D S Goldstein

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Sympathetic neuroimaging
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 117:365-70. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 117:13-22. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential prevention of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Electronic address
    Adv Pharmacol 68:235-72. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Determinants of buildup of the toxic dopamine metabolite DOPAL in Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    J Neurochem 126:591-603. 2013
  5. pmc Vesicular uptake blockade generates the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in PC12 cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, CNP DIR NINDS NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    J Neurochem 123:932-43. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Temporary elimination of orthostatic hypotension by norepinephrine infusion
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 22:303-6. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Stress, allostatic load, catecholamines, and other neurotransmitters in neurodegenerative diseases
    David S Goldstein
    National Instituteof Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 32:661-6. 2012
  8. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disordersand Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Brain 135:1900-13. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Neurocardiology: therapeutic implications for cardiovascular disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cardiovasc Ther 30:e89-106. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 43:907-10. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Sympathetic neuroimaging
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 117:365-70. 2013
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 117:13-22. 2013
    ..Allostatic load links stress with degenerative diseases, and Parkinson disease may be a disease of the elderly because of allostatic load. ..
  3. doi request reprint Biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential prevention of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Electronic address
    Adv Pharmacol 68:235-72. 2013
    ..The catecholaldehyde hypothesis also leads to testable experimental therapeutic ideas. ..
  4. doi request reprint Determinants of buildup of the toxic dopamine metabolite DOPAL in Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    J Neurochem 126:591-603. 2013
    ..Elevated DOPAL levels in PD putamen reflect a combination of decreased vesicular uptake of cytosolic DA and decreased DOPAL detoxification by ALDH...
  5. pmc Vesicular uptake blockade generates the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in PC12 cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, CNP DIR NINDS NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    J Neurochem 123:932-43. 2012
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Temporary elimination of orthostatic hypotension by norepinephrine infusion
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 22:303-6. 2012
    ..v. NE infusion kept directly recorded intra-arterial pressure at or above baseline during progressive head-up tilt. We conclude that titrated i.v. NE infusion temporarily eliminates OH...
  7. doi request reprint Stress, allostatic load, catecholamines, and other neurotransmitters in neurodegenerative diseases
    David S Goldstein
    National Instituteof Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 32:661-6. 2012
    ..Parkinson disease might be a disease of the elderly because of allostatic load, which depends on genetic predispositions,environmental exposures, repeated stress-related catecholamine release, and time...
  8. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disordersand Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Brain 135:1900-13. 2012
    ..Parkinson's disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid seems to provide a sensitive means to identify even early Parkinson's disease...
  9. doi request reprint Neurocardiology: therapeutic implications for cardiovascular disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cardiovasc Ther 30:e89-106. 2012
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 43:907-10. 2004
    ..It also confirms that functional imaging by 6-[18F]fluorodopamine or 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning can localize pheochromocytoma in difficult cases in which other imaging tests are not diagnostic...
  11. pmc Relative efficiencies of plasma catechol levels and ratios for neonatal diagnosis of menkes disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurochem Res 34:1464-8. 2009
    ..The relative diagnostic efficiencies of levels of catechol analytes, alone or in combination, in neonates at genetic risk of Menkes disease have been unknown...
  12. doi request reprint Olfactory dysfunction in pure autonomic failure: Implications for the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:516-20. 2009
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Functional neuroimaging of sympathetic innervation of the heart
    David S Goldstein
    Building 10, Room 6N252, NINDS, NIH, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1018:231-43. 2004
    ..Analogous abnormalities might help explain increased cardiovascular risk in psychiatric disorders such as melancholic depression...
  14. ncbi request reprint Clinical catecholamine neurochemistry: a legacy of Julius Axelrod
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 26:695-702. 2006
    ..2. Here, we provide examples of this aspect of Axelrod's scientific legacy...
  15. pmc Cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging: summary of the First International Symposium
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Bethesda, MA 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 19:137-48. 2009
    ..Here, we review the background for the Symposium, provide an annotated summary of the lectures and posters, discuss some of the take-home points from the roundtable discussion, and propose a plan of action for the future...
  16. ncbi request reprint Cardiac denervation in patients with Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 74:S91-4. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Catecholamines and stress
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Endocr Regul 37:69-80. 2003
  18. pmc Pioneer Award Address: ignorance isn't biased: comments on receiving the Pioneer Award
    David S Goldstein
    Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 76:S31-6. 2009
    ..Patient-oriented research is a strength of heart-brain medicine. Patients are a unique scientific resource because they tell us the truth. We experience the joy and thrill of a "sparkle of insight" when we realize what they teach...
  19. ncbi request reprint Association between supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure
    David S Goldstein
    the Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 42:136-42. 2003
    ..The finding of lower plasma NE levels in patients with than without supine hypertension suggests involvement of pressor mechanisms independent of the sympathetic nervous system...
  20. ncbi request reprint Sympathetic innervation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine primate model of Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306:855-60. 2003
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic denervation preceding motor signs in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Building 10, Room 6N252, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 76:S47-50. 2009
    ..The results lead us to hypothesize that cardiac noradrenergic denervation and decreased baroreflex-cardiovagal function may occur early in the pathogenesis of PD...
  22. ncbi request reprint Plasma levels of catechols and metanephrines in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 60:1327-32. 2003
    ..From the concept of a unitary sympathoadrenomedullary system, one might predict parallel sympathoneural and adrenomedullary abnormalities in NOH...
  23. doi request reprint Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Auton Neurosci 146:18-21. 2009
    ..PAF entails cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by thoracic 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine scanning indicates intact myocardial sympathetic innervation in AAG...
  24. ncbi request reprint Painful sweating
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 63:1471-5. 2004
    ..The authors report a case of spontaneous and gustatory facial pain and sweating...
  25. ncbi request reprint L-Dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS): a norepinephrine prodrug
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, USA
    Cardiovasc Drug Rev 24:189-203. 2006
    ..L-DOPS holds promise for treating other much more common conditions involving decreased DBH activity or NE deficiency, such as a variety of syndromes associated with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension...
  26. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic denervation preceding motor signs in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 17:118-21. 2007
    ..The results lead us to hypothesize that cardiac noradrenergic denervation and decreased baroreflex-cardiovagal function may occur early in the pathogenesis of PD...
  27. ncbi request reprint Evolution of concepts of stress
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Stress 10:109-20. 2007
    ..This systems concept of stress yields predictions that observation or experimentation can test and that are applicable to normal physiology and to a variety of acute and chronic disorders...
  28. ncbi request reprint Orthostatic hypotension as an early finding in Parkinson's disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10 Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 16:46-54. 2006
    ..In PD, OH can occur early in the disease, occasionally preceding or overshadowing the movement disorder...
  29. ncbi request reprint Neurocirculatory and nigrostriatal abnormalities in Parkinson disease from LRRK2 mutation
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institutes on Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 69:1580-4. 2007
    ..Familial PD caused by mutation of the gene encoding alpha-synuclein or by alpha-synuclein gene triplication also features cardiac sympathetic denervation and baroreflex failure...
  30. ncbi request reprint Neurocirculatory abnormalities in Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension: independence from levodopa treatment
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 46:1333-9. 2005
    ..Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension features reflexive cardiovagal and sympathoneural failure and cardiac and partial extracardiac sympathetic denervation, independent of levodopa treatment...
  31. pmc Biomarkers to detect central dopamine deficiency and distinguish Parkinson disease from multiple system atrophy
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 14:600-7. 2008
    ..This study compared neuroimaging, neurochemical, and olfactory potential biomarkers to detect central dopamine (DA) deficiency and distinguish PD from multiple system atrophy (MSA)...
  32. doi request reprint Central dopamine deficiency in pure autonomic failure
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 18:58-65. 2008
    ..A patient with PAF and another with PD had rapid postmortem striatal, nigral, and sympathetic ganglion sampling, with assays of catechols and tyrosine hydroxylase activity...
  33. doi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic hypo-innervation in familial dysautonomia
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Building 10 Room 6N252, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 18:115-9. 2008
    ..Whether such loss extends to sympathetic innervation of the heart has been unknown. This study used 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine neuroimaging to assess cardiac sympathetic innervation and function in FD...
  34. ncbi request reprint Neurocirculatory abnormalities in chronic orthostatic intolerance
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Circulation 111:839-45. 2005
    ..This study addressed whether patients with COI and POTS or NCS have neurocirculatory abnormalities during supine rest...
  35. ncbi request reprint Clinical pharmacokinetics of the norepinephrine precursor L-threo-DOPS in primary chronic autonomic failure
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 14:363-8. 2004
    ....
  36. pmc Neuronal source of plasma dopamine
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Chem 54:1864-71. 2008
    ..We tested in humans whether DA enters the plasma after corelease with NE during exocytosis from sympathetic noradrenergic nerves...
  37. ncbi request reprint Adrenomedullary, adrenocortical, and sympathoneural responses to stressors: a meta-analysis
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Endocr Regul 42:111-9. 2008
    ..Here we report results of a meta-analysis of the literature, examining inter-relationships among AHS, HPA, and SNS responses to stressors, as measured by plasma epinephrine (EPI), corticotrophin (ACTH), and norepinephrine (NE) levels...
  38. ncbi request reprint Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:800-11. 2003
    ..This article provides an update about plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites and the relevance of those levels to some issues in human health and disease...
  39. doi request reprint Cardiac ectopy in chronic autonomic failure
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Building 10 Room 5N220, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 20:85-92. 2010
    ..This study assessed whether CAF is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac ectopy...
  40. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, U S A
    Clin Sci (Lond) 104:649-54. 2003
    ..41+/-1.77 nmol/l respectively; P =0.006). The findings are consistent with central noradrenergic deficiency in both MSA+OH and PAF. In MSA, central noradrenergic deficiency seems to relate specifically to OH...
  41. ncbi request reprint Orthostatic hypotension from sympathetic denervation in Parkinson's disease
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 58:1247-55. 2002
    ..Patients with PD often have signs or symptoms of autonomic failure, including orthostatic hypotension. Cardiac sympathetic denervation occurs frequently in PD, but this has been thought to occur independently of autonomic failure...
  42. ncbi request reprint Kinetic model for the fate of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine in the human heart: a novel means to examine cardiac sympathetic neuronal function
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 365:38-49. 2002
    ..The model seems useful in predicting effects of altered cardiac sympathetic function on time-activity curves for myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity in humans...
  43. pmc Intra-neuronal vesicular uptake of catecholamines is decreased in patients with Lewy body diseases
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:3320-30. 2011
    ..Vesicular uptake may constitute a novel target for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention...
  44. doi request reprint Sympathetic noradrenergic before striatal dopaminergic denervation: relevance to Braak staging of synucleinopathy
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 22:57-61. 2012
    ..In this case, neuroimaging evidence of cardiac noradrenergic denervation and subsequent progressive striatal dopaminergic denervation fit with Braak staging...
  45. ncbi request reprint The wisdom of the body revisited: the adrenomedullary response to mild core hypothermia in humans
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, U S A
    Endocr Regul 35:3-7. 2001
    ..The present study used arterial levels of these catecholamines, to determine whether adrenomedullary stimulation occurs in response to decreased body temperature...
  46. pmc Low-frequency power of heart rate variability is not a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone but may be a measure of modulation of cardiac autonomic outflows by baroreflexes
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Exp Physiol 96:1255-61. 2011
    ..Manipulations and drugs that change LF power or LF:HF may do so not by affecting cardiac autonomic outflows directly but by affecting modulation of those outflows by baroreflexes...
  47. pmc Adrenal responses to stress
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5N220, 9000 Rockville Pike, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 30:1433-40. 2010
    ..Instead, adrenomedullary responses to stressors are more closely tied to adrenocortical than to sympathetic noradrenergic responses. Distress involves concurrent activation of the HPA and adrenomedullary neuroendocrine systems...
  48. doi request reprint Plasma catechols in familial dysautonomia: a long-term follow-up study
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Building 10 Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurochem Res 33:1889-93. 2008
    ..In FD, plasma catechol profiles are sufficiently stable, at least over a decade, to be used as a biomarker of disease involvement. An increasing DOPA:DHPG ratio suggests slight but consistent, progressive loss of noradrenergic neurons...
  49. pmc Computer models of stress, allostasis, and acute and chronic diseases
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:223-31. 2008
    ..These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multisystem disorders and failures...
  50. ncbi request reprint Stress, allostatic load, catecholamines, and other neurotransmitters in neurodegenerative diseases
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Endocr Regul 45:91-8. 2011
    ..Parkinson disease might be a disease of the elderly because of allostatic load, which depends on genetic predispositions, environmental exposures, repeated stress-related catecholamine release, and time...
  51. doi request reprint Autonomic dysfunction in PD: a window to early detection?
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    J Neurol Sci 310:118-22. 2011
    ..In elderly patients with unexplained OH or other evidence of autonomic failure, it is reasonable for clinicians to look for subtle signs of parkinsonism, such as masked facies, cogwheel rigidity, and shuffling gate...
  52. pmc Association of anosmia with autonomic failure in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Building 10 Room 5N220, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 74:245-51. 2010
    ..This observational study assessed whether in PD anosmia and autonomic failure are related to each other or to neuroimaging evidence of striatal dopamine deficiency...
  53. doi request reprint Effects of carbidopa and entacapone on the metabolic fate of the norepinephrine prodrug L-DOPS
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 51:66-74. 2011
    ....
  54. doi request reprint Neuroscience and heart-brain medicine: the year in review
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 1620, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 77:S34-9. 2010
    ..Lack of correlation between commonly used indices from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and cardiac norepinephrine spillover casts doubt on the validity of power spectral analysis to indicate cardiac sympathetic tone...
  55. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic dysautonomia in chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, USA
    Circulation 106:2358-65. 2002
    ..Whether these conditions involve abnormal cardiac sympathetic innervation or function has been unclear...
  56. pmc Catecholamines 101
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg 10 Rm 5N220, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 20:331-52. 2010
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Pandysautonomia associated with impaired ganglionic neurotransmission and circulating antibody to the neuronal nicotinic receptor
    David S Goldstein
    Building 10, Room 6N252, Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Clin Auton Res 12:281-5. 2002
    ..The findings in this case support the concept that circulating antibodies to this receptor can interfere with ganglionic neurotransmission and produce autoimmune autonomic neuropathy...
  58. ncbi request reprint Allostasis, homeostats, and the nature of stress
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 10 6N252, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Stress 5:55-8. 2002
    ..Applying these notions can aid in understanding how acute and chronic stress can exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load...
  59. doi request reprint Catechols in post-mortem brain of patients with Parkinson disease
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Eur J Neurol 18:703-10. 2011
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Neurotransmitter specificity of sympathetic denervation in Parkinson's disease
    Y Sharabi
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 60:1036-9. 2003
    ..All 12 had normal QSART results. The sympathetic nervous system lesion in PD involves loss of postganglionic catecholaminergic but not cholinergic nerves...
  61. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 display distinct biochemical and clinical phenotypes
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section and Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1999-2008. 2001
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint A "pheo" lurks: novel approaches for locating occult pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1583, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3641-6. 2001
    ..These novel approaches may be of value in difficult cases, where biochemical and clinical evidence of pheochromocytoma is compelling, yet conventional imaging modalities fail to locate the tumor...
  63. pmc Generalized and neurotransmitter-selective noradrenergic denervation in Parkinson's disease with orthostatic hypotension
    Yehonatan Sharabi
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Mov Disord 23:1725-32. 2008
    ..In contrast, the parasympathetic cholinergic and adrenomedullary hormonal components of the autonomic nervous system seem intact in PD+NOH...
  64. ncbi request reprint Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    N Engl J Med 340:1872-9. 1999
    ..In this study we evaluated measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2...
  65. ncbi request reprint A test of the "epinephrine hypothesis" in humans
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 33:36-43. 1999
    ..The findings are inconsistent with the epinephrine hypothesis...
  66. ncbi request reprint Sympathoadrenal function in patients with paroxysmal hypertension: pseudopheochromocytoma
    Yehonatan Sharabi
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Hypertens 25:2286-95. 2007
    ..We therefore examined sympathoadrenal function in patients with pseudopheochromocytoma compared with age-matched control subjects in whom there was no suspicion of pheochromocytoma...
  67. ncbi request reprint Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:2523-31. 1999
    ..The findings suggest an enzymatic gut-blood barrier for detoxifying exogenous dopamine and delimiting autocrine/paracrine effects of endogenous dopamine generated in a "third catecholamine system."..
  68. pmc Functional effects of cardiac sympathetic denervation in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    Richard Imrich
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:122-7. 2009
    ..We studied the impact of such denervation on cardiac chronotropic and inotropic function...
  69. ncbi request reprint Dopamine biosynthesis is selectively abolished in substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area but not in hypothalamic neurons in mice with targeted disruption of the Nurr1 gene
    S O Castillo
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1766, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 11:36-46. 1998
    ..These findings provide evidence for a new mechanism of DA depletion in vivo and suggest a unique role for Nurr1 in fetal development and/or postnatal survival...
  70. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic nerve function in congestive heart failure
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1424, USA
    Circulation 93:1667-76. 1996
    ..This study used a comprehensive neurochemical approach to examine the mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities...
  71. ncbi request reprint Positron emission imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function using 18F-6-fluorodopamine: effects of chemical sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Hypertens 9:417-23. 1991
    ..Combined assessments of PET time-activity curves and plasma levels of metabolites of 18F-6-fluorodopamine constitute a new, potentially clinically applicable means by which to examine cardiac sympathetic function...
  72. ncbi request reprint Alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated restraint of norepinephrine synthesis, release, and turnover during immobilization in rats
    O A Tjurmina
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res 826:243-52. 1999
    ..In the PVN, alpha2-adrenoceptors do not appear to contribute to these processes tonically and exert relatively little restraint on IMMO-induced local noradrenergic activation...
  73. ncbi request reprint Metabolic fate of the sympathoneural imaging agent 6-[18F]fluorodopamine in humans
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1424, USA
    Clin Exp Hypertens 19:155-61. 1997
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Hypertension 38:6-8. 2001
    ..These findings justify a clinical trial of 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning as a diagnostic tool...
  75. ncbi request reprint Aging-related changes in cardiac sympathetic function in humans, assessed by 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET scanning
    Sheng Ting Li
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Nucl Med 44:1599-603. 2003
    ..This study examined the effects of normal human aging on cardiac sympathetic innervation and function, including the neuronal uptake of catecholamines (uptake 1) via the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter...
  76. ncbi request reprint Sympathoneural and adrenomedullary functional effects of alpha2C-adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism in healthy humans
    Alexander Neumeister
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Section on Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:143-9. 2005
    ..In-frame deletion of the alpha2C-adrenoreceptor subtype (alpha2CDel322-325) increases the risk of congestive heart failure. Increased delivery of catecholamines to cardiovascular receptors might explain this increased risk...
  77. ncbi request reprint Association between cardiac denervation and parkinsonism caused by alpha-synuclein gene triplication
    Amanda Singleton
    Parkinson s Unit, Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain 127:768-72. 2004
    ..These results indicate that both parkinsonism and cardiac sympathetic denervation can result from an excess of normal synuclein...
  78. ncbi request reprint Local sympathetic function in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue assessed by microdialysis
    Simon Bruce
    NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 12:13-9. 2002
    ..This study examined the validity of microdialysis and measurements of microdialysate concentrations of catechols, to assess local sympathetic function in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans...
  79. ncbi request reprint Cardiac and extracardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson's disease with orthostatic hypotension and in pure autonomic failure
    Dnyanesh N Tipre
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Nucl Med 46:1775-81. 2005
    ..In this study, we examined whether 6-(18)F-fluorodopamine can visualize sympathetic innervation in extracardiac organs and, if so, whether patients with PD+OH or PAF have neuroimaging evidence of extracardiac noradrenergic denervation...
  80. ncbi request reprint Occipital horn syndrome and a mild Menkes phenotype associated with splice site mutations at the MNK locus
    S G Kaler
    Section on Human Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Nat Genet 8:195-202. 1994
    ..In both mutations, maintenance of some normal splicing is demonstrable by RT-PCR, cDNA sequencing and ribonuclease protection...
  81. doi request reprint Attenuated pre-ejection period response to tyramine in patients with cardiac sympathetic denervation
    Richard Imrich
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:486-9. 2008
    ..05). One of the functional consequences of cardiac sympathetic denervation is failure to increase contractility in response to stimuli that depend on endogenous norepinephrine release...
  82. ncbi request reprint Distinct gene expression profiles in norepinephrine- and epinephrine-producing hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytomas: activation of hypoxia-driven angiogenic pathways in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 11:897-911. 2004
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Implications of plasma levels of catechols in the evaluation of sympathoadrenomedullary function
    D S Goldstein
    Hypertension-Endocrine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Am J Hypertens 2:133S-139S. 1989
    ..Positron emission tomography after injection of positron-emitting fluorodopamine may allow in vivo, noninvasive assessments of regional sympathetic function...
  84. ncbi request reprint Noninvasive detection of sympathetic neurocirculatory failure
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 10:285-91. 2000
    ..Abnormal pressure during these phases appears to identify SNF specifically. Noninvasive measurements can detect both of these abnormalities...
  85. ncbi request reprint Autoimmune autonomic failure in a patient with myeloma-associated Shy-Drager syndrome
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 6:17-21. 1996
    ..Since in this case the monoclonal antibody produced by the myeloma bound specifically to LC cells, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that in this patient the Shy-Drager syndrome may have had an immune-mediated basis...
  86. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment of pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9D42, 10 Center Drive MSC 1583, Bethesda, MD 20892 1583, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:315-29. 2001
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Glucagon does not affect catecholamine release in primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells
    Y Sharabi
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Horm Metab Res 37:205-8. 2005
    ..In this study, we tested whether the catecholamine secretory response to glucagon was present in bovine chromaffin cells or exclusive to the tumor cells...
  88. ncbi request reprint Myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    S T Li
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 35:1867-73. 2000
    ..This study assessed left ventricular myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation and function in hypertrophied and nonhypertrophied myocardial regions of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)...
  89. ncbi request reprint Dopamine sulphate: an enigma resolved
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 26:S41-53. 1999
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint A new sign of sympathetic neurocirculatory failure: premature ventricular contraction as a "one-beat Valsalva maneuver"
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 10:63-7. 2000
    ..Just as the absence of the overshoot of BP after release of the Valsalva maneuver supports a diagnosis of SNF, so does the absence of the overshoot after a PVC...
  91. ncbi request reprint Exaggerated adrenomedullary response to immobilization in mice with targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter gene
    Olga A Tjurmina
    Laboratory of Clinical Science, National Institute of Mental Health, and Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Endocrinology 143:4520-6. 2002
    ..Exaggerated adrenomedullary responses seem to be an autonomic correlate of the anxiety-like behaviors in 5-HTT knockout mice...
  92. ncbi request reprint Leaky catecholamine stores: undue waste or a stress response coping mechanism?
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1018:224-30. 2004
    ....
  93. doi request reprint Hypertension increases cerebral 6-18F-fluorodopa-derived radioactivity
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Nucl Med 50:1479-82. 2009
    ..Supine hypertension (SH) might increase 6-(18)F-fluorodopa uptake...
  94. doi request reprint Contamination of the norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa by dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
    Courtney Holmes
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Chem 56:832-8. 2010
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma: the coming of age of positron emission tomography
    Karel Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NIH, Building 10, Room 9D42, 10 Center Drive MSC 1583, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 970:170-6. 2002
    ..In this report we provide an update regarding nuclear imaging of primary and metastatic pheochromocytoma, particularly using 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic scanning...
  96. ncbi request reprint Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Semin Neurol 23:423-33. 2003
    ..As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases...
  97. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of anti-locus coeruleus immunoreactivity in CSF of patients with autonomic failure
    Richard Imrich
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS NIH, Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 16:401-5. 2006
    ..The results failed to confirm the previously reported high prevalence of immune binding to rat LC in CSF from patients with MSA...
  98. pmc Neonatal diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease
    Stephen G Kaler
    Unit on Pediatric Genetics, Program in Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Rm 5 2571, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1832, Bethesda, MD 20892 1832
    N Engl J Med 358:605-14. 2008
    ....
  99. pmc Supine low-frequency power of heart rate variability reflects baroreflex function, not cardiac sympathetic innervation
    Jeffrey P Moak
    Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    Heart Rhythm 4:1523-9. 2007
    ..Alternatively, LF power might reflect baroreflexive modulation of autonomic outflows...
  100. ncbi request reprint Failure of propranolol to prevent tilt-evoked systemic vasodilatation, adrenaline release and neurocardiogenic syncope
    Basil A Eldadah
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Sci (Lond) 111:209-16. 2006
    ..In this small, but tightly controlled, study, propranolol did not prevent tilt-induced vasodilatation, syncope or elevated plasma adrenaline...
  101. pmc Cardiac implications of increased arterial entry and reversible 24-h central and peripheral norepinephrine levels in melancholia
    Philip W Gold
    Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1284, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8303-8. 2005
    ..Even mildly-to-moderately depressed melancholic patients had clinically relevant increases in the arterial NE-appearance rate. These findings will not apply to all clinical subtypes of major depression...