S U Emerson

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein over-expressed by baculovirus in hepatoma cells, efficiently encapsidates and transmits the viral RNA to naïve cells
    Mohammad K Parvez
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    Virol J 8:159. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis E virus
    Suzanne U Emerson
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Rev Med Virol 13:145-54. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Putative neutralization epitopes and broad cross-genotype neutralization of Hepatitis E virus confirmed by a quantitative cell-culture assay
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Gen Virol 87:697-704. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:930-3. 2005
  5. pmc ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is not required for replication, virion assembly, or infection of hepatoma cells in vitro
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6537, 50 South Drive, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:10457-64. 2006
  6. pmc In vitro replication of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genomes and of an HEV replicon expressing green fluorescent protein
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Flow Cytometry Section, Research Technologies Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 78:4838-46. 2004
  7. pmc Release of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus from cultured hepatoma and polarized intestinal cells depends on open reading frame 3 protein and requires an intact PXXP motif
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 84:9059-69. 2010
  8. pmc Identification of VP1/2A and 2C as virulence genes of hepatitis A virus and demonstration of genetic instability of 2C
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 76:8551-9. 2002
  9. pmc Recombinant hepatitis E virus genomes infectious for primates: importance of capping and discovery of a cis-reactive element
    S U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:15270-5. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis E
    S U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Trends Mol Med 7:462-6. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. pmc Hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein over-expressed by baculovirus in hepatoma cells, efficiently encapsidates and transmits the viral RNA to naïve cells
    Mohammad K Parvez
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    Virol J 8:159. 2011
    ..This ex vivo RNA packaging system should be useful for studying many aspects of HEV molecular biology...
  2. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis E virus
    Suzanne U Emerson
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Rev Med Virol 13:145-54. 2003
    ..Regardless of country of origin or genotype of the virus, most, if not all, strains belong to a single serotype. A promising recombinant vaccine candidate comprised of a truncated capsid protein is currently under evaluation in Nepal...
  3. ncbi request reprint Putative neutralization epitopes and broad cross-genotype neutralization of Hepatitis E virus confirmed by a quantitative cell-culture assay
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Gen Virol 87:697-704. 2006
    ..Antibodies were broadly cross-reactive, since convalescent serum from animals infected with any one of the four mammalian genotypes all neutralized the genotype 1 virus...
  4. ncbi request reprint Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:930-3. 2005
    ..Although HEV was less stable than was HAV, some HEV would most likely survive the internal temperatures of rare-cooked meat...
  5. pmc ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is not required for replication, virion assembly, or infection of hepatoma cells in vitro
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6537, 50 South Drive, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:10457-64. 2006
    ..Therefore, in contrast to its requirement in vivo, ORF3 protein is not required for infection of Huh-7 cells or production of infectious virus in vitro...
  6. pmc In vitro replication of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genomes and of an HEV replicon expressing green fluorescent protein
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Flow Cytometry Section, Research Technologies Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 78:4838-46. 2004
    ..HEV virions were also able to infect a limited number of cells of certain lines...
  7. pmc Release of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus from cultured hepatoma and polarized intestinal cells depends on open reading frame 3 protein and requires an intact PXXP motif
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 84:9059-69. 2010
    ..ORF3 protein and lipids were intimately associated with virus particles produced in either cell line; ORF2 epitopes were masked in these particles and could not be immunoprecipitated with anti-ORF2...
  8. pmc Identification of VP1/2A and 2C as virulence genes of hepatitis A virus and demonstration of genetic instability of 2C
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 76:8551-9. 2002
    ..The 2C gene derived from the attenuated parent virus was unstable, and one or more mutations arose in this gene during the first passage in tamarins...
  9. pmc Recombinant hepatitis E virus genomes infectious for primates: importance of capping and discovery of a cis-reactive element
    S U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:15270-5. 2001
    ..One mutation differentiating the two clones identified a cis-reactive element that appeared to overlap the 3' end of the capsid gene and part of the 3' noncoding region. Capping of the RNA transcripts was essential for infectivity...
  10. ncbi request reprint Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis E
    S U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Trends Mol Med 7:462-6. 2001
    ..A candidate vaccine consisting of baculovirus-expressed recombinant capsid protein protected macaques from hepatitis E--it passed phase I clinical trials and is currently scheduled for phase II/III clinical trials...
  11. ncbi request reprint A simian strain of hepatitis A virus, AGM-27, functions as an attenuated vaccine for chimpanzees
    S U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892 0740, USA
    J Infect Dis 173:592-7. 1996
    ..Marmosets and chimpanzees convalescent from infection with the AGM-27 strain of HAV were rechallenged with the virulent HM-175 strain of human HAV. They were partially or totally protected from disease...
  12. pmc Identification by phage display and characterization of two neutralizing chimpanzee monoclonal antibodies to the hepatitis E virus capsid protein
    D J Schofield
    Hepatitis Viruses, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Virol 74:5548-55. 2000
    ..Therefore, each MAb neutralized the SAR-55 strain of HEV in vitro...
  13. ncbi request reprint Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: active and passive immunoprophylaxis in chimpanzees
    R H Purcell
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Vaccine 10:S148-51. 1992
    ..The mechanism of this complete protection is unknown but may simply represent the higher titre of anti-HAV in the vaccinated chimpanzees, compared to the passively protected animals...
  14. pmc Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus
    X J Meng
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 72:9714-21. 1998
    ..These results provided experimental evidence for cross-species infection by the swine virus. Thus, humans appear to be at risk of infection with swine HEV or closely related viruses...
  15. pmc cDNA clone of hepatitis A virus encoding a virulent virus: induction of viral hepatitis by direct nucleic acid transfection of marmosets
    S U Emerson
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 66:6649-54. 1992
    ..Liver biopsies confirmed that the virus encoded by the cDNA clone induced histopathological changes equivalent to those caused by virulent wild-type virus...
  16. doi request reprint Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 infection of swine kidney cells in vitro is inhibited at multiple levels
    H T Nguyen
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 88:868-77. 2014
    ..These cell and virus combinations may serve as a useful in vitro model with which to study determinants of the natural host range of this virus. ..
  17. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a vaccine prepared from 53 kDa truncated hepatitis E virus capsid protein expressed in insect cells
    M Zhang
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 20:853-7. 2001
    ..Virus was not detected in the vaccinated animals following the low dose challenge, suggesting that sterilizing immunity may have been achieved...
  18. ncbi request reprint Detection of antibodies to the nonstructural 3C proteinase of hepatitis A virus
    D R Stewart
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0740, USA
    J Infect Dis 176:593-601. 1997
    ..However, antibodies to the proteinase were detected in the serum of all primates experimentally infected with virulent HAV and in the serum of naturally infected humans...
  19. pmc Construction of recombinant DNA molecules by the use of a single stranded DNA generated by the polymerase chain reaction: its application to chimeric hepatitis A virus/poliovirus subgenomic cDNA
    C Wychowski
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Nucleic Acids Res 18:913-8. 1990
    ..The cDNA was transcribed into RNA and translated in vitro. The resulting protein could be precipitated by antibody to poliovirus VP4 but not to HAV VP4...
  20. pmc Mutations responsible for adaptation of hepatitis A virus to efficient growth in cell culture
    S U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 65:4882-6. 1991
    ..Mutations in the P2 region were found to be necessary for efficient virus growth in vitro, while mutations in the 5' noncoding region imparted a conditional enhancement of growth in vitro...
  21. ncbi request reprint Molecular basis of virulence and growth of hepatitis A virus in cell culture
    S U Emerson
    Hepatitis Virus Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Vaccine 10:S36-9. 1992
    ..Various chimeric viruses induced liver enzyme elevations in marmosets, indicating that attenuation of virulence also required multiple mutations...
  22. pmc Progress toward the development of a genetically engineered attenuated hepatitis A virus vaccine
    A W Funkhouser
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 70:7948-57. 1996
    ..However, neither group of 5' NC mutations had a demonstrable effect on the extent of virus excretion or liver pathology in these animals...
  23. pmc Mutations in both the 2B and 2C genes of hepatitis A virus are involved in adaptation to growth in cell culture
    S U Emerson
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 66:650-4. 1992
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint 2B and 2C mutations are essential but mutations throughout the genome of HAV contribute to adaptation to cell culture
    S U Emerson
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Virology 194:475-80. 1993
    ..Therefore, mutations in 2B and 2C are essential for cell culture adaptation but mutations elsewhere in the genome also contribute significantly to the enhanced growth rate...
  25. ncbi request reprint Simian hepatitis A virus (HAV) strain AGM-27: comparison of genome structure and growth in cell culture with other HAV strains
    S A Tsarev
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Gen Virol 72:1677-83. 1991
    ..AGM-27 and cell culture-adapted HM-175 were distinguishable by their differential growth in CV-1, FRhK-4 and primary AGMK cells...
  26. ncbi request reprint Failure to infect rhesus monkeys with hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1a, 2a or 3a
    J Bukh
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID NIH, 7 Center Drive MSC 0740, Bethesda, Md 20892 0740, USA
    J Viral Hepat 8:228-31. 2001
    ..Our study demonstrates that rhesus monkeys are not readily infected with HCV and apparently do not represent a useful animal model for the study of HCV...
  27. pmc Amplification of the full-length hepatitis A virus genome by long reverse transcription-PCR and transcription of infectious RNA directly from the amplicon
    R Tellier
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:4370-3. 1996
    ....
  28. pmc Utilization of chimeras between human (HM-175) and simian (AGM-27) strains of hepatitis A virus to study the molecular basis of virulence
    G Raychaudhuri
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 72:7467-75. 1998
    ..Chimeras containing either the entire or only the 3' half of the simian virus 2C gene in the HAV/7 background were attenuated for chimpanzees...
  29. pmc Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis E virus by class capture enzyme immunoassay
    C Yu
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:579-86. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint High-level expression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins by a chimeric HCV/BVDV genome propagated as a BVDV pseudotype
    J H Nam
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0740, USA
    J Virol Methods 97:113-23. 2001
    ..The virus particles were pseudotypes, because they were neutralized by anti-BVDV but not by anti-HCV...
  31. ncbi request reprint Studies of hepatitis C virus in chimpanzees and their importance for vaccine development
    J Bukh
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md 20892 0740, USA
    Intervirology 44:132-42. 2001
    ..The vaccine trials performed in chimpanzees to date all have tested the efficacy of immunizations with various forms of the envelope proteins of HCV...
  32. pmc Hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid antigens derived from viruses of human and swine origin are equally efficient for detecting anti-HEV by enzyme immunoassay
    R E Engle
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4576-80. 2002
    ..938). Moreover, we found virtually no difference in the levels of prevalence of anti-HEV as measured by the two tests, again suggesting that the antigens derived from human and swine HEV contain the same immunodominant epitopes...
  33. ncbi request reprint Acute hepatitis caused by a novel strain of hepatitis E virus most closely related to United States strains
    Y Kabrane-Lazizi
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Gen Virol 82:1687-93. 2001
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize HEV recognize an antigenic site at the carboxyterminus of an ORF2 protein vaccine
    Darren J Schofield
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 22:257-67. 2003
    ....
  35. pmc Adaptation of a genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to efficient growth in cell culture depends on an inserted human gene segment acquired by recombination
    P Shukla
    Molecular Hepatitis and Hepatitis Viruses Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:5697-707. 2012
    ..The S17 sequence did not affect transfection of human hepatoma cells when inserted into the hypervariable region of a genotype 1 strain, but this chimeric genome acquired a dramatic ability to replicate in hamster cells...
  36. pmc A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus
    X J Meng
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 7 Center Drive, MSC 0740, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9860-5. 1997
    ..The discovery of swine HEV not only has implications for HEV vaccine development, diagnosis, and biology, but also raises a potential public health concern for zoonosis or xenozoonosis following xenotransplantation with pig organs...
  37. ncbi request reprint Detection of antibodies to HAV 3C proteinase in experimentally infected chimpanzees and in naturally infected children
    Y Kabrane-Lazizi
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 19:2878-83. 2001
    ..Its detection should be useful for distinguishing between antibody acquired in response to HAV infection and antibody induced by immunization with inactivated vaccine...
  38. pmc The open reading frame 3 gene of hepatitis E virus contains a cis-reactive element and encodes a protein required for infection of macaques
    Judith Graff
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 79:6680-9. 2005
    ....
  39. pmc Mutational analysis of the hepatitis C virus E1 glycoprotein in retroviral pseudoparticles and cell-culture-derived H77/JFH1 chimeric infectious virus particles
    R S Russell
    Hepatitis Viruses, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Viral Hepat 16:621-32. 2009
    ..This comprehensive mutational analysis of the putative HCV fusion peptide provides insight into the role of E1 in its interaction with E2 and in HCV entry...
  40. pmc A virus discovery method incorporating DNase treatment and its application to the identification of two bovine parvovirus species
    T Allander
    Sections for Hepatitis Viruses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11609-14. 2001
    ..DNase treatment of serum samples may prove to be a very useful tool for virus discovery. The DNase-SISPA method is suitable for screening of a large number of samples and also enables rapid sequence determination of high-titer viruses...
  41. ncbi request reprint Partial characterization of hepatitis A viruses from three intermediate passage levels of a series resulting in adaptation to growth in cell culture and attenuation of virulence
    V Tedeschi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Med Virol 39:16-22. 1993
    ..Passage 21 viruses were found to consist of a mixture of viruses which included all but two of the 13 mutations present in the sequenced regions of the virus from passage 32...
  42. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis A virus translation is rate-limiting for virus replication in MRC-5 cells
    A W Funkhouser
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA
    Virology 254:268-78. 1999
    ..136): the AG and MR groups combined had a small impact on translation, but no detectable impact on virus replication. We conclude that in MRC-5 cells viral translation is rate-limiting for HAV replication...
  43. ncbi request reprint In vitro and ex vivo inhibition of hepatitis A virus 3C proteinase by a peptidyl monofluoromethyl ketone
    T S Morris
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md 20892 0740, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 5:797-807. 1997
    ..Subsequent ex vivo studies, to test for antiviral activity, show a 25-fold reduction in progeny virus production as the result of treatment with 5 microM inhibitor 24 h post-infection...
  44. pmc Long PCR and its application to hepatitis viruses: amplification of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C virus genomes
    R Tellier
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 34:3085-91. 1996
    ..We amplified the nearly full-length sequence of each of these viruses from a small number of viral genomes, demonstrating the sensitivity of the process...
  45. pmc A naturally occurring human/hepatitis E recombinant virus predominates in serum but not in faeces of a chronic hepatitis E patient and has a growth advantage in cell culture
    H T Nguyen
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Gen Virol 93:526-30. 2012
    ..The results demonstrated that hepatitis E virus can mutate dramatically during a prolonged infection and suggests it may be important to prevent or cure chronic infections before new variants with unpredictable properties arise...
  46. pmc Attenuated hepatitis A virus: genetic determinants of adaptation to growth in MRC-5 cells
    A W Funkhouser
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 68:148-57. 1994
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of antibodies to the hepatitis E virus in pigs from countries where hepatitis E is common or is rare in the human population
    X J Meng
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
    J Med Virol 59:297-302. 1999
    ..The results from this study suggest that hepatitis E is enzootic in pigs regardless of whether HEV is endemic in the respective human population. J. Med. Virol. 59:297-302, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  48. ncbi request reprint Virology of the hepatitis A epidemic in Italy
    R H Purcell
    National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hepatitis Viruses Section, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Vox Sang 67:2-7; discussion 24-6. 1994
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  49. ncbi request reprint Identification of the 5' terminal sequence of the SAR-55 and MEX-14 strains of hepatitis E virus and confirmation that the genome is capped
    M Zhang
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Med Virol 65:293-5. 2001
    ..The 5' noncoding region of the SAR-55 strain had 25 nucleotides, which is two less than reported for the Burmese strain, and that of the MEX-14 strain had 24 nucleotides, which is 21 more than reported previously [Huang et al., 1992]...
  50. pmc Characterization of a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus
    S A Tsarev
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:559-63. 1992
    ..Identification of this region as hypervariable was obtained by partial sequencing of a third isolate of hepatitis E virus from Kirgizia...
  51. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus: an infectious molecular clone of a second major genotype (2a) and lack of viability of intertypic 1a and 2a chimeras
    M Yanagi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 262:250-63. 1999
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Four chimpanzee monoclonal antibodies isolated by phage display neutralize hepatitis a virus
    D J Schofield
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 292:127-36. 2002
    ..Furthermore, competition assays performed with neutralizing murine MAbs suggested that three of the chimpanzee MAbs recognized epitopes on the HAV capsid which have not been defined previously...
  53. pmc Evidence that the genomic RNA of hepatitis E virus is capped
    Y Kabrane-Lazizi
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 73:8848-50. 1999
    ..Antibody to m(7)G bound RNA extracted from virions of two different HEV genotypes. The cap analog competitively inhibited the binding of virion RNAs, demonstrating that HEV has a capped RNA genome...
  54. ncbi request reprint Animal models of hepatitis A and E
    R H Purcell
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    ILAR J 42:161-77. 2001
    ..As has been the case for each of the hepatitis viruses as they have been discovered, the development of useful and reproducible animal model systems has been critical for moving the field forward as expeditiously as possible...
  55. ncbi request reprint Recombinant vaccine against hepatitis E: duration of protective immunity in rhesus macaques
    Mingdong Zhang
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 20:3285-91. 2002
    ..In summary, two doses of HEV vaccine partially protected rhesus monkeys from hepatitis E following intravenous challenge 6 or 12 months after vaccination...
  56. doi request reprint Hepatitis E: an emerging awareness of an old disease
    R H Purcell
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Hepatol 48:494-503. 2008
    ..At present, control depends upon improved hygiene; a highly efficacious vaccine has been developed and tested, but it is not presently available...
  57. pmc False-positive serologic test resulting from a probable yeast infection in a chimpanzee
    T Heller
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0740, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 3:614-5. 1996
    ..This report illustrates a potential problem when serological reagents are used in combination with recombinant proteins expressed in yeast...
  58. ncbi request reprint Biological and molecular comparisons of human (HM-175) and simian (AGM-27) hepatitis A viruses
    S U Emerson
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Hepatol 13:S144-5. 1991
    ..The extent of the differences suggests that hepatitis A viruses have a greater potential for diversity than previously assumed...
  59. ncbi request reprint An ELISA for putative neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis E virus detects antibodies to genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4
    Yi Hua Zhou
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 22:2578-85. 2004
    ..Since the ELISA appeared to be specific for neutralizing antibodies against HEV, it should be especially useful for quantifying the humoral immune response in hepatitis E vaccine trials...
  60. pmc Evidence for cross-genotype neutralization of hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles and enhancement of infectivity by apolipoprotein C1
    Jean Christophe Meunier
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4560-5. 2005
    ..Future studies of the in vivo role of apolipoprotein C1 might provide additional insights into the infection process of HCV...
  61. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 binds to CD81 of tamarins
    T Allander
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0740, USA
    Virology 277:358-67. 2000
    ..Thus, the HCV E2 interaction with CD81 is not limited to humans and chimpanzees and does not predict susceptibility to HCV infection...
  62. ncbi request reprint A truncated ORF2 protein contains the most immunogenic site on ORF2: antibody responses to non-vaccine sequences following challenge of vaccinated and non-vaccinated macaques with hepatitis E virus
    Yi Hua Zhou
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 23:3157-65. 2005
    ..Thus, only minor epitopes were excluded from the vaccine; they had limited utility for distinguishing between vaccination and infection...
  63. pmc A bicistronic subgenomic mRNA encodes both the ORF2 and ORF3 proteins of hepatitis E virus
    Judith Graff
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 80:5919-26. 2006
    ....
  64. pmc Identification of chimpanzee Fab fragments by repertoire cloning and production of a full-length humanized immunoglobulin G1 antibody that is highly efficient for neutralization of dengue type 4 virus
    Ruhe Men
    Molecular Viral Biology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:4665-74. 2004
    ..03 to 0.05 micro g/ml. The DENV-4 binding affinities were 0.42 nM for Fab 5H2 and 0.24 nM for full-length IgG1 5H2. Monoclonal antibody IgG1 5H2 may prove valuable for passive immunoprophylaxis against dengue virus in humans...
  65. pmc Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus
    Claro Yu
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Building 50, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol Methods 142:143-50. 2007
    ..However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens...
  66. ncbi request reprint Importance of amino acid 216 in nonstructural protein 2B for replication of hepatitis A virus in cell culture and in vivo
    Judith Graff
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Med Virol 71:7-17. 2003
    ..Attempts to complement wild-type 2B in trans with adapted 2B provided by co-infection with a second viable HAV mutant failed to enhance replication of the virus containing the wild-type 2B sequence...
  67. ncbi request reprint Pre-clinical immunogenicity and efficacy trial of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine
    Robert H Purcell
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 30333, USA
    Vaccine 21:2607-15. 2003
    ..The results of this pre-clinical trial of a candidate hepatitis E vaccine strongly suggest that it will be highly efficacious for preventing hepatitis E in the field trial of this vaccine that is currently in progress in Nepal...
  68. pmc In vitro and in vivo mutational analysis of the 3'-terminal regions of hepatitis e virus genomes and replicons
    Judith Graff
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, LID, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6535, 50 South Dr, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 79:1017-26. 2005
    ..Incorporation of the 3'-terminal sequences of the swine strain of HEV into the genotype 1 human strain did not enable the human strain to infect swine...
  69. ncbi request reprint Positive reactions on Western blots do not necessarily indicate the epitopes on antigens are continuous
    Yi Hua Zhou
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 85:73-8. 2007
    ..Therefore, positive reactions on Western blots do not necessarily indicate that epitopes are continuous and this caveat should be kept in mind while characterizing them...
  70. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis E
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1147-8. 2007
  71. pmc The p7 polypeptide of hepatitis C virus is critical for infectivity and contains functionally important genotype-specific sequences
    Akito Sakai
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:11646-51. 2003
    ..These data indicate that the amino- and/or carboxyl-terminal intraluminal tails of p7 contain sequences with genotype-specific function...
  72. pmc Mutations within potential glycosylation sites in the capsid protein of hepatitis E virus prevent the formation of infectious virus particles
    Judith Graff
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, LID, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Room 6537, Building 50, 50 South Drive, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 82:1185-94. 2008
    ..Overall, the data suggested that the mutations were lethal because they perturbed protein structure rather than because they eliminated glycosylation...
  73. pmc In vivo study of the HC-TN strain of hepatitis C virus recovered from a patient with fulminant hepatitis: RNA transcripts of a molecular clone (pHC-TN) are infectious in chimpanzees but not in Huh7.5 cells
    Akito Sakai
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 81:7208-19. 2007
    ..Subsequently, however, mutations emerged repeatedly in both animals. Overall, our results indicate that disease severity and outcome of acute HCV infection depend primarily on the host response...
  74. ncbi request reprint Human monoclonal antibodies that react with the E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus and possess neutralizing activity
    Darren J Schofield
    Hepatitis Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    Hepatology 42:1055-62. 2005
    ..In conclusion, one or more of these monoclonal antibodies may be useful in preventing infections by HCV belonging to genotype 1 or 2, the most medically important genotypes worldwide...
  75. pmc Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus
    Jean Christophe Meunier
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, LID, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 50, Rm 6537, 50 South Dr, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 82:966-73. 2008
    ..In addition, robust neutralization was also observed against cell culture-adapted viruses of genotypes 1a and 2a. Results from this study suggest that these MAbs may have the potential to prevent HCV infection...
  76. pmc Pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus and hepatitis C virus in chimpanzees: similarities and differences
    Claro Yu
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, 50 South Drive, Bldg 50, Rm 6523, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 84:11264-78. 2010
    ..The host response to HCV infection was more robust in the magnitude and number of differentially expressed genes compared to HEV infection...
  77. pmc Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins
    Shingo Takikawa
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:727-33. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate that prolonged GBV-B infection is associated with viral evolution...
  78. ncbi request reprint Running like water--the omnipresence of hepatitis E
    Suzanne U Emerson
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 351:2367-8. 2004
  79. pmc Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein
    Shingo Takikawa
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3345-50. 2006
    ....
  80. pmc Advantages of a single-cycle production assay to study cell culture-adaptive mutations of hepatitis C virus
    Rodney S Russell
    Hepatitis Viruses and Molecular Hepatitis Sections, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4370-5. 2008
    ..The E2 mutation had minimal effect on the amount of infectious virus released but probably enhanced entry into cells. In contrast, both the p7 and NS2 mutations independently increased the amount of virus released...
  81. pmc Reproduction in vitro of a quasispecies from a hepatitis C virus-infected patient and determination of factors that influence selection of a dominant species
    Kazunori Kawaguchi
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Building 50, Room 6537, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 85:3408-14. 2011
    ....
  82. pmc Hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins induce NADPH oxidase 4 expression in a transforming growth factor beta-dependent manner: a new contributor to HCV-induced oxidative stress
    Howard E Boudreau
    Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Virol 83:12934-46. 2009
    ..Collectively, these data provide evidence that HCV-induced Nox4 contributes to ROS production and may be related to HCV-induced liver disease...
  83. pmc The entire core protein of HCV JFH1 is required for efficient formation of infectious JFH1 pseudoparticles
    Priyanka Shukla
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8009, USA
    J Med Virol 82:783-90. 2010
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis E antibody seroconversion without disease in highly endemic rural Egyptian communities
    Sonia K Stoszek
    International Health Division, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 20201, USA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:89-94. 2006
    ....
  85. pmc In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U412, IFR 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14199-204. 2003
    ..The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C...
  86. ncbi request reprint Active surveillance for acute viral hepatitis in rural villages in the Nile Delta
    Fatma A Meky
    Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    Clin Infect Dis 42:628-33. 2006
    ..Because acute viral hepatitis has a wide clinical spectrum, we tested the hypothesis that many cases are undetected because of mild illness caused by initial, early-childhood exposure to hepatitis viruses...
  87. ncbi request reprint Long PCR amplification of large fragments of viral genomes: a technical overview
    Raymond Tellier
    Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Methods Mol Biol 226:167-72. 2003
  88. ncbi request reprint High prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in pregnant Egyptian women
    Sonia K Stoszek
    International Health Division, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 660W Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 20201, USA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:95-101. 2006
    ..Alternatively, the predominant HEV strain(s) in Egypt are less virulent than those in South Asia...
  89. pmc Apolipoprotein c1 association with hepatitis C virus
    Jean Christophe Meunier
    Viral Envelopes and Retrovirus Engineering, Human Virology Department, INSERM U758, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Virol 82:9647-56. 2008
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that ApoC1 associates intracellularly via its C-terminal region with surface components of virions during viral morphogenesis and may play a major role in the replication cycle of HCV...