transfer imaging of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome
    K Morgen
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-1400, USA
    Neurology 57:1980-5. 2001
    ..Magnetization transfer ratio analysis did not provide evidence for structural abnormalities of the brain parenchyma in patients with nonfocal disease...
  58. ncbi request reprint The emerging role of MRI in multiple sclerosis and the new diagnostic criteria
    H F McFarland
    National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mult Scler 8:71-2. 2002
  59. doi request reprint Thalamic involvement and its impact on clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis: a diffusion tensor imaging study at 3T
    F Tovar-Moll
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30:1380-6. 2009
    ..Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to investigate the presence of damage to the normal-appearing thalamus in MS and its relationship with disability...
  60. ncbi request reprint Re: GAMES issue
    Henry F McFarland
    J Neuroimmunol 153:3. 2004
  61. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the "McDonald Criteria"
    Chris H Polman
    VU Medical Center Amsterdam, Free University, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ann Neurol 58:840-6. 2005
    ..The 2005 Revisions to the McDonald Diagnostic Criteria for MS should simplify and speed diagnosis, whereas maintaining adequate sensitivity and specificity...