K S Korach

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Signal transduction. A new mediator for an old hormone?
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Science 307:1572-3. 2005
  2. pmc The absence of ER-β results in altered gene expression in ovarian granulosa cells isolated from in vivo preovulatory follicles
    April K Binder
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Laboratory of Reproduction and Developmental Toxicology, 111 TW Alexander Drive, MD B3 02, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 154:2174-87. 2013
  3. pmc Role of estrogen receptor signaling required for endometriosis-like lesion establishment in a mouse model
    Katherine A Burns
    Receptor Biology Section, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27790, USA
    Endocrinology 153:3960-71. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice exhibit resistance to the developmental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure on the female reproductive tract
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Dev Biol 238:224-38. 2001
  5. pmc Insufficient luteinizing hormone-induced intracellular signaling disrupts ovulation in preovulatory follicles lacking estrogen receptor-{beta}
    Karina F Rodriguez
    Director, Environmental Disease Medicine Program, Chief, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 151:2826-34. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Update on animal models developed for analyses of estrogen receptor biological activity
    Kenneth S Korach
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86:387-91. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Science 286:2328-31. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Prevention of the polycystic ovarian phenotype and characterization of ovulatory capacity in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mouse
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 140:5855-65. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Disruption of the mouse oestrogen receptor gene: resulting phenotypes and experimental findings
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 23:929-35. 1995
  10. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha is required by the supporting somatic cells for spermatogenesis
    D Mahato
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD C4 01, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2233, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 178:57-63. 2001

Detail Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Signal transduction. A new mediator for an old hormone?
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Science 307:1572-3. 2005
  2. pmc The absence of ER-β results in altered gene expression in ovarian granulosa cells isolated from in vivo preovulatory follicles
    April K Binder
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Laboratory of Reproduction and Developmental Toxicology, 111 TW Alexander Drive, MD B3 02, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 154:2174-87. 2013
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that granulosa cells from ERβ-null ovaries may not be appropriately differentiated and are unable to respond properly to gonadotropin stimulation...
  3. pmc Role of estrogen receptor signaling required for endometriosis-like lesion establishment in a mouse model
    Katherine A Burns
    Receptor Biology Section, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27790, USA
    Endocrinology 153:3960-71. 2012
    ..In sum, these results suggest ER in both endometriosis-like lesions and their environment influence lesion characteristics, and understanding these interactions may play a critical role in elucidating this enigmatic disease...
  4. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice exhibit resistance to the developmental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure on the female reproductive tract
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Dev Biol 238:224-38. 2001
    ....
  5. pmc Insufficient luteinizing hormone-induced intracellular signaling disrupts ovulation in preovulatory follicles lacking estrogen receptor-{beta}
    Karina F Rodriguez
    Director, Environmental Disease Medicine Program, Chief, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 151:2826-34. 2010
    ..We show that expression of ERbeta in preovulatory follicles is required for adequate cAMP production and propose that an optimal level of cAMP is required for hCG-stimulated ovulation...
  6. ncbi request reprint Update on animal models developed for analyses of estrogen receptor biological activity
    Kenneth S Korach
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86:387-91. 2003
    ..ERbeta is involved most dramatically in the ovary as is ERalpha. More detailed studies in combination with tissue specific or inducible ER knock outs will be important for future research...
  7. ncbi request reprint Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Science 286:2328-31. 1999
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Prevention of the polycystic ovarian phenotype and characterization of ovulatory capacity in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mouse
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 140:5855-65. 1999
    ..However, the reduced numbers of ovulations following the administration of exogenous gonadotropins in the alphaERKO suggests an intraovarian role for ERalpha in follicular development and ovulation...
  9. ncbi request reprint Disruption of the mouse oestrogen receptor gene: resulting phenotypes and experimental findings
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 23:929-35. 1995
  10. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha is required by the supporting somatic cells for spermatogenesis
    D Mahato
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD C4 01, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2233, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 178:57-63. 2001
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene in male mice causes alteration of spermatogenesis and infertility
    E M Eddy
    Gamete Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2233, USA
    Endocrinology 137:4796-805. 1996
    ..These results suggest that estrogen action is required for fertility in male mice and that the mutation of the ER in ERKO males leads to reduced mating frequency, low sperm numbers, and defective sperm function...
  12. ncbi request reprint Receptor null mice reveal contrasting roles for estrogen receptor alpha and beta in reproductive tissues
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD B3 02, PO Box 12233, 27709, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 74:287-96. 2000
  13. pmc Disruption of estrogen signaling does not prevent progesterone action in the estrogen receptor alpha knockout mouse uterus
    S W Curtis
    Receptor Biology Section, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:3646-51. 1999
    ..These results indicate that estrogen receptor alpha modulation of PR levels is not necessary for expression of the PR or genomic and physiologic responses to progesterone in the ERKO uterus...
  14. ncbi request reprint Requirement of estrogen receptor-alpha in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced uterine responses and in vivo evidence for IGF-1/estrogen receptor cross-talk
    Diane M Klotz
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:8531-7. 2002
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERalpha-knockout mouse
    J F Couse
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 138:4613-21. 1997
    ..Further characterization of the physiological phenotypes in the ERKO mice may elucidate possible ERbeta specific actions...
  16. ncbi request reprint Induction of mammary gland development in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice
    W P Bocchinfuso
    Receptor Biology Section Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 141:2982-94. 2000
    ..Therefore, the manifestation of the alphaERKO mammary phenotype appears due to the lack of direct estrogen action at the mammary gland and an indirect contributory role of estrogen signaling at the hypothalamic/pituitary axis...
  17. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor gene disruption: molecular characterization and experimental and clinical phenotypes
    K S Korach
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Recent Prog Horm Res 51:159-86; discussion 186-8. 1996
    ..Mutation in the ER gene is present in the human population. Further characterization of the mice and identification of additional patients will be required to more fully understand the consequences of ER gene mutations...
  18. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor knockout mice: phenotypes in the female reproductive tract
    J M A Emmen
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Gynecol Endocrinol 17:169-76. 2003
    ..This review summarizes the phenotypes principally seen in the female reproductive system of the different ERKO mice...
  19. ncbi request reprint Estren behaves as a weak estrogen rather than a nongenomic selective activator in the mouse uterus
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 147:2203-14. 2006
    ..Given its activity in our uterine model, the use of estren as a bone-selective clinical compound needs to be reconsidered...
  20. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanism of estrogen action in the male: insights from the estrogen receptor null mice
    J E Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 13:211-9. 2001
    ..This brief review will discuss the roles of estrogen action in male reproduction as revealed by mice lacking both known forms of the ER. A brief review of the estrogen signaling system is also included...
  21. ncbi request reprint Expression of estrogen receptor beta is developmentally regulated in reproductive tissues of male and female mice
    W N Jefferson
    Developmental Endocrinology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Biol Reprod 62:310-7. 2000
    ..These studies provide information useful in studying the role of both ER subtypes in normal differentiation, and they provide indications of differential tissue expression during development...
  22. ncbi request reprint Spermatogenic cells do not require estrogen receptor-alpha for development or function
    D Mahato
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 141:1273-6. 2000
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-beta is critical to granulosa cell differentiation and the ovulatory response to gonadotropins
    John F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 146:3247-62. 2005
    ..e. antrum and cumulus oocyte complex), enzymatic activity (i.e. capacity to convert androgen precursor to estradiol), and receptor signaling pathways (i.e. LH receptor) to respond to a gonadotropin surge and expel a healthy oocyte...
  24. ncbi request reprint The bi-modal effects of estradiol on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion in female mice are dependent on estrogen receptor-alpha
    Jonathan Lindzey
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD B3 02, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Endocrinol 191:309-17. 2006
    ..These data indicate that the aspects of negative and positive effects of E(2) on gonadotropin secretion are ERalpha dependent and occur at the level of the hypothalamus and pituitary respectively...
  25. ncbi request reprint Endogenous estrogen receptor beta is transcriptionally active in primary ovarian cells from estrogen receptor knockout mice
    Stefan O Mueller
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Steroids 69:681-6. 2004
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates that endogenously expressed ERbeta is capable of regulating gene transcription independent of ERalpha...
  26. pmc Physiological coupling of growth factor and steroid receptor signaling pathways: estrogen receptor knockout mice lack estrogen-like response to epidermal growth factor
    S W Curtis
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:12626-30. 1996
    ..These data conclusively demonstrate the coupling of EGF and ER signaling pathways in the rodent reproductive tract...
  27. ncbi request reprint Immortalized testis cell lines from estrogen receptor (ER) alpha knock-out and wild-type mice expressing functional ERalpha or ERbeta
    S O Mueller
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Receptor Biology Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    J Androl 22:652-64. 2001
    ..These cell lines with and without functional ERalpha or ERbeta enable the analyses of ER subtype-specific responses and their function in testicular cell signaling, morphogenesis, and neoplasia...
  28. ncbi request reprint Progesterone action and responses in the alphaERKO mouse
    S C Hewitt
    LRDT, Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Steroids 65:551-7. 2000
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Functional analysis of murine uterine natural killer cells genetically devoid of oestrogen receptors
    A M Borzychowski
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Placenta 24:403-11. 2003
    ..Expression of alpha- and beta-ER was absent by RT-PCR from NK cells isolated from the uterus, supporting the conclusions from the in vivo study...
  30. ncbi request reprint Studies using the estrogen receptor alpha knockout uterus demonstrate that implantation but not decidualization-associated signaling is estrogen dependent
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Biol Reprod 67:1268-77. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Estradiol-stimulated proteolytic cleavage of the estrogen receptor in mouse uterus
    T Horigome
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Endocrinology 123:2540-8. 1988
    ..A possible function of the 54 K ER under physiological conditions is discussed since the 54 K ER was also found in nuclear samples. This form of the ER still retains the ability to bind estradiol and DNA...
  32. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor knock-out mice: molecular and endocrine phenotypes
    K S Korach
    Environmental Disease Medical Program, NIH NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 7:S16-7. 2000
    ..The phenotypic differences in alpha ERKO and beta ERKO mice are described. Additional studies will further define the specific roles of ER alpha and ER beta in various tissues...
  33. pmc Ex3αERKO male infertility phenotype recapitulates the αERKO male phenotype
    Eugenia H Goulding
    Gamete Biology Group, Laboratory of Reproduction and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Endocrinol 207:281-8. 2010
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen receptor (ER) Null mice reveals hypergonadism and endocrine sex reversal in females lacking ERalpha but not ERbeta
    John F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD B3 02, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:1039-53. 2003
    ..The subsequent hypergonadism is illustrated as increased Cyp17, Cyp19, Hsd17b1, and ectopic Hsd17b3 expression in the ovary...
  35. ncbi request reprint Formation of cystic ovarian follicles associated with elevated luteinizing hormone requires estrogen receptor-beta
    John F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, P O Box 12233, MD B3 02, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4693-702. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Response of the mouse uterus to nafoxidine stimulation: agonism and antagonism
    V E Quarmby
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Biol Reprod 38:945-54. 1988
    ..These studies show that NAF stimulates some of the receptor-mediated responses attributed to an estrogen agonist in the mouse uterus; but, when co-administered with estradiol, NAF antagonizes some aspects of estrogen action...
  37. ncbi request reprint A mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgene induces mammary gland hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in mice lacking estrogen receptor-alpha
    W P Bocchinfuso
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cancer Res 59:1869-76. 1999
    ..The delayed time of tumor appearance may depend on the number of cells at risk of secondary events in the hyperplastic glands, on the carcinogenesis-promoting effects of ER alpha signaling, or on both...
  38. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor null mice: what have we learned and where will they lead us?
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocr Rev 20:358-417. 1999
    ..abstract truncated]..
  39. ncbi request reprint Developing animal models for analyzing SERM activity
    J M Emmen
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 949:36-43. 2001
    ..These mouse models also show great promise for use in defining the effectiveness of putative SERMs...
  40. pmc Estrogen receptor beta is required for optimal cAMP production in mouse granulosa cells
    Bonnie J Deroo
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 23:955-65. 2009
    ....
  41. pmc Profile of estrogen-responsive genes in an estrogen-specific mammary gland outgrowth model
    Bonnie J Deroo
    Receptor Biology Section, NIEHS, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 76:733-50. 2009
    ..In conclusion, our genomic data support the physiological observation that estradiol is one of the primary hormonal signals driving ductal elongation during pubertal mammary development...
  42. ncbi request reprint In vitro growth and ovulation of follicles from ovaries of estrogen receptor (ER){alpha} and ER{beta} null mice indicate a role for ER{beta} in follicular maturation
    Judith M A Emmen
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, MD B3 02, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 146:2817-26. 2005
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that ERbeta, but not ERalpha, plays a direct role in folliculogenesis. ERbeta appears to facilitate follicle maturation from the early antral to the preovulatory stage...
  43. ncbi request reprint Neonatal exposure to genistein induces estrogen receptor (ER)alpha expression and multioocyte follicles in the maturing mouse ovary: evidence for ERbeta-mediated and nonestrogenic actions
    Wendy N Jefferson
    Developmental Endocrinology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Biol Reprod 67:1285-96. 2002
    ..Given that human infants are exposed to high levels of genistein in soy-based foods, this study indicates that the effects of such exposure on the developing reproductive tract warrant further investigation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of estrogen receptor expression in the uterus of ovariectomized B6C3F1 mice and Ishikawa cells treated with bromoethane
    Hiroaki Aoyama
    Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P O Box 12233, MD C2 09, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 209:226-35. 2005
    ..These data suggest that upregulated expression of ERalpha may be important in the induction of endometrial neoplasms in BE-treated mice...
  45. ncbi request reprint Mammary gland development and tumorigenesis in estrogen receptor knockout mice
    W P Bocchinfuso
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2:323-34. 1997
    ..These studies provide the impetus to evaluate the effect of other oncogenes in mammary tumorigenesis in the absence of estrogen/ER signaling...
  46. ncbi request reprint Reproductive phenotypes in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mouse
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 60:143-8. 1999
    ..And finally, the ER alpha KO in combination with the recently developed ER beta KO mouse will prove invaluable in distinguishing the different roles that may exist between the two receptors in the estrogen signaling system...
  47. ncbi request reprint Diethylstilbestrol stimulates persistent phosphatidylinositol lipid turnover by an estrogen receptor-mediated mechanism in immature mouse uterus
    D M Ignar-Trowbridge
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Endocrinology 129:2423-30. 1991
    ..Since the metabolic products of PI lipids are important for signal transduction and cellular proliferation, altered metabolism of these lipids may play an integral role in estrogen-induced mitogenesis...
  48. ncbi request reprint Contrasting phenotypes in reproductive tissues of female estrogen receptor null mice
    J F Couse
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 948:1-8. 2001
    ..This "sex-reversal" in the alphabetaERKO ovary is accompanied by the ectopic expression of testis-specific genes, for example, Sox9 and sulfatedglycoprotein-2...
  49. ncbi request reprint Analysis of transcription and estrogen insensitivity in the female mouse after targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene
    J F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 9:1441-54. 1995
    ..Furthermore, serum levels of estradiol in the ERKO female are more than 10-fold higher than those in the wild type, consistent with a syndrome of hormone insensitivity...
  50. pmc The short-chain fatty acid methoxyacetic acid disrupts endogenous estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated signaling
    Derek V Henley
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1702-6. 2009
    ..The primary metabolite of EGME is methoxyacetic acid (MAA), a short-chain fatty acid that inhibits histone deacetylase activity and alters gene expression...
  51. pmc Male sex hormones exacerbate lung function impairment after bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis
    James W Voltz
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 39:45-52. 2008
    ..Sex differences should be carefully considered when designing and interpreting experimental models of pulmonary fibrosis in mice...
  52. pmc The intraovarian actions of estrogen receptor-alpha are necessary to repress the formation of morphological and functional Leydig-like cells in the female gonad
    John F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 147:3666-78. 2006
    ..These data indicate that intraovarian ERalpha actions are required to repress Hsd17b3 expression in the ovary and may be important to maintaining a female phenotype in SI/TI cells...
  53. ncbi request reprint Allosteric regulation of estrogen receptor structure, function, and coactivator recruitment by different estrogen response elements
    Julie M Hall
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 16:469-86. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Molecular determinants of the stereoselectivity of agonist activity of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta
    Stefan O Mueller
    Laboratories of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:12255-62. 2003
    ..These data demonstrate that a single residue in the ligand-binding domain determines the stereoselectivity of ERalpha and ERbeta for indenestrol ligands and that IA-R shows cell type selectivity through ERbeta...
  55. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of human estrogen receptors alpha and beta reveals differential specificity in target promoter regulation by xenoestrogens
    Julie M Hall
    Receptor Biology Section, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:44455-61. 2002
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-beta mediates male-female differences in the development of pressure overload hypertrophy
    Maryanne Skavdahl
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H469-76. 2005
    ..These data suggest an important role for estrogen receptor-beta in attenuating the hypertrophic response to pressure overload in females...
  57. pmc Estrogen down-regulation of the Scx gene is mediated by the opposing strand-overlapping gene Bop1
    Yukitomo Arao
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:4806-14. 2010
    ..This study demonstrates a novel example of hormone-stimulated intronic non-coding RNA down-regulating the expression of an opposing strand-overlapping coding gene...
  58. ncbi request reprint Mammary gland development in adult mice requires epithelial and stromal estrogen receptor alpha
    Stefan O Mueller
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 143:2357-65. 2002
    ..Immunostaining for ER alpha and PR in the mammary outgrowths supported the view that both stromal and epithelial ER alpha, in cooperation with epithelial PR, govern mammary gland development in adult mice...
  59. ncbi request reprint Aberrant reproductive phenotypes evident in transgenic mice expressing the wild-type mouse estrogen receptor
    V L Davis
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Endocrinology 135:379-86. 1994
    ....
  60. pmc Cross talk between peptide growth factor and estrogen receptor signaling systems
    D M Ignar-Trowbridge
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 103:35-8. 1995
    ..Both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways can elicit ER-dependent transcriptional activation; however, it is unlikely that these pathways mediate the effects of peptide growth factors on the ER in BG-1 cells...
  61. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor alpha mediates 17alpha-ethynylestradiol causing hepatotoxicity
    Yukio Yamamoto
    Laboratories of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:16625-31. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that ERalpha-mediated repression of hepatic transporters and alterations of bile acid biosynthesis may contribute to development of the EE2-induced hepatotoxicity...
  62. pmc Uterine epithelial estrogen receptor α is dispensable for proliferation but essential for complete biological and biochemical responses
    Wipawee Winuthayanon
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19272-7. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Lessons in estrogen biology from knockout and transgenic animals
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 277009, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 67:285-308. 2005
    ..Here, we review the ever-increasing body of knowledge in the field of estrogen biology, especially as applied to the female reproductive processes...
  64. ncbi request reprint AF-2 knock-in mutation of estrogen receptor alpha: Cre-loxP excision of a PGK-neo cassette from the 3' UTR
    Deborah L Swope
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Genesis 32:99-101. 2002
  65. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor beta mediates gender differences in ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Scott A Gabel
    Laboratories of Structural Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 38:289-97. 2005
    ..We further showed that WT female hearts have increased ratio of carbohydrate to fatty acid metabolism relative to WT males...
  66. ncbi request reprint Global uterine genomics in vivo: microarray evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha-growth factor cross-talk mechanism
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 19:657-68. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that the estrogen response in the uterus involves E2-specific ER(alpha)-mediated responses as well as responses resulting from convergence of growth factor and ER-initiated activities...
  67. ncbi request reprint Lack of ductal development in the absence of functional estrogen receptor alpha delays mammary tumor formation induced by transgenic expression of ErbB2/neu
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Cancer Res 62:2798-805. 2002
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Stromal cell-derived factor 1, a novel target of estrogen receptor action, mediates the mitogenic effects of estradiol in ovarian and breast cancer cells
    Julie M Hall
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:792-803. 2003
    ....
  69. pmc Spontaneous airway hyperresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-alpha-deficient mice
    Michelle A Carey
    Division of Intramural Research, NIH NIEHS, Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:126-35. 2007
    ..Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans...
  70. ncbi request reprint Estradiol regulates the thioredoxin antioxidant system in the mouse uterus
    Bonnie J Deroo
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 145:5485-92. 2004
    ..We conclude that the rapid E2-mediated activation of the Txn pathway is an important step in the response of the mammalian uterus to estrogen...
  71. pmc Estrogen-mediated regulation of Igf1 transcription and uterine growth involves direct binding of estrogen receptor alpha to estrogen-responsive elements
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:2676-85. 2010
    ..Additionally, full ER alpha function is needed to mediate other cellular signals of the growth factor for uterine growth...
  72. ncbi request reprint Oestrogen receptor knockout mice: roles for oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in reproductive tissues
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Reproduction 125:143-9. 2003
    ..These observed phenotypes elucidate the relative roles of the oestrogen receptors in reproductive functions of female rodents...
  73. pmc Biological and biochemical consequences of global deletion of exon 3 from the ER alpha gene
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 24:4660-7. 2010
    ..Our Ex3α ERα model will be useful in studies of complete or selective ablation of ERα in target tissues...
  74. pmc Estrogenic activity of bisphenol A and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) demonstrated in mouse uterine gene profiles
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:63-70. 2011
    ..Comparison of E2 uterine transcript profiles and those of other estrogenic chemicals of interest in vivo indicates mechanisms and activities of test compounds...
  75. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-dependent genomic responses in the uterus mirror the biphasic physiological response to estrogen
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:2070-83. 2003
    ....
  76. pmc Selective disruption of ER{alpha} DNA-binding activity alters uterine responsiveness to estradiol
    Sylvia C Hewitt
    National Institute of Environment Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 23:2111-6. 2009
    ..In summary, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of uterine genes regulated by E(2) via ERE and non-ERE pathways...
  77. pmc Estrogen-enhanced gene expression of lipoprotein lipase in heart is antagonized by progesterone
    Dianxin Liu
    Laboratories of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 149:711-6. 2008
    ..Progesterone also dose dependently inhibited the estrogen-mediated increase in LPL ERE reporter activity. These results show that heart LPL is an estrogen-responsive gene exhibiting an intronic regulatory sequence...
  78. ncbi request reprint Genomic structure and identification of a truncated variant message of the mouse estrogen receptor alpha gene
    Deborah L Swope
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T W Alexander Drive, Room E460, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Gene 294:239-47. 2002
    ..Variant message was detected by RT-PCR in several tissues, including uterus, ovary, mammary gland, placenta and testis...
  79. ncbi request reprint Developmental action of estrogen receptor-alpha feminizes the growth hormone-Stat5b pathway and expression of Cyp2a4 and Cyp2d9 genes in mouse liver
    T Sueyoshi
    Pharmacogenetics, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 56:473-7. 1999
    ..Defaulting to this ERalpha-dependent mechanism results in localization of Stat5b to nuclei, which masculinizes the expression of Cyp genes in male mice...
  80. ncbi request reprint Ligand-based identification of environmental estrogens
    C L Waller
    Experimental Toxicology Divisions, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 9:1240-8. 1996
    ..The general application of this 3D-QSAR model within a toxicological framework is, at present, limited only by the quantity and quality of biological data for relevant biomarkers of toxicity and hormonal responsiveness...
  81. ncbi request reprint Expression of heregulin by mouse mammary tumor cells: role in activation of ErbB receptors
    M Schmitt
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Mol Carcinog 45:490-505. 2006
    ..The cumulative findings from these experiments show that coexpression of the HRG ligand contributes to activation of ErbB-2/Erb-3 in mouse mammary tumor cells in an autocrine or paracrine fashion...
  82. pmc An estrogen receptor repressor induces cataract formation in transgenic mice
    Vicki L Davis
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9427-32. 2002
    ..The ER Delta 3 mice provide a powerful model for assessing the role of estrogen in maintaining the transparency of the lens...
  83. ncbi request reprint Actions of estrogen and estrogen receptors in nonclassical target tissues
    E Murphy
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, 27709 North Caroline, USA
    Ernst Schering Found Symp Proc . 2006
    ..These studies suggest that we need a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cardioprotection in females...
  84. ncbi request reprint Potential biological functions emerging from the different estrogen receptors
    Karen D Carpenter
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental and Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1092:361-73. 2006
    ..This article reviews the insights into ER biology in female reproduction gained from the development and use of new types of experimental models...
  85. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates the detrimental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in the murine reproductive tract
    John F Couse
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, PO Box 12233, MD B3 02, NC 27709, USA
    Toxicology 205:55-63. 2004
    ....
  86. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor knockout mice as a model for endocrine research
    Vickie R Walker
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    ILAR J 45:455-61. 2004
    ..The reproductive phenotypes as well as some of the nonreproductive phenotypes of the different ERKO models are summarized...
  87. ncbi request reprint Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils
    Derek V Henley
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:479-85. 2007
    ..We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys...
  88. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptors: structure, mechanisms and function
    Sylvia Curtis Hewitt
    Receptor Biology, LRDT, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 3:193-200. 2002
  89. ncbi request reprint Regulation of mouse renal CYP2J5 expression by sex hormones
    Jixiang Ma
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 65:730-43. 2004
    ..Based on these data, we conclude that the renal expression of CYP2J5 is up-regulated by androgen and down-regulated by estrogen...
  90. ncbi request reprint The impact of sex and sex hormones on lung physiology and disease: lessons from animal studies
    Michelle A Carey
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293:L272-8. 2007
    ..Specific emphasis will be placed on fibrosis, allergic airway disease, acute lung injury models, respiratory infection, and lung toxicology studies...
  91. ncbi request reprint Endocrine-disrupting chemicals use distinct mechanisms of action to modulate endocrine system function
    Derek V Henley
    Receptor Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Endocrinology 147:S25-32. 2006
    ....
  92. pmc Estrogen receptors and human disease
    Bonnie J Deroo
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:561-70. 2006
    ..This Review will describe diseases in which estrogen, through the ER, plays a role in the development or severity of disease...
  93. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-beta gene disruption potentiates estrogen-inducible aggression but not sexual behaviour in male mice
    Masayoshi Nomura
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behaviour, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1860-8. 2006
    ..These findings support the notion that ER-beta activation may exert an attenuating action on male aggression induced by estrogen through ER-alpha-mediated brain mechanisms, whereas its effect on male sexual behaviour is relatively small...
  94. doi request reprint Impact of estrogen receptor deficiency on disease expression in the NZM2410 lupus prone mouse
    John L Svenson
    Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 912, PO Box 250637, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Clin Immunol 128:259-68. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate a key role for ER alpha, but not ER beta, in the development of lupus like disease, but not autoimmunity, in female NZM and MRL/lpr mice...
  95. ncbi request reprint Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane exhibits estrogenic activity in mice via ERalpha
    Bin He
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 192:254-61. 2003
    ..The data presented here indicate that D4 has weak estrogenic activity, and that these effects are mediated through estrogen receptor-alpha...
  96. ncbi request reprint Sexually dimorphic roles of steroid hormone receptor signaling in gonadal tumorigenesis
    Kathleen H Burns
    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:2039-52. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor beta mediates rapid estrogen actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in vivo
    Istvan M Abraham
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:5771-7. 2003
    ..They also provide the first evidence for a role of ERbeta in nongenomic estrogen signaling within the brain in vivo...
  98. ncbi request reprint Effect of exogenous epidermal-like growth factors on mammary gland development and differentiation in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERKO) mouse
    Nicholas J Kenney
    Department of Biological Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 79:161-73. 2003
    ..The results from this study imply that in ERKO mammary tissue. ERKO ductal epithelium has the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in response to non-estrogenic, morphogenic stimuli...
  99. pmc An estrogen-dependent four-gene micronet regulating social recognition: a study with oxytocin and estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta knockout mice
    Elena Choleris
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6192-7. 2003
    ..The proper operation of a social recognition mechanism allows for the expression of appropriate social behaviors, aggressive or affiliative...
  100. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-alpha dependency of estrogen's stimulatory action on cancellous bone formation in male mice
    Kathleen E McDougall
    Academic Rheumatology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 144:1994-9. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that estrogen stimulates bone formation in mouse long bones via a mechanism that requires the presence of full-length ER alpha possessing activation function-1...
  101. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) protein levels in neurons depend on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene expression and on its ligand in a brain region-specific manner
    Masayoshi Nomura
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, Box 275, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 110:7-14. 2003
    ..These results suggest that gonadal steroid hormones may regulate ERbeta protein in male mice and ERalpha may be involved in the expression and regulation of ERbeta in a region-specific manner...