Stephen J Heishman

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Determination of the reliability and validity of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire using imagery scripts
    Edward G Singleton
    Division of Applied Psychology, University of Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 10:47-53. 2002
  2. pmc Prolonged duration of craving, mood, and autonomic responses elicited by cues and imagery in smokers: Effects of tobacco deprivation and sex
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:245-56. 2010
  3. ncbi request reprint Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers
    Stephen J Heishman
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 31:1116-21. 2006
  4. pmc Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:453-69. 2010
  5. pmc Reliability and validity of a short form of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire
    Stephen J Heishman
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 102:35-40. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Imagery-induced tobacco craving: duration and lack of assessment reactivity bias
    Stephen J Heishman
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 18:284-8. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Tobacco Craving Questionnaire: reliability and validity of a new multifactorial instrument
    Stephen J Heishman
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:645-54. 2003
  8. pmc Reliability and validity of a Short Form of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Unit, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:643-51. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Dose-related enhancement of mood and cognition in smokers administered nicotine nasal spray
    Carol S Myers
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:588-98. 2008
  10. pmc Perception of smoking risks and motivation to quit among nontreatment-seeking smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Deanna L Kelly
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore School of Medicine, Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 38:543-51. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. ncbi request reprint Determination of the reliability and validity of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire using imagery scripts
    Edward G Singleton
    Division of Applied Psychology, University of Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 10:47-53. 2002
    ..These results verify and extend the reliability and validity of the MCQ as a multidimensional measurement of marijuana craving. The data also suggest that drug craving is not an all-or-none phenomenon...
  2. pmc Prolonged duration of craving, mood, and autonomic responses elicited by cues and imagery in smokers: Effects of tobacco deprivation and sex
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, NIDA Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:245-56. 2010
    ..These findings provide new data on the time course, magnitude, and tobacco deprivation effects on elicited craving. Sex differences were dependent on stimulus type and deprivation condition...
  3. ncbi request reprint Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers
    Stephen J Heishman
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 31:1116-21. 2006
    ..There was a trend toward impaired working memory following craving scripts compared with neutral scripts. These data support the hypothesis that the cognitive underpinnings of encoding and retrieval processes are distinct...
  4. pmc Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:453-69. 2010
    ..Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2:345-395, 1994) and to determine which aspects of human performance were most sensitive to the effects of nicotine and smoking...
  5. pmc Reliability and validity of a short form of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire
    Stephen J Heishman
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 102:35-40. 2009
    ..For use in research and clinical settings, we constructed a 12-item version of the MCQ by selecting three items from each of the four factors that exhibited the greatest within-factor internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient)...
  6. ncbi request reprint Imagery-induced tobacco craving: duration and lack of assessment reactivity bias
    Stephen J Heishman
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 18:284-8. 2004
    ..There was no evidence that TCQ responses were affected by repeated measurement. These data suggest that imagery-induced craving can persist for at least 15 min and that craving responses are not biased by assessment reactivity...
  7. ncbi request reprint Tobacco Craving Questionnaire: reliability and validity of a new multifactorial instrument
    Stephen J Heishman
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:645-54. 2003
    ..These preliminary data suggest that the TCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing tobacco craving in individuals not attempting to reduce or quit smoking...
  8. pmc Reliability and validity of a Short Form of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Unit, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:643-51. 2008
    ..Test-retest correlation coefficients were also similar to those found in a previous study. These findings suggest that the TCQ-SF is as valid and reliable as the 47-item TCQ in measuring tobacco craving...
  9. ncbi request reprint Dose-related enhancement of mood and cognition in smokers administered nicotine nasal spray
    Carol S Myers
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:588-98. 2008
    ..These results provide an unequivocal determination that nicotine enhanced attentional and computational abilities in nondeprived smokers and suggest these cognitive domains as substrates for novel therapeutic indications...
  10. pmc Perception of smoking risks and motivation to quit among nontreatment-seeking smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Deanna L Kelly
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore School of Medicine, Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 38:543-51. 2012
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Quitting among non-treatment-seeking marijuana users: reasons and changes in other substance use
    Marc L Copersino
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Addict 15:297-302. 2006
    ..These findings suggest areas for further research on spontaneous recovery from marijuana use...
  12. pmc Sociodemographic characteristics of cannabis smokers and the experience of cannabis withdrawal
    Marc L Copersino
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36:311-9. 2010
    ..Cannabis withdrawal can be a negative reinforcer for relapse, but little is known about its association with demographic characteristics...
  13. pmc Cannabis withdrawal symptoms in non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers
    Kenneth H Levin
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 111:120-7. 2010
    ..Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance...
  14. pmc Single and multiple doses of rimonabant antagonize acute effects of smoked cannabis in male cannabis users
    Marilyn A Huestis
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:505-15. 2007
    ..A single 90-mg dose of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates effects of smoked cannabis in humans...
  15. pmc Tobacco craving in smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Suzanne Lo
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States
    Schizophr Res 127:241-5. 2011
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Cannabis withdrawal among non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis users
    Marc L Copersino
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 6823, USA
    Am J Addict 15:8-14. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome
    David A Gorelick
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 123:141-7. 2012
    ..Cannabis withdrawal occurs in frequent users who quit, but there are no accepted diagnostic criteria for a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS). This study evaluated diagnostic criteria for CWS proposed in DSM-V and two earlier proposals...
  18. pmc Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use
    Karl B Scheidweiler
    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Ther Drug Monit 33:609-18. 2011
    ..Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette...
  19. pmc Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking
    Gina F Marrone
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addiction 106:1325-34. 2011
    ..We evaluated and compared the performance of breath CO and semiquantitative cotinine immunoassay test strips (urine and saliva NicAlert®) alone and in combination...
  20. pmc Consistency of subjective responses to imagery-induced tobacco craving over multiple sessions
    Dustin C Lee
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, NIH, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 32:2130-9. 2007
    ..These results have practical implications for examining individual differences in sensitivity to smoking cues and for studies involving repeated measurement of elicited craving over time...
  21. pmc Illicit drug use in heavy smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Kristen M Mackowick
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Schizophr Res 139:194-200. 2012
    ..During a 2-3-hour session, participants completed demographic and research questionnaires, including the Drug Use Survey (DUS)...
  22. pmc Effects of moderate-dose treatment with varenicline on neurobiological and cognitive biomarkers in smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
    L Elliot Hong
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:1195-206. 2011
    ..It is not yet clear which nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype or subtypes are responsible for these seemingly pervasive nicotinic effects in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder...
  23. ncbi request reprint The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates the hypotensive effect of smoked marijuana in male smokers
    David A Gorelick
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am Heart J 151:754.e1-754.e5. 2006
    ..In human studies, activation of CB1 receptors by cannabis or its active ingredient, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has modest and inconsistent effects on BP...
  24. pmc Puffing behavior during the smoking of a single cigarette in tobacco-dependent adolescents
    Charles C Collins
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:164-7. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of puffing behavior during the smoking of a single cigarette in adolescents...
  25. pmc Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers
    Amy J Sheer
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 37:421-5. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs...
  26. pmc Nicotine enhances alerting, but not executive, attention in smokers and nonsmokers
    Carol S Myers
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:277-81. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on executive and alerting attention in smokers and nonsmokers...
  27. ncbi request reprint Heroin and cocaine craving and use during treatment: measurement validation and potential relationships
    Adrienne J Heinz
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 31:355-64. 2006
    ..Treatment dropout and in-treatment drug use were more frequently predicted by scores on the 14- or 45-item CCQ than by VAS ratings. Results suggest that the CCQ/HCQ and the 14-item CCQ provide information that unidimensional VASs do not...
  28. ncbi request reprint Effect of tobacco deprivation on the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation
    Adrienne Heinz
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Hum Psychopharmacol 22:89-96. 2007
    ..These results suggest that the AB is influenced by stimulus duration, but not by 12 h of tobacco deprivation...
  29. ncbi request reprint Human cocaine-seeking behavior and its control by drug-associated stimuli in the laboratory
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:433-43. 2005
    ..The similarity of the response patterns in humans and animals also supports the use of second-order schedules in animals as a valid model of human drug seeking...
  30. pmc Novel use of a lipid-lowering fibrate medication to prevent nicotine reward and relapse: preclinical findings
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Intramural Research Program, Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1838-47. 2012
    ..The fact that fibrates are already approved for human use could expedite clinical trials and subsequent implementation of fibrates as a treatment for tobacco dependence, especially in smokers with abnormal lipid profiles...
  31. ncbi request reprint Tobacco craving predicts lapse to smoking among adolescent smokers in cessation treatment
    Kara S Bagot
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:647-52. 2007
    ..Thus monitoring and addressing craving appears useful to increase the success of adolescent smoking cessation...
  32. pmc Tobacco, cocaine, and heroin: Craving and use during daily life
    David H Epstein
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 35:318-24. 2010
    ..Relationships among tobacco smoking, tobacco craving, and other drug use and craving may have treatment implications in polydrug-dependent individuals...
  33. doi request reprint Age at menarche and weight concerns in relation to smoking trajectory and dependence among adolescent girls enrolled in a smoking cessation trial
    Maria Jaszyna-Gasior
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 34:92-5. 2009
    ..Findings support previous research showing that early maturation represents a risk factor for substance use. Further study in larger samples that include non-treatment-seeking adolescent female smokers is warranted...
  34. pmc Divided versus selective attention: evidence for common processing mechanisms
    Britta Hahn
    NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse IRP, Neuroimaging Research Branch, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res 1215:137-46. 2008
    ..Increased activity appears to reflect additional processing demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from processes of selective attention...
  35. ncbi request reprint Reliability and validity of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire and validation of a craving-induction procedure using multiple measures of craving and mood
    Edward G Singleton
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addiction 98:1537-46. 2003
    ..To determine the reliability and validity of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (TCQ) and the validity of imagery scripts to elicit self-reported tobacco craving...
  36. pmc Group independent component analysis reveals consistent resting-state networks across multiple sessions
    Sharon Chen
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res 1239:141-51. 2008
    ..The consistency of these maps suggests that, at least over a period of several weeks, these networks would be useful to follow longitudinal treatment-related manipulations...
  37. ncbi request reprint Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction
    Eric T Moolchan
    Teen Tobacco Addiction Research Clinic, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, 5500 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Pediatrics 115:e407-14. 2005
    ..To determine the safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for adolescents who want to quit smoking...
  38. pmc Clonidine blocks stress-induced craving in cocaine users
    Michelle L Jobes
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Blvd, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 218:83-8. 2011
    ..In rodents, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists such as clonidine block stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, but not drug cue-induced reinstatement...
  39. ncbi request reprint Methods for clinical research involving cannabis administration
    David A Gorelick
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Methods Mol Med 123:235-53. 2006
    ..Subjects should not be discharged from research participation until reevaluation has shown that they have returned to baseline status...
  40. pmc Self-administration of cannabinoids by experimental animals and human marijuana smokers
    Zuzana Justinova
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:285-99. 2005
    ....
  41. pmc Motivations to quit cannabis use in an adult non-treatment sample: are they related to relapse?
    Emeline Chauchard
    Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 251 Bayview Blvd, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Addict Behav 38:2422-7. 2013
    ..The majority of cannabis smokers who quit do so without formal treatment, suggesting that motivations to quit are an important part of cessation process. However, little is known about how motivations relate to successful quitting...
  42. ncbi request reprint Strategies for quitting among non-treatment-seeking marijuana smokers
    Susan J Boyd
    Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Addict 14:35-42. 2005
    ..Clinicians are likely to see marijuana users in their practice and should be proactive in offering assistance, incorporating the strategies reported here into treatment plans for their marijuana-using patients...
  43. pmc Breath carbon monoxide and semiquantitative saliva cotinine as biomarkers for smoking
    Gina F Marrone
    Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Hum Psychopharmacol 25:80-3. 2010
    ..Recent studies have used urine NicAlert and breath CO in combination to verify abstinence. However, no studies have evaluated the performance of saliva NicAlert against or in combination with breath CO...
  44. ncbi request reprint Nicotine serves as an effective reinforcer of intravenous drug-taking behavior in human cigarette smokers
    Deon M Harvey
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175:134-42. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Assessment of cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire
    Stephen J Heishman
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Methods Mol Med 123:209-16. 2006
    ..In a treatment setting, the MCQ should be administered at intake and during and at the end of treatment...
  46. pmc Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on psychiatric symptoms in overweight people with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, pilot study
    Deanna L Kelly
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 31:86-91. 2011
    ..The endocannabinoid system remains a promising target for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and obesity...
  47. ncbi request reprint Reliability and validity of the French version of the tobacco craving questionnaire
    Ivan Berlin
    Service de Pharmacologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l Hopital, FR 75013 Paris, France
    Eur Addict Res 11:62-8. 2005
    ..2) To compare the two different language versions of the same instrument in 2 independent samples from 2 cultures in 2 distinct time periods...
  48. pmc Associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and acute tobacco withdrawal
    Adam M Leventhal
    Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Box G S121, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Addict Behav 32:2976-89. 2007
    ..Smokers with different temperaments display different patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal, and may benefit from treatments matched to their particular abstinence profile...
  49. pmc Enhanced identification of smoking-related words during the attentional blink in smokers
    Andrew J Waters
    Department of Behavioral Science, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Addict Behav 32:3077-82. 2007
    ..These data indicate that, in heavy smokers, smoking-related stimuli are more likely to engage conscious awareness than neutral words under conditions of limited attentional resources...
  50. ncbi request reprint Tobacco, nicotine, and human cognition
    Stephen J Heishman
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:3-4. 2002