C L Ludlow

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Stuttering: a dynamic motor control disorder
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Fluency Disord 28:273-95; quiz 295. 2003
  2. pmc Effects of surface electrical stimulation both at rest and during swallowing in chronic pharyngeal Dysphagia
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dysphagia 22:1-10. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in laryngeal sensorimotor control for voice, speech and swallowing
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 12:160-5. 2004
  4. pmc Translating principles of neural plasticity into research on speech motor control recovery and rehabilitation
    Christy L Ludlow
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:S240-58. 2008
  5. pmc Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitations of current approaches
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 17:160-5. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Chronic intermittent stimulation of the thyroarytenoid muscle maintains dynamic control of glottal adduction
    C L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5D38, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1416, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892 1416, USA
    Muscle Nerve 23:44-57. 2000
  7. pmc Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH, Building 10, Room 5D 38, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 147:205-22. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Three-dimensional changes in the upper airway during neuromuscular stimulation of laryngeal muscles
    C L Ludlow
    Voice and Speech Section, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    Artif Organs 23:463-5. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Adductor muscle activity abnormalities in abductor spasmodic dysphonia
    C B Cyrus
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1416, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124:23-30. 2001
  10. pmc The effect of surface electrical stimulation on hyolaryngeal movement in normal individuals at rest and during swallowing
    Ianessa A Humbert
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bldg 10 Rm 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Appl Physiol 101:1657-63. 2006

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. ncbi request reprint Stuttering: a dynamic motor control disorder
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Fluency Disord 28:273-95; quiz 295. 2003
    ..This review indicates that the central control abnormalities in stuttering are not due to disturbance in one particular brain region but rather a system dysfunction that interferes with rapid and dynamic speech processing for production...
  2. pmc Effects of surface electrical stimulation both at rest and during swallowing in chronic pharyngeal Dysphagia
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dysphagia 22:1-10. 2007
    ..006). Stimulation may have acted to resist patients' hyoid elevation during swallowing...
  3. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in laryngeal sensorimotor control for voice, speech and swallowing
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 12:160-5. 2004
    ....
  4. pmc Translating principles of neural plasticity into research on speech motor control recovery and rehabilitation
    Christy L Ludlow
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:S240-58. 2008
    ..To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders...
  5. pmc Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitations of current approaches
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 17:160-5. 2009
    ..Although botulinum toxin injection is the gold standard for treatment of spasmodic dysphonia, surgical approaches aimed at providing long-term symptom control have been advancing over recent years...
  6. ncbi request reprint Chronic intermittent stimulation of the thyroarytenoid muscle maintains dynamic control of glottal adduction
    C L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5D38, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1416, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892 1416, USA
    Muscle Nerve 23:44-57. 2000
    ..The results suggest that chronic intermittent thyroarytenoid stimulation has good potential for improving airway protection in dysphagia...
  7. pmc Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH, Building 10, Room 5D 38, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 147:205-22. 2005
    ..The new frontier is the study of the central control of the laryngeal musculature for voice, swallowing and breathing and how volitional and reflexive control systems may interact in humans...
  8. ncbi request reprint Three-dimensional changes in the upper airway during neuromuscular stimulation of laryngeal muscles
    C L Ludlow
    Voice and Speech Section, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    Artif Organs 23:463-5. 1999
    ..These results suggest that chronic neuromuscular stimulation can effect glottic protection by reducing the glottal opening and may be beneficial for patients with central control disorders affecting airway protection during swallowing...
  9. ncbi request reprint Adductor muscle activity abnormalities in abductor spasmodic dysphonia
    C B Cyrus
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1416, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124:23-30. 2001
    ..SIGNIFICANCE: These abnormalities may indicate why PCA BOTOX injections have not been as effective in ABSD as thyroarytenoid injections have been in adductor spasmodic dysphonia...
  10. pmc The effect of surface electrical stimulation on hyolaryngeal movement in normal individuals at rest and during swallowing
    Ianessa A Humbert
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bldg 10 Rm 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Appl Physiol 101:1657-63. 2006
    ..0275). Because surface electrical stimulation reduced hyolaryngeal elevation during swallowing in normal volunteers, our findings suggest that surface electrical stimulation will reduce elevation during swallowing therapy for dysphagia...
  11. pmc The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position
    Ianessa A Humbert
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Laryngoscope 118:14-9. 2008
    ..Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects...
  12. ncbi request reprint Glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and other regions of the medulla oblongata in the cat
    R Ambalavanar
    Voice and Speech Section, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Comp Neurol 402:75-92. 1998
    ..This finding suggests that neurons in these structures are designed to respond differently to excitatory input...
  13. pmc Self-triggered functional electrical stimulation during swallowing
    Theresa A Burnett
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, 20892 1416, USA
    J Neurophysiol 94:4011-8. 2005
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Thyroarytenoid muscle responses to air pressure stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa in humans
    Priyanka Bhabu
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 112:834-40. 2003
    ..The TA muscle responses to air pressure stimulation differ in physiological characteristics from the laryngeal adductor reflex that occurs in response to electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve...
  15. pmc Laryngeal muscle responses to mechanical displacement of the thyroid cartilage in humans
    Torrey M J Loucks
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bldg 10, Rm 5D 38, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:922-30. 2005
    ..The absence of intrinsic laryngeal muscle responses is consistent with a lack of spindles in these muscles. Our results suggest that other sensory receptors, such as mucosal mechanoreceptors, provide feedback for voice control...
  16. pmc Human brain activation during phonation and exhalation: common volitional control for two upper airway functions
    Torrey M J Loucks
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuroimage 36:131-43. 2007
    ..Overall, a similar central neural system was identified for both speech phonation and voluntary exhalation that primarily differed in auditory monitoring...
  17. pmc Functional neuroanatomy of human voluntary cough and sniff production
    Kristina Simonyan
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20814 1416, USA
    Neuroimage 37:401-9. 2007
    ..Understanding the sensorimotor sniff control mechanisms may provide a new view on the cerebral functional reorganization of olfactory control in patients with neurological disorders...
  18. pmc Laryngeal reflex responses are not modulated during human voice and respiratory tasks
    Victor M Henriquez
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Physiol 585:779-89. 2007
    ..These findings demonstrate that laryngeal motor neuron responses to sensory inputs are not gated during volitional tasks confirming the robust life-sustaining protective mechanisms provided by this airway reflex...
  19. pmc Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering
    Soo Eun Chang
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 39:1333-44. 2008
    ..These findings point to the importance of considering the role of neuroplasticity during development when studying persistent forms of developmental disorders in adults...
  20. pmc Focal white matter changes in spasmodic dysphonia: a combined diffusion tensor imaging and neuropathological study
    Kristina Simonyan
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Brain 131:447-59. 2008
    ..509, P = 0.037). These brain abnormalities may alter the central control of voluntary voice production and, therefore, may underlie the pathophysiology of this disorder...
  21. pmc Brainstem pathology in spasmodic dysphonia
    Kristina Simonyan
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 1416, USA
    Laryngoscope 120:121-4. 2010
    ..No abnormal protein accumulations and no demyelination or axonal degeneration were found. These neuropathological findings may provide insights into the pathophysiology of SD...
  22. pmc Correspondence between laryngeal vocal fold movement and muscle activity during speech and nonspeech gestures
    Christopher J Poletto
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:858-66. 2004
    ..In conclusion, different combinations of muscle activation are used for biomechanical control of vocal fold opening and closing movements during respiratory, airway protection, and speech tasks...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effect of neuromuscular stimulation of the genioglossus on the hypopharyngeal airway
    Eric A Mann
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    Laryngoscope 112:351-6. 2002
    ..To determine the effects of neuromuscular stimulation (NS) of the genioglossus muscle on hypopharyngeal airway size...
  24. pmc Functional but not structural networks of the human laryngeal motor cortex show left hemispheric lateralization during syllable but not breathing production
    Kristina Simonyan
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 29:14912-23. 2009
    ..Significant left-hemispheric lateralization of functional networks during simple but highly learned voice production suggests the readiness of the LMC network for production of a complex voluntary behavior, such as human speech...
  25. ncbi request reprint Mutant dynactin in motor neuron disease
    Imke Puls
    Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 33:455-6. 2003
    ..Binding assays show decreased binding of the mutant protein to microtubules. Our results show that dysfunction of dynactin-mediated transport can lead to human motor neuron disease...
  26. ncbi request reprint Laryngeal elevation achieved by neuromuscular stimulation at rest
    Theresa A Burnett
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 94:128-34. 2003
    ..Paired muscle stimulation produced significantly greater elevation than single muscle stimulation and could assist with laryngeal elevation in dysphagic patients with reduced or delayed laryngeal elevation...
  27. ncbi request reprint Laryngeal afferent stimulation enhances Fos immunoreactivity in periaqueductal gray in the cat
    R Ambalavanar
    Voice and Speech Section, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Comp Neurol 409:411-23. 1999
    ....
  28. pmc Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures
    Soo Eun Chang
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, NINDS NIH, 10 Center Dr MSC 1416 Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 47:314-25. 2009
    ..These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing...
  29. pmc Research priorities in spasmodic dysphonia
    Christy L Ludlow
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139:495-505. 2008
    ..To identify research priorities to increase understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and improved treatment of spasmodic dysphonia...
  30. ncbi request reprint Mucosal afferents mediate laryngeal adductor responses in the cat
    Richard D Andreatta
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 93:1622-9. 2002
    ..0005). These findings demonstrate that mucosal mechanoreceptors and not proprioceptive afferents contribute to the elicitation of LAR responses in the cat...
  31. ncbi request reprint Alterations in CNS activity induced by botulinum toxin treatment in spasmodic dysphonia: an H215O PET study
    S Omar Ali
    Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 8S235A, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 49:1127-46. 2006
    ....
  32. pmc Distal spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy caused by dynactin mutation
    Imke Puls
    Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Ann Neurol 57:687-94. 2005
    ..This mutation of dynactin, a ubiquitously expressed protein, causes a unique pattern of motor neuron degeneration that is associated with the accumulation of dynein and dynactin in neuronal inclusions...
  33. pmc Suppression of thyroarytenoid muscle responses during repeated air pressure stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa in awake humans
    Pamela Reed Kearney
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 114:264-70. 2005
    ..Central suppression of adductor responses to repeated air puff stimuli may allow speakers to produce voice without eliciting reflexive spasms that could disrupt speech...
  34. ncbi request reprint Assessment of posterior cricoarytenoid botulinum toxin injections in patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia
    S Bielamowicz
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 110:406-12. 2001
    ..Thus, PCA muscle injections of Botox provided limited benefits to patients with ABSD, demonstrating the need for a more effective therapy for these patients...
  35. pmc Brain activation abnormalities during speech and non-speech in stuttering speakers
    Soo Eun Chang
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, NINDS NIH, 10 Center Dr MSC 1416 Building 10, Room 5D38, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 46:201-12. 2009
    ..These results demonstrated that neural activation differences in PWS are not speech-specific...
  36. pmc Effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on laryngeal neurophysiology in the rat
    Xin Feng
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Neurophysiol 102:1193-205. 2009
    ..No changes in GN muscle activity occurred in any of the groups. The results suggest that a loss of stimulation of D(1) receptors plays a significant role in laryngeal pathophysiology in PD...
  37. pmc Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system
    Soren Y Lowell
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, 5D 38, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Neuroimage 42:285-95. 2008
    ..The effectiveness of oral-sensory stimulation for engaging both sensory and motor components of the cerebral swallowing system demonstrates the importance of sensory input in cerebral swallowing control...
  38. ncbi request reprint Selective suppression of late laryngeal adductor responses by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in the cat
    Ranjinidevi Ambalavanar
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1416, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:1252-62. 2002
    ..On the other hand, early R1 laryngeal adductor responses are likely to involve non-NMDA receptor activation...
  39. ncbi request reprint Laryngeal activity during upright vs. supine swallowing
    Julie M Barkmeier
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 93:740-5. 2002
    ..Therefore, the sequence of TA muscle activation relative to the SMC during swallowing appeared unaffected by gravitational influences...
  40. ncbi request reprint Effects of levodopa on laryngeal muscle activity for voice onset and offset in Parkinson disease
    S Gallena
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Speech Lang Hear Res 44:1284-99. 2001
    ..In this study, voice onset and offset control difficulties and vocal fold bowing were associated with increased levels of laryngeal muscle activity in the absence of medication...
  41. ncbi request reprint Developing an anatomical model of the human laryngeal cartilages from magnetic resonance imaging
    W Scott Selbie
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Acoust Soc Am 112:1077-90. 2002
    ..This study provided an anatomical framework for registering different larynges to the same coordinate space...
  42. pmc Neuronal activation in the medulla oblongata during selective elicitation of the laryngeal adductor response
    Ranjinidevi Ambalavanar
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    J Neurophysiol 92:2920-32. 2004
    ..The results demonstrate that the laryngeal adductor pathway is contained within the broader pathways for cough and swallow in the medulla...
  43. ncbi request reprint Laryngeal electromyography: an evidence-based review
    Robert T Sataloff
    Laryngeal Task Force, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine
    Muscle Nerve 28:767-72. 2003
    ..There is an urgent need for evidence-based research addressing the use of laryngeal EMG for other applications...
  44. ncbi request reprint Practice parameter: laryngeal electromyography (an evidence-based review)
    Robert T Sataloff
    J Voice 18:261-74. 2004
    ..There is an urgent need for evidence-based research addressing other applications in the use of laryngeal EMG for other applications...
  45. ncbi request reprint Practice parameter: laryngeal electromyography (an evidence-based review)
    Robert T Sataloff
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:770-9. 2004
    ..There is an urgent need for evidence-based research addressing other applications in the use of laryngeal EMG for other applications...