Nigel H Greig

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint An overview of phenserine tartrate, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:281-90. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Exploring N1-p-Fluorobenzyl-Cymserine as an Inhibitor of 5-Lipoxygenase as a Candidate for Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Disorder Treatment
    Qurrat Ul Ain
    N H Greig Drug Design and Development Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 13:197-202. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Incretin mimetics as pharmacologic tools to elucidate and as a new drug strategy to treat traumatic brain injury
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Electronic address
    Alzheimers Dement 10:S62-75. 2014
  4. pmc Posiphen as a candidate drug to lower CSF amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β peptide and τ levels: target engagement, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in humans
    Maria L Maccecchini
    QR Pharma, Inc, Berwyn, PA, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:894-902. 2012
  5. pmc TNF-α protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation
    Karim Belarbi
    Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 9:23. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint Anticholinesterase and pharmacokinetic profile of phenserine in healthy elderly human subjects
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:483-92. 2005
  7. pmc Selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibition elevates brain acetylcholine, augments learning and lowers Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide in rodent
    Nigel H Greig
    Laboratory of Neurosciences and Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:17213-8. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint New therapeutic strategies and drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases: p53 and TNF-alpha inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists
    Nigel H Greig
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1035:290-315. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Apoptotic and behavioral sequelae of mild brain trauma in mice
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 85:805-15. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases endogenous amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels and protects hippocampal neurons from death induced by Abeta and iron
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 72:603-12. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications99

  1. ncbi request reprint An overview of phenserine tartrate, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:281-90. 2005
    ..Further randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III studies assessing the efficacy, safety/tolerability and potential disease-modifying effects of (-)-phenserine in patients with AD are currently ongoing...
  2. ncbi request reprint Exploring N1-p-Fluorobenzyl-Cymserine as an Inhibitor of 5-Lipoxygenase as a Candidate for Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Disorder Treatment
    Qurrat Ul Ain
    N H Greig Drug Design and Development Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 13:197-202. 2014
    ..Investigating the binding of FBC with stabilized and destabilized 5-LOX structures confirmed it as a candidate therapeutic inhibitor worthy of assessment in preclinical models of T2DM and neurodegeneration. ..
  3. doi request reprint Incretin mimetics as pharmacologic tools to elucidate and as a new drug strategy to treat traumatic brain injury
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Electronic address
    Alzheimers Dement 10:S62-75. 2014
    ..In view of the mechanisms underpinning these disorders as well as TBI, we review the literature and recent studies assessing GLP-1 receptor agonists as a potential treatment strategy for mild to moderate TBI. ..
  4. pmc Posiphen as a candidate drug to lower CSF amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β peptide and τ levels: target engagement, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in humans
    Maria L Maccecchini
    QR Pharma, Inc, Berwyn, PA, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:894-902. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc TNF-α protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation
    Karim Belarbi
    Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 9:23. 2012
    ..Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide, 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (DT), an agent with anti-TNF-α activity, in a model of chronic neuroinflammation...
  6. ncbi request reprint Anticholinesterase and pharmacokinetic profile of phenserine in healthy elderly human subjects
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:483-92. 2005
    ..To evaluate the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the acetyl-selective anticholinesterase, phenserine tartrate, in healthy elderly subjects...
  7. pmc Selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibition elevates brain acetylcholine, augments learning and lowers Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide in rodent
    Nigel H Greig
    Laboratory of Neurosciences and Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:17213-8. 2005
    ..Selective, reversible inhibition of brain BChE may represent a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, improving cognition and modulating neuropathological markers of the disease...
  8. ncbi request reprint New therapeutic strategies and drug candidates for neurodegenerative diseases: p53 and TNF-alpha inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists
    Nigel H Greig
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1035:290-315. 2004
    ..Stimulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in brain is associated with neurotrophic functions that, additionally, can protect cells against excess glutamate and other toxic insults...
  9. ncbi request reprint Apoptotic and behavioral sequelae of mild brain trauma in mice
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 85:805-15. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases endogenous amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels and protects hippocampal neurons from death induced by Abeta and iron
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 72:603-12. 2003
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that GLP-1 can modify APP processing and protect against oxidative injury, two actions that suggest a novel therapeutic target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease...
  11. ncbi request reprint Neurine, an acetylcholine autolysis product, elevates secreted amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptide levels, and lowers neuronal cell viability in culture: a role in Alzheimer's disease?
    David Tweedie
    Section on Drug Design and Delivery, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 10:9-16. 2006
    ..Using subtoxic concentrations of neurine, elevations in AbetaPP and Abeta1-40 peptide levels were detected in conditioned media samples...
  12. pmc Enhancing the GLP-1 receptor signaling pathway leads to proliferation and neuroprotection in human neuroblastoma cells
    Yazhou Li
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 113:1621-31. 2010
    ....
  13. pmc Exendin-4 ameliorates motor neuron degeneration in cellular and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Yazhou Li
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e32008. 2012
    ..Together, our results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonists warrant further evaluation to assess whether their neuroprotective potential is of therapeutic relevance in ALS...
  14. pmc Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist prevents mTBI-induced changes in hippocampus gene expression and memory deficits in mice
    David Tweedie
    Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Neurol 239:170-82. 2013
    ..These data suggest a strong beneficial action of Ex-4 in managing secondary events induced by a traumatic brain injury...
  15. pmc GLP-1 receptor stimulation preserves primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons in cellular and rodent models of stroke and Parkinsonism
    Yazhou Li
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1285-90. 2009
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Ex-4 can protect neurons against metabolic and oxidative insults, and they provide preclinical support for the therapeutic potential for Ex-4 in the treatment of stroke and PD...
  16. pmc Transferrin fusion technology: a novel approach to prolonging biological half-life of insulinotropic peptides
    Byung Joon Kim
    National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:682-92. 2010
    ..EX-4-Tf proved to be as effective as EX-4 but had longer lived effects on blood glucose and food intake. This novel transferrin fusion technology could improve the pharmacology of various peptides...
  17. pmc Inhibition of human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by novel carbamates of (-)- and (+)-tetrahydrofurobenzofuran and methanobenzodioxepine
    Weiming Luo
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Med Chem 49:2174-85. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc A cellular model of inflammation for identifying TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitors
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 183:182-7. 2009
    ..The utility of the TNF-alpha cellular assay lies in its simplicity and robust nature, providing a tool for initial pharmacological screening to allow for the rapid identification novel TNF-alpha lowering agents...
  19. pmc Evidence of GLP-1-mediated neuroprotection in an animal model of pyridoxine-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy
    TracyAnn Perry
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Room 2C13, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Neurol 203:293-301. 2007
    ..Our findings suggest a potential role for these peptides in the treatment of neuropathies, including that associated with type II diabetes mellitus...
  20. ncbi request reprint In vivo biological activity of exendin (1-30)
    Maire E Doyle
    Diabetes Section National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health Diabetes Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore MD 21224, USA
    Endocrine 27:1-9. 2005
    ..We observed no change in beta-cell area, but did see a change in the number of islets with nuclei positive for BrdU [10.7 +/- 1.8% exendin (1-30) vs 6.5 +/- 0.5% control]...
  21. pmc Plumbagin, a novel Nrf2/ARE activator, protects against cerebral ischemia
    Tae Gen Son
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 112:1316-26. 2010
    ..Our findings establish precedence for the identification and characterization of neuroprotective phytochemicals based upon their ability to activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways...
  22. ncbi request reprint Preclinical investigation of the topical administration of phenserine: transdermal flux, cholinesterase inhibition, and cognitive efficacy
    Tadanobu Utsuki
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 321:353-61. 2007
    ..Particular benefits over oral therapies might include avoiding first-pass metabolic effects and improved dosing compliance...
  23. doi request reprint 3,6'-dithiothalidomide improves experimental stroke outcome by suppressing neuroinflammation
    Jeong Seon Yoon
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 91:671-80. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that anti-inflammatory mechanisms underlie the therapeutic actions of 3,6-DT in an animal model of stroke...
  24. pmc Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway
    Tae Gen Son
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 433:602-6. 2013
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Protection and reversal of excitotoxic neuronal damage by glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:881-8. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Thalidomide-based TNF-alpha inhibitors for neurodegenerative diseases
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Lab of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Prog, National Inst on Aging, National Inst of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 64:1-9. 2004
    ....
  27. pmc GLP-1 receptor stimulation reduces amyloid-beta peptide accumulation and cytotoxicity in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease
    Yazhou Li
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 19:1205-19. 2010
    ..Together, these results suggest a potential value of Ex-4 in AD, particularly when associated with T2DM or glucose intolerance...
  28. ncbi request reprint Synthesis of the Alzheimer drug Posiphen into its primary metabolic products (+)-N1-norPosiphen, (+)-N8-norPosiphen and (+)-N1, N8-bisnorPosiphen, their inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, α-Synuclein synthesis, interleukin-1β release, and cholinergi
    Qian sheng Yu
    Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 12:117-28. 2013
    ....
  29. pmc The KATP channel activator diazoxide ameliorates amyloid-β and tau pathologies and improves memory in the 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Dong Liu
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 22:443-57. 2010
    ..Our findings show that diazoxide can ameliorate molecular, cytopathological, and behavioral alterations in a mouse model of AD suggesting a therapeutic potential for drugs that activate KATP channels in the treatment of AD...
  30. pmc Presenilin-1 mutation impairs cholinergic modulation of synaptic plasticity and suppresses NMDA currents in hippocampus slices
    Yue Wang
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 30:1061-8. 2009
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Novel p53 inactivators with neuroprotective action: syntheses and pharmacological evaluation of 2-imino-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydrobenzothiazole and 2-imino-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydrobenzoxazole derivatives
    Xiaoxiang Zhu
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Med Chem 45:5090-7. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Novel anticholinesterases based on the molecular skeletons of furobenzofuran and methanobenzodioxepine
    Weiming Luo
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Med Chem 48:986-94. 2005
    ....
  33. pmc Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 54:1-11. 2013
    ..Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority...
  34. ncbi request reprint Nicotine lowers the secretion of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor that contains amyloid beta-peptide in rat
    Tadanobu Utsuki
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 4:405-15. 2002
    ..These results suggest that within the brain, levels of total sAPP, sAPPgamma and, accordingly, Abeta are subject to cholinergic manipulation, offering therapeutic potential at the level of AbetaPP processing to decrease Abetadeposition...
  35. pmc Delayed treatment with a p53 inhibitor enhances recovery in stroke brain
    Yu Luo
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Ann Neurol 65:520-30. 2009
    ..Most of these new cells die shortly after injury. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke at 1 week after injury by enhancing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NPCs in SVZ...
  36. pmc Tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor 3,6'-dithiothalidomide attenuates markers of inflammation, Alzheimer pathology and behavioral deficits in animal models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease
    David Tweedie
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 9:106. 2012
    ..Elevated TNF-α levels are commonly detected in the clinic and animal models of AD...
  37. ncbi request reprint Soluble neuroprotective antioxidant uric acid analogs ameliorate ischemic brain injury in mice
    Frank Haberman
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuromolecular Med 9:315-23. 2007
    ..These findings suggest a therapeutic potential for soluble analogs of uric acid in the treatment of stroke and related neurodegenerative conditions...
  38. pmc Long-acting anticholinesterases for myasthenia gravis: synthesis and activities of quaternary phenylcarbamates of neostigmine, pyridostigmine and physostigmine
    Qian sheng Yu
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:4687-93. 2010
    ..An extended duration of cholinesterase inhibition was determined in rodent, making them of potential interest as long-acting agents for myasthenia gravis...
  39. doi request reprint Design, synthesis and biological assessment of novel N-substituted 3-(phthalimidin-2-yl)-2,6-dioxopiperidines and 3-substituted 2,6-dioxopiperidines for TNF-α inhibitory activity
    Weiming Luo
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 19:3965-72. 2011
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Syntheses of tetrahydrofurobenzofurans and dihydromethanobenzodioxepines from 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one. Rearrangement and ring expansion under reductive conditions on treatment with hydrides
    Weiming Luo
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Org Chem 70:6171-6. 2005
    ..Specific carbamates of phenols, 10 and 14, have shown impressive inhibitory activities against human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) ex vivo...
  41. pmc Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive
    Keri Martinowich
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3711, USA
    Behav Brain Funct 8:15. 2012
    ..This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS) protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes...
  42. ncbi request reprint The glucagon-like peptides: a new genre in therapeutic targets for intervention in Alzheimer's disease
    TracyAnn Perry
    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Section of Drug Design and Development, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 4:487-96. 2002
    ....
  43. pmc Plumbagin promotes the generation of astrocytes from rat spinal cord neural progenitors via activation of the transcription factor Stat3
    Yongquan Luo
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 115:1337-49. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate the ability of a low molecular weight naturally occurring phytochemical to control the fate of glial progenitor cells by a mechanism involving the Stat3 signaling pathway...
  44. pmc A synthetic uric acid analog accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice
    Srinivasulu Chigurupati
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10044. 2010
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint The glucagon-like peptides: a double-edged therapeutic sword?
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:377-83. 2003
  46. ncbi request reprint Thiothalidomides: novel isosteric analogues of thalidomide with enhanced TNF-alpha inhibitory activity
    Xiaoxiang Zhu
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center 4E02, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 6825, USA
    J Med Chem 46:5222-9. 2003
    ..In addition, an intact phthalimido moiety appeared to be requisite for TNF-alpha inhibitory activity...
  47. pmc Extension of lifespan in C. elegans by naphthoquinones that act through stress hormesis mechanisms
    Piper R Hunt
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e21922. 2011
    ..Our findings reveal the potential for low doses of naturally occurring naphthoquinones to extend lifespan by engaging a specific adaptive cellular stress response pathway...
  48. doi request reprint 3,6'-Dithiothalidomide, a new TNF-α synthesis inhibitor, attenuates the effect of Aβ1-42 intracerebroventricular injection on hippocampal neurogenesis and memory deficit
    Isabella Russo
    Molecular Neuroscience Unit, Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Neurochem 122:1181-92. 2012
    ..Understanding the modulation of neurogenesis, and its relationship with memory function could open new therapeutic interventions for AD and other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component...
  49. ncbi request reprint Enhancing central nervous system endogenous GLP-1 receptor pathways for intervention in Alzheimer's disease
    TracyAnn Perry
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, Intramural Research Program National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:377-85. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the ready availability of clinical material and the clinical history of its long term use in subjects with type 2 diabetes would support testing the value of GLP-1R agonists in AD trials...
  50. ncbi request reprint Butyrylcholinesterase: an important new target in Alzheimer's disease therapy
    Nigel H Greig
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Int Psychogeriatr 14:77-91. 2002
    ..The development of specific BuChE inhibitors and further experience with the dual enzyme inhibitor rivastigmine will improve understanding of the aetiology of AD and should lead to a wider variety of potent treatment options...
  51. pmc Exendin-4 improves glycemic control, ameliorates brain and pancreatic pathologies, and extends survival in a mouse model of Huntington's disease
    Bronwen Martin
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Diabetes 58:318-28. 2009
    ..Similarly to Huntington's disease patients, mice expressing the mutated human huntingtin protein also exhibit neurodegenerative changes, motor dysfunction, perturbed energy metabolism, and elevated blood glucose levels...
  52. ncbi request reprint Targeting TNF-α to elucidate and ameliorate neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases
    Kathryn A Frankola
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 10:391-403. 2011
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint p53 inhibitors preserve dopamine neurons and motor function in experimental parkinsonism
    Wenzhen Duan
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center 4F01, National Institute on Aging NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Ann Neurol 52:597-606. 2002
    ..Our findings demonstrate a pivotal role for p53 in experimental parkinsonism and identify a novel class of synthetic p53 inhibitors with clinical potential...
  54. ncbi request reprint Anticholinesterase activity of compounds related to geneserine tautomers. N-Oxides and 1,2-oxazines
    Qian sheng Yu
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center 4E02, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 6825, USA
    J Med Chem 45:3684-91. 2002
    ..With the exception of the BChE selective inhibitor, 12, none of the geneserine analogues were as potent or enzyme subtype selective as their physostigmine analogue counterparts...
  55. ncbi request reprint A new Alzheimer's disease interventive strategy: GLP-1
    Tracy Ann Perry
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, Intramural Research Program National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 5:565-71. 2004
    ..This review will consider the potential therapeutic relevance of GLP-1 to CNS disorders, such as AD...
  56. ncbi request reprint The cholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, improves Morris water maze performance of scopolamine-treated rats
    Anne M Janas
    Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, NIA NIH, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Life Sci 76:1073-81. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate the ability of this drug to improve learning when cholinergic function has been impaired in a spatial memory task...
  57. pmc Neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of glucagon-like peptide-1: an emerging opportunity to treat neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders
    Isidro Salcedo
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 166:1586-99. 2012
    ..Herein, we review the physiological role of GLP-1 in the nervous system, focused towards the potential benefit of GLP-1R stimulation as an immediately translatable treatment strategy for acute and chronic neurological disorders...
  58. pmc Roles of p75(NTR), long-term depression, and cholinergic transmission in anxiety and acute stress coping
    Keri Martinowich
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 71:75-83. 2012
    ..This study investigated whether and how p75(NTR), via regulation of the cholinergic system and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, influences stress-related behaviors...
  59. ncbi request reprint The importance of the nine-amino acid C-terminal sequence of exendin-4 for binding to the GLP-1 receptor and for biological activity
    Maire E Doyle
    Diabetes Section, 23, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Regul Pept 114:153-8. 2003
    ..Observations of the cAMP response in an insulinoma cell line show a similar trend for biological activity...
  60. pmc Pregabalin suppresses calcium-mediated proteolysis and improves stroke outcome
    Jeong Seon Yoon
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 41:624-9. 2011
    ..Together with the extensive clinical experience with pregabalin for other neurological indications, our findings suggest the potential for a therapeutic benefit of pregabalin in stroke patients...
  61. pmc Thalidomide Analogues Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Synthesis of TNF-α and Nitrite, an Intermediate of Nitric Oxide, in a Cellular Model of Inflammation
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Open Biochem J 5:37-44. 2011
    ..Specific analogues of thalidomide effectively suppressed the generation of both TNF-α and nitrite at well-tolerated doses...
  62. pmc Why do so many drugs for Alzheimer's disease fail in development? Time for new methods and new practices?
    Robert E Becker
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 15:303-25. 2008
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint TNF-alpha inhibition as a treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disorders: new drug candidates and targets
    David Tweedie
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, NIA, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 4:378-85. 2007
    ..Additionally, we consider the utilization of thalidomide-derived agents as anti-TNF-alpha therapeutics in the setting of neuroinflammation...
  64. ncbi request reprint Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy
    Tracy Ann Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Exp Neurol 190:133-44. 2004
    ..This combined stereological and electrophysiological method demonstrates a general approach that could be used for assessing the correlation between pathophysiological and functional parameters in animal models of toxic neuropathy...
  65. ncbi request reprint Resurrecting clinical pharmacology as a context for Alzheimer disease drug development
    Robert E Becker
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 6:79-81. 2009
    ..We trace the problem to inattention to sound clinical pharmacology practices. When properly applied, clinical pharmacology and associated drug development sciences can, hand in hand, facilitate success in commercial drug development...
  66. ncbi request reprint A novel neurotrophic property of glucagon-like peptide 1: a promoter of nerve growth factor-mediated differentiation in PC12 cells
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug, Design, and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:958-66. 2002
    ..Due to its novel twin action, GLP-1 and exendin-4 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and these central nervous system disorders...
  67. ncbi request reprint Intravenous butyrylcholinesterase administration and plasma and brain levels of cocaine and metabolites in rats
    Gilberto N Carmona
    Intramural Research Programs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 517:186-90. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that butyrylcholinesterase treatment may have benefits in enhancing cocaine metabolism and in increasing levels of ecgonine methylester, which may have a protective action against cocaine...
  68. pmc Alzheimer's disease drug development in 2008 and beyond: problems and opportunities
    Robert E Becker
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 5:346-57. 2008
    ..We consider the identification of molecular targets as offering further opportunities for overcoming current failures in drug development...
  69. ncbi request reprint Alzheimer's disease drug development: old problems require new priorities
    Robert E Becker
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 7:499-511. 2008
    ....
  70. pmc Neuropsychiatric clinical trials: should they accommodate real-world practices or set standards for clinical practices?
    Robert E Becker
    Drug Design and Development Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 29:56-64. 2009
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of P53-related apoptosis had no effect on PrP(Sc) accumulation and prion disease incubation time
    Roni Engelstein
    Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Neurobiol Dis 18:282-5. 2005
    ..We conclude that the P53 dependent apoptosis may not be an obligatory mechanism for prion disease-induced cell death...
  72. ncbi request reprint Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase with cymserine
    Mohammad A Kamal
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1760:200-6. 2006
    ..In synopsis, cymserine proved to be a potent inhibitor of human BuChE in comparison to its structural analogue, phenserine...
  73. ncbi request reprint Lethal weapon: amyloid beta-peptide, role in the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, 791 Union Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 25:581-7. 2004
  74. ncbi request reprint Cholinesterases: roles in the brain during health and disease
    Clive G Ballard
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, Hodgkin Building, Guy s Campus, King s College, London, SE1 1UL, UK
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:307-18. 2005
    ..Focusing on new findings relating to BuChE, we review recent evidence that has extended knowledge into the roles of ChEs in health, disease and aging...
  75. ncbi request reprint Acetylcholinesterase and its inhibition in Alzheimer disease
    Roger M Lane
    Novartis Neuroscience, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp, East Hanover, NJ 07936 1080, USA
    Clin Neuropharmacol 27:141-9. 2004
    ..If such differences between ChE-Is are shown to have clinical correlates, this may prompt reconsideration of the rationale and expectations of some agents in the long-term management of AD...
  76. ncbi request reprint The role of p53-induced apoptosis in cerebral ischemia: effects of the p53 inhibitor pifithrin alpha
    Ronen R Leker
    Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Exp Neurol 187:478-86. 2004
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Development of molecular probes for the identification of extra interaction sites in the mid-gorge and peripheral sites of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Rational design of novel, selective, and highly potent BuChE inhibitors
    Giuseppe Campiani
    Dipartimento Farmaco Chimico Tecnologico, Via Aldo Moro, and European Research Centre for Drug Discovery and Development NatSynDrugs, Universita di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Med Chem 48:1919-29. 2005
    ..The novel inhibitors, bearing postulated key features, validated the hypothesis of the presence of extra interaction sites within the hBuChE active site gorge...
  78. ncbi request reprint Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of the beta-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's disease
    Kumar Sambamurti
    Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
    Neuromolecular Med 1:1-31. 2002
    ..The present review summarizes our current understanding of APP metabolism and function and their relationship to other proteins involved in AD...
  79. ncbi request reprint The integrated role of desferrioxamine and phenserine targeted to an iron-responsive element in the APP-mRNA 5'-untranslated region
    Amanda Venti
    Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1035:34-48. 2004
    ..Phenserine was most efficient to block translation under conditions of intracellular iron chelation with desferrioxamine suggesting that this anticholinesterase operated through an iron (metal)-dependent pathway at the APP 5'-UTR site...
  80. ncbi request reprint Amyloid, cholinesterase, melatonin, and metals and their roles in aging and neurodegenerative diseases
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1056:430-49. 2005
    ..Finally, melatonin is present in edible plants and walnuts, and consuming foodstuffs containing melatonin would be beneficial by enhancing the antioxidative capacity of the organisms...
  81. ncbi request reprint Learning from the gut
    Mark P Mattson
    Nat Med 9:1113-5. 2003
  82. ncbi request reprint Suppression of uracil-DNA glycosylase induces neuronal apoptosis
    Inna I Kruman
    Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, Arizona 85351, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:43952-60. 2004
    ....
  83. doi request reprint Synergistic effect of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and butyrylcholinesterase K-variant on progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease
    Roger Lane
    Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey 07936 1080, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 18:289-98. 2008
    ..To evaluate the synergistic effects of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 and butyrylcholinesterase K-variant (BCHE-K) alleles on progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
  84. doi request reprint Tetrahydrofurobenzofuran cymserine, a potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor and experimental Alzheimer drug candidate, enzyme kinetic analysis
    Mohammad A Kamal
    Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Neural Transm 115:889-98. 2008
    ..THFBFC proved to be a potent competitive inhibitor of human BuChE and, like its isomer dihydrobenzodioxepine cymserine, is a potentially interesting AD drug candidate...
  85. ncbi request reprint Taking down the unindicted co-conspirators of amyloid beta-peptide-mediated neuronal death: shared gene regulation of BACE1 and APP genes interacting with CREB, Fe65 and YY1 transcription factors
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 3:475-83. 2006
    ....
  86. ncbi request reprint Kinetics of human serum butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by a novel experimental Alzheimer therapeutic, dihydrobenzodioxepine cymserine
    Mohammad A Kamal
    Enzymoics, 7 Peterlee Pl, Hebersham, NSW 2770, Australia
    Neurochem Res 33:745-53. 2008
    ..In synopsis, DHBDC proved to be a highly potent competitive inhibitor of human BuChE in comparison to its structural analogue, cymserine, and represents an interesting drug candidate for AD...
  87. pmc Modulation of human neural stem cell differentiation in Alzheimer (APP23) transgenic mice by phenserine
    Amelia Marutle
    Biomolecular Sciences Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12506-11. 2007
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of two hexahydropyrroloindole carbamate-based anticholinesterase drugs on the amyloid beta protein pathway involved in Alzheimer's disease
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Neuromolecular Med 9:157-68. 2007
    ..The divergent actions of these two structurally related drugs on the amyloid pathway indicate that the mechanisms underpinning the cholinergic and the amyloid-lowering properties for this class of drugs are independent of each other...
  89. ncbi request reprint Excessive hippocampal acetylcholine levels in acetylcholinesterase-deficient mice are moderated by butyrylcholinesterase activity
    Joachim Hartmann
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Amarillo, Texas 79106, USA
    J Neurochem 100:1421-9. 2007
    ..These results point to a potential usefulness of BChE inhibitors in the treatment of central cholinergic dysfunction in which brain AChE activity is typically reduced...
  90. ncbi request reprint Tomographic visualization of cholinesterase
    Rodrigo O Kuljis
    Ann Neurol 60:745-6. 2006
  91. ncbi request reprint An iron-responsive element type II in the 5'-untranslated region of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein transcript
    Jack T Rogers
    Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 4404, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:45518-28. 2002
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint The experimental Alzheimer's disease drug posiphen [(+)-phenserine] lowers amyloid-beta peptide levels in cell culture and mice
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Institute of Psychiatric Research, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 791 Union Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:386-96. 2007
    ..Posiphen, like phenserine, can lower Abeta via multiple mechanisms and represents an interesting drug candidate for AD treatment...
  93. ncbi request reprint Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors of amyloid precursor protein synthesis as a route to lower Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptide
    Tada Utsuki
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Feist Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71115, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318:855-62. 2006
    ..Translation of APP and A beta actions to mice was demonstrated with one agent. They thus represent interesting lead molecules for assessment in animal models, to define their tolerance and utility as potential AD therapeutics...
  94. ncbi request reprint Kinetics of human serum butyrylcholinesterase and its inhibition by a novel experimental Alzheimer therapeutic, bisnorcymserine
    Mohammad A Kamal
    Enzymoics, 7 Peterlee Pl, Hebersham, NSW 2770, Australia
    J Alzheimers Dis 10:43-51. 2006
    ..In synopsis, the characterization of the kinetic parameters of BuChE and BNC, described herein, is both aiding in the design of novel agents and optimizing their translation toward clinical use...
  95. ncbi request reprint Editorial: advances in Alzheimer therapy: something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue
    Nigel H Greig
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2:275-9. 2005
  96. ncbi request reprint Worsening of motor function and mood in a patient with Parkinson's disease after pharmacologic challenge with oral rivastigmine
    Irene Hegeman Richard
    Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642, USA
    Clin Neuropharmacol 25:296-9. 2002
    ..We conclude that further studies should be done to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of these agents in this illness but that caution should be exercised when using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with PD...
  97. ncbi request reprint Melatonin, metals, and gene expression: implications in aging and neurodegenerative disorders
    Debomoy K Lahiri
    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1035:216-30. 2004
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint Cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease: clinical and experimental models suggest interactions of different genetic, dietary and environmental risk factors
    Kumar Sambamurti
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, and Center on Aging, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, BSB 403, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 5:517-28. 2004
    ..The present review summarizes our current understanding of the relationship of AD pathogenesis with cholesterol, lipids and other genetic and environmental risk factors...
  99. ncbi request reprint A partial failure of membrane protein turnover may cause Alzheimer's disease: a new hypothesis
    Kumar Sambamurti
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, BSB 403, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 3:81-90. 2006
    ....