C Grillon

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc In the face of fear: anxiety sensitizes defensive responses to fearful faces
    Christian Grillon
    Section on the Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychophysiology 48:1745-52. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Anxiolytic effects of a novel group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (LY354740) in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in humans
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH NIH DHHS, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:446-54. 2003
  3. pmc Contextual specificity of extinction of delay but not trace eyeblink conditioning in humans
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 15:387-9. 2008
  4. pmc Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH MAP, 15K North Dr, Bldg 15k, Rm 113, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:898-904. 2008
  5. pmc Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:421-37. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable aversive events
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, Room 113, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:916-24. 2004
  7. pmc Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult nonsmokers, abstinent smokers, and nonabstinent smokers
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1155-61. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint A single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram exacerbates anxiety in humans: a fear-potentiated startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:225-31. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint The benzodiazepine alprazolam dissociates contextual fear from cued fear in humans as assessed by fear-potentiated startle
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:760-6. 2006
  10. pmc Acute stress potentiates anxiety in humans
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1183-6. 2007

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. pmc In the face of fear: anxiety sensitizes defensive responses to fearful faces
    Christian Grillon
    Section on the Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychophysiology 48:1745-52. 2011
    ..This suggests that although fearful faces do not prompt behavioral mobilization in an innocuous context, they can do so in an anxiogenic one...
  2. ncbi request reprint Anxiolytic effects of a novel group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (LY354740) in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in humans
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH NIH DHHS, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:446-54. 2003
    ..LY354740, a structural analogue of glutamate that shows specificity at the mGluR2/3 receptor, has anxiolytic effects in animal models...
  3. pmc Contextual specificity of extinction of delay but not trace eyeblink conditioning in humans
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 15:387-9. 2008
    ..g., a city), tests for renewal took place in the acquisition (A) and extinction context (B), in a counterbalanced order. Results showed renewal of the extinguished conditioned response in the delay but not trace condition...
  4. pmc Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH MAP, 15K North Dr, Bldg 15k, Rm 113, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:898-904. 2008
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated anxious reactivity, specifically toward unpredictable aversive events, is a psychophysiological correlate of panic disorder...
  5. pmc Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:421-37. 2008
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable aversive events
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, Room 113, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:916-24. 2004
    ..Because predictable and unpredictable danger may induce different types of aversive responses, the proposed design can serve as a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and psychopharmacology of fear and anxiety...
  7. pmc Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult nonsmokers, abstinent smokers, and nonabstinent smokers
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1155-61. 2007
    ..The objective of this study was to examine affective and attentional responses in young adult smokers using fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition...
  8. ncbi request reprint A single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram exacerbates anxiety in humans: a fear-potentiated startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:225-31. 2007
    ..These results indicate that a single dose of citalopram is not anxiogenic in itself, but can exacerbate the expression of fear and anxiety...
  9. ncbi request reprint The benzodiazepine alprazolam dissociates contextual fear from cued fear in humans as assessed by fear-potentiated startle
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:760-6. 2006
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that alprazolam would reduce the sustained startle potentiation to contextual threats but not the startle potentiation to a threat cue...
  10. pmc Acute stress potentiates anxiety in humans
    Christian Grillon
    Unit of Affective Psychophysiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1183-6. 2007
    ..Stress is an important factor in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Stress also potentiates anxiety-like response in animals, but empirical evidence for a similar effect in humans is still lacking...
  11. ncbi request reprint Families at high and low risk for depression: a three-generation startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:953-60. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, NIMH NIH DHHS National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175:342-52. 2004
    ..It is possible that fear inhibitory avoidance is more akin to contextual conditioning than to cued fear conditioning, suggesting that context conditioning may be disrupted by beta-adrenergic blockade...
  13. ncbi request reprint A review of the modulation of the startle reflex by affective states and its application in psychiatry
    Christian Grillon
    National Institute of Mental Health, DHHS, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20895, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:1557-79. 2003
    ..To provide an overview of startle reflex methodologies applied to the examination of emotional and motivational states in humans and to review the findings in different forms of psychopathology...
  14. pmc Acute hydrocortisone treatment increases anxiety but not fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 69:549-55. 2011
    ..The current study examines these effects, as instantiated with short- and long-duration threats...
  15. pmc Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable aversive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder but not in generalized anxiety disorder
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:47-53. 2009
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that elevated anxious reactivity, specifically for unpredictable aversive events, is a psychophysiological correlate of PTSD...
  16. ncbi request reprint Conditioned inhibition of fear-potentiated startle and skin conductance in humans
    C Grillon
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:807-15. 2001
    ..During the summation test, the inhibitory properties of X did not transfer to B. In the high anxious group, there was only a differential SCR to A and A(XA). X did not inhibit startle potentiation to A...
  17. pmc Cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with startle potentiation during aversive conditioning in humans
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH NIH DHHS, Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:434-41. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Two-week treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduces contextual anxiety but not cued fear in healthy volunteers: a fear-potentiated startle study
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:964-71. 2009
    ..They suggest that citalopram alleviates symptoms of anticipatory anxiety, not fear, by acting on mechanisms underlying long-duration aversive states...
  19. pmc D-cycloserine facilitation of fear extinction and exposure-based therapy might rely on lower-level, automatic mechanisms
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:636-41. 2009
    ..g., snakes), short conditional stimulus-unconditioned stimulus intervals and intense unconditioned stimulus to promote lower-order conditioning processes...
  20. pmc Greater sustained anxiety but not phasic fear in women compared to men
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, MD, USA
    Emotion 8:410-3. 2008
    ..Animal studies suggest that such an effect may be mediated by the effects of sexual dimorphism in limbic structures, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. However, psychosocial factors may also contribute to this effect...
  21. ncbi request reprint Emotional arousal does not affect delay eyeblink conditioning
    Christian Grillon
    DHHS, NIH, NIMH Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 17:400-5. 2003
    ..It is argued that changes in CR during arousal could be due to differences in unconditioned eyeblink strength rather than to changes in associative processes...
  22. pmc Increased anterior cingulate cortical activity in response to fearful faces: a neurophysiological biomarker that predicts rapid antidepressant response to ketamine
    Giacomo Salvadore
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:289-95. 2009
    ..We also investigated patterns of ACC activity to rapid presentation of fearful faces compared with the normal habituation observed in healthy subjects...
  23. pmc Depressed mood enhances anxiety to unpredictable threat
    O J Robinson
    Section on Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Psychol Med 42:1397-407. 2012
    ..We predicted that sad mood would increase anxious anxiety-potentiated startle responses...
  24. ncbi request reprint Effects of threat of shock, shock electrode placement and darkness on startle
    C Grillon
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 28:223-31. 1998
    ..It is suggested that affective responses to contextual stimuli should be considered when investigating both normal and pathological fear...
  25. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning in virtual reality contexts: a new tool for the study of anxiety
    Johanna M Baas
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 55:1056-60. 2004
    ..A virtual environment might prove to be the ideal tool for innovative experimental paradigms to study explicitly cued fear and contextual anxiety in humans...
  26. ncbi request reprint Associative learning deficits increase symptoms of anxiety in humans
    Christian Grillon
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 51:851-8. 2002
    ..Because classical conditioning promotes predictability, this study investigated whether failure to learn conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) relationship during fear conditioning increased anxiety and avoidance...
  27. ncbi request reprint Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology
    Christian Grillon
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 52:958-75. 2002
    ..Lacking a cue for threat, the organism cannot identify periods of danger and safety and remains in a chronic state of anxiety. Factors that may affect conditioning are discussed...
  28. ncbi request reprint Startle potentiation by threat of aversive stimuli and darkness in adolescents: a multi-site study
    C Grillon
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 32:63-73. 1999
    ..These results suggest that both the threat of an airblast and darkness can reliably be used to examine startle potentiation in young subjects...
  29. pmc Luteal-phase accentuation of acoustic startle response in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder
    Cynthia Neill Epperson
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2190-8. 2007
    ..Physiologic response to affective stimuli appears to be intact in women with PMDD across the menstrual cycle...
  30. ncbi request reprint Contextual fear-potentiated startle conditioning in humans: replication and extension
    R Ameli
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
    Psychophysiology 38:383-90. 2001
    ..These results indicate that unpredictable shocks lead to greater context conditioning as measured by startle and self-reports...
  31. ncbi request reprint Regulation of arousal and attention in preschool children exposed to cocaine prenatally
    L C Mayes
    Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 846:126-43. 1998
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Effect of darkness on acoustic startle in Vietnam veterans with PTSD
    C Grillon
    Connecticut VA Medical Center, New Haven, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:812-7. 1998
    ..Prepulse inhibition was also investigated...
  33. pmc Early androgen exposure modulates spatial cognition in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    S C Mueller
    MAP, NIMH, NIH, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:973-80. 2008
    ..Such finding suggests a pivotal role of hormonal function on brain development in humans, mirroring results from the animal literature...
  34. pmc Contextual fear conditioning in humans: cortical-hippocampal and amygdala contributions
    Ruben P Alvarez
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 28:6211-9. 2008
    ..These results provide evidence that similar brain mechanisms may underlie contextual fear conditioning across species...
  35. pmc Human hippocampal and parahippocampal theta during goal-directed spatial navigation predicts performance on a virtual Morris water maze
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5983-90. 2008
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint A neuroimaging method for the study of threat in adolescents
    Christopher S Monk
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 43:359-66. 2003
    ..Those who reported increased fear showed right amygdala activation during the threat condition and left amygdala activation in the safe condition. These procedures offer a promising tool for studying youth with anxiety disorders...
  37. pmc Generalization of conditioned fear-potentiated startle in humans: experimental validation and clinical relevance
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, 15K North Drive, Rm 200, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Res Ther 46:678-87. 2008
    ..The current paradigm represents an updated and efficacious tool with which to study fear generalization--a central, yet understudied conditioning-correlate of pathologic anxiety...
  38. ncbi request reprint Adaptive and maladaptive psychobiological responses to severe psychological stress: implications for the discovery of novel pharmacotherapy
    Omer Bonne
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, 15K North Drive, Rm 200, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:65-94. 2004
    ..The implications of this model for the discovery of novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of severe psychological distress are discussed...
  39. pmc Fear conditioning in adolescents with anxiety disorders: results from a novel experimental paradigm
    Jennifer Y F Lau
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:94-102. 2008
    ..Adult data suggest that anxiety disorders involve elevated fear but intact differential conditioning. We used a novel paradigm to assess fear conditioning in pediatric anxiety patients...
  40. pmc Anterior cingulate desynchronization and functional connectivity with the amygdala during a working memory task predict rapid antidepressant response to ketamine
    Giacomo Salvadore
    Experimental Therapeutics, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1415-22. 2010
    ..73, p=0.0021, FDR <0.05).These data implicate the pgACC and its putative interaction with the amygdala in predicting antidepressant response to ketamine in a working memory task context...
  41. ncbi request reprint Benzodiazepines have no effect on fear-potentiated startle in humans
    Johanna M P Baas
    Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, NIMH, NIH, 15k North Drive MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 161:233-47. 2002
    ..Pre-clinical and clinical investigations have provided a great deal of evidence that the fear-potentiated startle paradigm represents a valid model for the objective assessment of emotional states of anxiety and fear...
  42. pmc Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety
    Michael Davis
    Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:105-35. 2010
    ..In rats, sustained fear is more sensitive to anxiolytic drugs. In humans, symptoms of clinical anxiety are better detected in sustained rather than phasic fear paradigms...
  43. pmc Impaired spatial navigation in pediatric anxiety
    Sven C Mueller
    MAP, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:1227-34. 2009
    ..Deficits in spatial navigation in anxious children suggest that the hippocampal network involved in spatial orientation is also implicated in anxiety disorders...
  44. pmc Contextual-specificity of short-delay extinction in humans: renewal of fear-potentiated startle in a virtual environment
    Ruben P Alvarez
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 14:247-53. 2007
    ..Hence, they do not provide evidence that extinction can lead to erasure of a fear memory established via Pavlovian conditioning...
  45. pmc Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers
    Roman Duncko
    Section on Developmental Genetic Epidemiology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3720, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 91:377-81. 2009
    ..The observed behavioral pattern might represent a form of streamlined information processing advantageous in a threatening situation...
  46. pmc Abnormal hippocampal functioning and impaired spatial navigation in depressed individuals: evidence from whole-head magnetoencephalography
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, NIMH, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:836-44. 2010
    ..The authors aimed to link spatial navigation deficits previously documented in depressed patients to abnormal hippocampal functioning using a virtual reality navigation task...
  47. pmc Impaired discriminative fear-conditioning resulting from elevated fear responding to learned safety cues among individuals with panic disorder
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Res Ther 47:111-8. 2009
    ..Such results link PD to impaired discrimination learning, reflecting elevated fear responding to learned safety cues...
  48. pmc Evoked amygdala responses to negative faces revealed by adaptive MEG beamformers
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15 North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res 1244:103-12. 2008
    ..This demonstration should encourage the use of MEG for elucidating functional networks mediating fear-related neural phenomena that likely unfold rapidly in time across cortical and subcortical structures...
  49. pmc Development of anxiety: the role of threat appraisal and fear learning
    Jennifer C Britton
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Depress Anxiety 28:5-17. 2011
    ..This novel paradigm can be used to investigate key questions relevant to prognosis and treatment. Depression and Anxiety, 2011.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  50. pmc Modality-specific attention under imminent but not remote threat of shock: evidence from differential prepulse inhibition of startle
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychol Sci 19:615-22. 2008
    ..This finding supports the notion that imminent threat, but not remote threat, elicits attention focused toward the relevant modality, potentially reflecting preparatory activity to minimize the impact of the noxious stimulus...
  51. pmc Elevated fear conditioning to socially relevant unconditioned stimuli in social anxiety disorder
    Shmuel Lissek
    NIMH, NIH, 15K North Dr, Rm 200, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:124-32. 2008
    ..This study represents the first effort to assess the conditioning correlates of social anxiety disorder within an ecologically enhanced paradigm...
  52. ncbi request reprint Attentional blink and prepulse inhibition of startle are positively correlated
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Psychophysiology 43:504-10. 2006
    ..Whereas prepulse inhibition may reveal the strength of inhibition to protect stimulus processing, attentional blink may index the rate of recovery from similar inhibitory processes...
  53. ncbi request reprint Context conditioning and behavioral avoidance in a virtual reality environment: effect of predictability
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:752-9. 2006
    ..This study examined context conditioning to predictable and unpredictable shocks in humans using behavioral avoidance, potentiated startle, and subjective reports of anxiety...
  54. ncbi request reprint Using affect-modulated startle to study phenotypes of pediatric bipolar disorder
    Brendan A Rich
    Pediatrics and Developmental Neuropsychiatry Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Bipolar Disord 7:536-45. 2005
    ..The current study used affect-modulated startle to examine potential differences in reactivity to emotional stimuli (reward and punishment) in narrow and broad phenotype PBD and controls...
  55. pmc Overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a pathogenic marker of panic disorder
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, NIMH Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:47-55. 2010
    ..The authors conducted a laboratory-based assessment of this potential correlate of panic disorder by testing the degree to which panic patients and healthy subjects manifest generalization of conditioned fear...
  56. ncbi request reprint An investigation of prepulse inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder
    Brendan A Rich
    Pediatrics and Developmental Neuropsychiatry Branch, Unit on Affective Psychophysiology, Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1255, USA
    Bipolar Disord 7:198-203. 2005
    ..Sensorimotor gating deficits may contribute to the emotional and behavioral dysregulation characteristic of pediatric BPD. The current study investigated possible PPI deficits in children with BPD...
  57. ncbi request reprint The strong situation: a potential impediment to studying the psychobiology and pharmacology of anxiety disorders
    Shmuel Lissek
    DHHS, NIH, National Institute of Mental Health, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychol 72:265-70. 2006
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Anticipation of public speaking in virtual reality reveals a relationship between trait social anxiety and startle reactivity
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20895, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 59:664-6. 2006
    ..Startle reflex modification has become valuable to the study of fear and anxiety, but few studies have explored startle reactivity in socially threatening situations...
  59. ncbi request reprint Hydrocortisone impairs hippocampal-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning in post-traumatic stress disorder
    Meena Vythilingam
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:182-8. 2006
    ..Patients with PTSD had increased glucocorticoid sensitivity in the focal brain regions mediating trace eyeblink conditioning...
  60. ncbi request reprint Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Behav Res Ther 43:1391-424. 2005
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Reduction of trace but not delay eyeblink conditioning in panic disorder
    Christian Grillon
    NIMH Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:283-9. 2007
    ..The present study examined trace eyeblink conditioning in order to test the hypothesis that individuals with panic disorder are impaired in associative learning tasks that depend on declarative memory...
  62. ncbi request reprint Deficits in hippocampus-mediated Pavlovian conditioning in endogenous hypercortisolism
    Christian Grillon
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 56:837-43. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the performance of Cushing's syndrome patients on trace eyeblink conditioning, a cross-species, hippocampal-mediated test of learning and memory...
  63. ncbi request reprint Sensation seeking and the aversive motivational system
    Shmuel Lissek
    National Institute of Mental Health, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Emotion 5:396-407. 2005
    ..Findings implicate enhanced apprehensive anticipation among those low on SS as a potential deterrent for their participation in intense and threatening stimulus events...
  64. ncbi request reprint Airpuff startle probes: an efficacious and less aversive alternative to white-noise
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health NIH, DHHS, 15K North Drive, Bldg 15k, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychol 68:283-97. 2005
    ..Such results support the use of low intensity airpuffs as efficacious and relatively non-aversive startle probes...
  65. pmc Sensitivity to masked conditioned stimuli predicts conditioned response magnitude under masked conditions
    Brian R Cornwell
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychophysiology 44:403-6. 2007
    ..Without consensus on how awareness should be defined, these findings bring balance to previous studies that have typically used less sensitive assessments of awareness...
  66. pmc Acute exposure to stress improves performance in trace eyeblink conditioning and spatial learning tasks in healthy men
    Roman Duncko
    Section on Developmental Genetic Epidemiology, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 14:329-35. 2007
    ..Our results directly extend findings from animal studies and suggest potential physiological mechanisms underlying stress and learning...
  67. pmc Emotion regulation and potentiated startle across affective picture and threat-of-shock paradigms
    Shmuel Lissek
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, DHHS, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Biol Psychol 76:124-33. 2007
    ....
  68. pmc Neural responses to auditory stimulus deviance under threat of electric shock revealed by spatially-filtered magnetoencephalography
    Brian R Cornwell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 37:282-9. 2007
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Brainstem correlates of defensive states in humans
    Johanna M P Baas
    National Institute of Mental Health, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 59:588-93. 2006
    ..The present study investigated this possibility by testing BAEP during experimentally induced anxiety in healthy volunteers...
  70. ncbi request reprint Families at high and low risk for depression: a 3-generation study
    Myrna M Weissman
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:29-36. 2005
    ..The first 2 generations were interviewed 4 times during this period. The offspring from the second generation are now adults and have children of their own, the third generation of the original cohort...
  71. pmc Startle reactivity in children at risk for migraine
    Roman Duncko
    Developmental Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH Bldg 35, Room 1A 110, 35 Convent Dr, MSC 3720, Bethesda, MD 20892 3720, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 119:2733-7. 2008
    ..This study investigated psychophysiological responses to aversive acoustic stimuli in children at risk for migraine...
  72. ncbi request reprint Electroencephalographic measures of regional hemispheric activity in offspring at risk for depressive disorders
    Gerard E Bruder
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:328-35. 2005
    ..In a longitudinal high-risk study, resting EEG was measured in primarily adult offspring of depressed or nondepressed probands...
  73. pmc Cerebral blood flow in immediate and sustained anxiety
    Gregor Hasler
    Psychiatric University Hospital, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 27:6313-9. 2007
    ..This study showed distinct neuronal networks involved in cued fear and contextual anxiety underlying the importance of this distinction for studies on the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders...
  74. pmc Comments on Fearful and sexual pictures not consciously seen modulate the startle reflex in human beings
    Christian Grillon
    Biol Psychiatry 62:541; author reply 541-2. 2007
  75. ncbi request reprint Startle potentiation in rapidly alternating conditions of high and low predictability of threat
    Nisan Mol
    Department of Psychonomics, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 76:43-51. 2007
    ....
  76. pmc Positron emission tomographic imaging of neural correlates of a fear acquisition and extinction paradigm in women with childhood sexual-abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder
    J Douglas Bremner
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30306, USA
    Psychol Med 35:791-806. 2005
    ..No studies have examined neural correlates of fear conditioning and extinction in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...