Graeme Eisenhofer

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    N Engl J Med 340:1872-9. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Choice of biochemical test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: validation of plasma metanephrines
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Curr Hypertens Rep 4:250-5. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Plasma metanephrines in renal failure
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Kidney Int 67:668-77. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Biochemical and clinical manifestations of dopamine-producing paragangliomas: utility of plasma methoxytyramine
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2068-75. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Malignant pheochromocytoma: current status and initiatives for future progress
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 11:423-36. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Building 10, Room 6N 252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 91:35-62. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Catecholamine metabolism: a contemporary view with implications for physiology and medicine
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 56:331-49. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 display distinct biochemical and clinical phenotypes
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section and Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1999-2008. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Leaky catecholamine stores: undue waste or a stress response coping mechanism?
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1018:224-30. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Sympathetic nerve function--assessment by radioisotope dilution analysis
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 15:264-83. 2005

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    N Engl J Med 340:1872-9. 1999
    ..In this study we evaluated measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2...
  2. ncbi request reprint Choice of biochemical test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: validation of plasma metanephrines
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Curr Hypertens Rep 4:250-5. 2002
    ..Measurements of plasma concentrations of free metanephrines thereby promise more reliable and efficient diagnosis of pheochromocytoma than offered by conventional biochemical tests...
  3. ncbi request reprint Plasma metanephrines in renal failure
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Kidney Int 67:668-77. 2005
    ..The metanephrines may be measured as free metabolites or after a deconjugation step where measurements reflect mainly sulfate-conjugated metabolites. The influence of renal insufficiency states on these various measurements is unclear...
  4. ncbi request reprint Biochemical and clinical manifestations of dopamine-producing paragangliomas: utility of plasma methoxytyramine
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2068-75. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Malignant pheochromocytoma: current status and initiatives for future progress
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 11:423-36. 2004
    ..Again the success of this will require well-designed and coordinated multi-center studies...
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Building 10, Room 6N 252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 91:35-62. 2001
    ..Peripheral catecholamine transporters provide important targets for clinical imaging of sympathetic nerves and diagnostic localization and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, such as neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas...
  7. ncbi request reprint Catecholamine metabolism: a contemporary view with implications for physiology and medicine
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 56:331-49. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 display distinct biochemical and clinical phenotypes
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section and Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1999-2008. 2001
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Leaky catecholamine stores: undue waste or a stress response coping mechanism?
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1018:224-30. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Sympathetic nerve function--assessment by radioisotope dilution analysis
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Auton Res 15:264-83. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Front Horm Res 31:76-106. 2004
  12. ncbi request reprint Substantial production of dopamine in the human gastrointestinal tract
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1424, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3864-71. 1997
    ..The results show that mesenteric organs produce close to half of the dopamine formed in the body, most of which is unlikely to be derived from sympathetic nerves but may reflect production in a novel nonneuronal dopaminergic system...
  13. ncbi request reprint Plasma metanephrines are markers of pheochromocytoma produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase within tumors
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1424, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2175-85. 1998
    ..Some tumors do not secrete catecholamines, but all appear to metabolize catecholamines to free metanephrines, thus explaining the better sensitivity of plasma free metanephrines over other tests for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma...
  14. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytoma catecholamine phenotypes and prediction of tumor size and location by use of plasma free metanephrines
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Chem 51:735-44. 2005
    ..Measurements of plasma free metanephrines (normetanephrine and metanephrine) provide a useful test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and may provide other information about the nature of these tumors...
  15. ncbi request reprint Tyrosinase: a developmentally specific major determinant of peripheral dopamine
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Section on Clinical Neurocardiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    FASEB J 17:1248-55. 2003
    ..The transient nature of this source of dopamine reflects a developmental switch in tyrosinase-dependent production of dopamine to production of melanin...
  16. ncbi request reprint Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: how to distinguish true- from false-positive test results
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2656-66. 2003
    ..Patterns of biochemical test results and responses of plasma normetanephrine to clonidine can then help distinguish true- from false-positive results...
  17. ncbi request reprint Dopamine sulphate: an enigma resolved
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 26:S41-53. 1999
    ....
  18. pmc Comparison of 18F-fluoro-L-DOPA, 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose, and 18F-fluorodopamine PET and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in the localization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:4757-67. 2009
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations
    Tomas Zelinka
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, NICHD, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 15:311-23. 2008
    ..As for PET imaging, [(18)F]-FDG PET is highly recommended in SDHB mutation patients, whereas [(18)F]-FDA PET is recommended in patients without the mutation...
  20. ncbi request reprint Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have decreased epinephrine reserve and defective glycemic control during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise
    Liza Green-Golan
    National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1932, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3019-24. 2007
    ..Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have adrenomedullary dysplasia and hypofunction, and their lack of adrenomedullary reserve has been associated with a defective glucose response to brief high-intensity exercise...
  21. ncbi request reprint Sympathoadrenal function in patients with paroxysmal hypertension: pseudopheochromocytoma
    Yehonatan Sharabi
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Hypertens 25:2286-95. 2007
    ..We therefore examined sympathoadrenal function in patients with pseudopheochromocytoma compared with age-matched control subjects in whom there was no suspicion of pheochromocytoma...
  22. ncbi request reprint The role of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomography in the localization of adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
    Priya Kaji
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 10, CRC, 1 East, Room 1 3140, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1109, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Eur J Endocrinol 156:483-7. 2007
    ..Therefore, we investigated whether [(18)F]DA PET is more effective than [(123/131)I]MIBG scintigraphy in the diagnostic localization of VHL-related adrenal pheochromocytoma...
  23. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from normal adrenal glands by use of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology Program, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    J Nucl Med 48:1940-4. 2007
    ..6-(18)F-Fluorodopamine ((18)F-FDA) PET is a highly sensitive tool for the localization of pheochromocytoma (PHEO). The aim of this study was to establish cutoff values for pathologic and physiologic adrenal gland tracer uptake...
  24. doi request reprint Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma
    Edwin W Lai
    Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Endocrine 34:96-100. 2008
    ..Clinicians should be aware of these complaints in female pheochromocytoma patients and offer adequate treatment if indicated...
  25. ncbi request reprint Stress dose of hydrocortisone is not beneficial in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia undergoing short-term, high-intensity exercise
    Martina Weise
    Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3679-84. 2004
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 43:907-10. 2004
    ..It also confirms that functional imaging by 6-[18F]fluorodopamine or 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning can localize pheochromocytoma in difficult cases in which other imaging tests are not diagnostic...
  27. ncbi request reprint Cardiac uptake-1 inhibition by high circulating norepinephrine levels in patients with pheochromocytoma
    Basil A Eldadah
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Hypertension 43:1227-32. 2004
    ..The results call for caution in drawing quantitative conclusions about uptake-1 in the setting of high circulating concentrations of endogenous norepinephrine...
  28. pmc Biochemically silent abdominal paragangliomas in patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, CRC, Room 1 E 3140, Bethesda Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4826-32. 2008
    ..We report four cases of biochemically silent abdominal PGL, in which metanephrines were normal despite extensive disease...
  29. ncbi request reprint The effects of carbidopa on uptake of 6-18F-Fluoro-L-DOPA in PET of pheochromocytoma and extraadrenal abdominal paraganglioma
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    J Nucl Med 48:1599-606. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of (18)F-DOPA PET in the detection of paraganglioma and its metastatic lesions and to evaluate whether tracer uptake by the tumors is enhanced by carbidopa...
  30. ncbi request reprint Pubertal and gender-related changes in the sympathoadrenal system in healthy children
    Martina Weise
    Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NIH, Building 10, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 1932, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5038-43. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate a possible modulatory role of the adrenal medulla in the body weight-related timing of adrenarche and/or gonadarche...
  31. ncbi request reprint Transcriptional regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in pheochromocytomas from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    Thanh Truc Huynh
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Building 10, Room 6N252, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1073:241-52. 2006
    ..Microarray analysis, however, did indicate differences in expression of genes involved in neural crest cell lineage and chromaffin cell development, consistent with differential survival of PNMT-expressing cells in the two syndromes...
  32. ncbi request reprint Neuropeptide Y expression in phaeochromocytomas: relative absence in tumours from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
    Susannah Cleary
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Endocrinol 193:225-33. 2007
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma
    Frederieke M Brouwers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, CRC, Room 1E 1 3140, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1109, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1073:541-56. 2006
    ....
  34. pmc Use of 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine positron emission tomography (PET) as first-line investigation for the diagnosis and localization of non-metastatic and metastatic phaeochromocytoma (PHEO)
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71:11-7. 2009
    ..Our aim was to investigate the yield of (18)F-FDA PET vs. biochemical testing and other imaging techniques to establish the diagnosis and location of PHEO...
  35. ncbi request reprint Hypotension in a woman with a metastatic dopamine-secreting carotid body tumor
    Christian A Koch
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Endocr Pract 9:310-4. 2003
    ..To describe a woman with metastatic carotid body tumor in whom hypotension occurred in the setting of exceedingly high plasma dopamine levels...
  36. ncbi request reprint Clinical presentations, biochemical phenotypes, and genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B-associated pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, CRC, Room 1 E 3140, MSC 1109, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:779-86. 2007
    ..Mutations of the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) predispose to malignant paraganglioma (PGL). Recognition of the SDHB phenotype in apparently sporadic PGL directs appropriate treatment and family screening...
  37. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005
    Karel Pacak
    National Institute of Child Health and Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:92-102. 2007
    ..Inadequate methods to distinguish malignant from benign tumors and a lack of effective treatments for malignancy are important problems requiring further resolution...
  38. pmc Different expression of catecholamine transporters in phaeochromocytomas from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    Thanh Truc Huynh
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Eur J Endocrinol 153:551-63. 2005
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Usefulness of [18F]-DA and [18F]-DOPA for PET imaging in a mouse model of pheochromocytoma
    Lucia Martiniova
    Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 39:215-26. 2012
    ..Furthermore, to compare tumor detection by micro-computed tomography (microCT) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in individual mouse...
  40. ncbi request reprint Superiority of 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine positron emission tomography versus [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in the localization of metastatic pheochromocytoma
    Ioannis Ilias
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4083-7. 2003
    ..Thus, [(18)F]-DA PET was found to be a superior imaging method in patients with metastatic PHEO, in which correct detection of disease extension often determines the most appropriate therapeutic plan and future follow-up...
  41. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with special emphasis on MEN2 syndrome
    Karel Pacak
    Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology Program, Section of Medical Neuroendocrinology, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Hormones (Athens) 8:111-6. 2009
    ..Whether these data reflect PHEO cell dedifferentiation (e.g. losing Norepinephrine Transporter-NET) or increased metabolic rate remains to be established...
  42. ncbi request reprint Clinical catecholamine neurochemistry: a legacy of Julius Axelrod
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1620, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 26:695-702. 2006
    ..2. Here, we provide examples of this aspect of Axelrod's scientific legacy...
  43. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic dysautonomia in chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, USA
    Circulation 106:2358-65. 2002
    ..Whether these conditions involve abnormal cardiac sympathetic innervation or function has been unclear...
  44. ncbi request reprint Adrenomedullary function may predict phenotype and genotype in classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency
    Evangelia Charmandari
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3031-7. 2002
    ..Molecular genotype and plasma free metanephrine concentration predict phenotype with similar accuracy. Both methods are more accurate in the most severe forms of the disease...
  45. pmc Metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma related to primary tumor development in childhood or adolescence: significant link to SDHB mutations
    Kathryn S King
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    J Clin Oncol 29:4137-42. 2011
    ..To present data on the high rate of SDHB mutations in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma whose initial tumor presentation began in childhood or adolescence...
  46. pmc Staging and functional characterization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Department of Endocrinology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:700-8. 2012
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic imaging of pheochromocytoma
    Karel Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Front Horm Res 31:107-20. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have decreased epinephrine reserve and defective glucose elevation in response to high-intensity exercise
    Martina Weise
    Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:591-7. 2004
    ..Whether the combination of epinephrine and cortisol deficiency poses a risk for hypoglycemia and/or decreased endurance during long-term physical stress has to be determined...
  49. ncbi request reprint Utility of plasma free metanephrines for detecting childhood pheochromocytoma
    Martina Weise
    Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1955-60. 2002
    ..The findings indicate that plasma free metanephrines provide a sensitive tool for detection of pheochromocytoma in children. Age appropriate reference ranges should be used and gender differences should be considered...
  50. ncbi request reprint Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:800-11. 2003
    ..This article provides an update about plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites and the relevance of those levels to some issues in human health and disease...
  51. ncbi request reprint High frequency of SDHB germline mutations in patients with malignant catecholamine-producing paragangliomas: implications for genetic testing
    Frederieke M Brouwers
    Section of Medical Neuroendocrinology, Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:4505-9. 2006
    ..Mutations of the gene for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are associated with a high risk of malignancy, but establishing the precise contribution requires relatively large numbers of patients with well-defined malignancy...
  52. ncbi request reprint Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have elevated serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: potential clinical implications
    Evangelia Charmandari
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2114-20. 2002
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Aldose reductase: an aldehyde scavenging enzyme in the intraneuronal metabolism of norepinephrine in human sympathetic ganglia
    Minoru Kawamura
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Auton Neurosci 96:131-9. 2002
    ..These results suggest that aldose reductase may be important in metabolizing the potentially toxic aldehyde intermediate formed from norepinephrine in human sympathetic ganglia...
  54. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic denervation preceding motor signs in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Building 10, Room 6N252, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 76:S47-50. 2009
    ..The results lead us to hypothesize that cardiac noradrenergic denervation and decreased baroreflex-cardiovagal function may occur early in the pathogenesis of PD...
  55. ncbi request reprint Utility of plasma free metanephrines in diagnosis of factitious pheochromocytoma
    Aaron R Chidakel
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, W G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Endocr Pract 12:568-71. 2006
    ..To report a case of epinephrine-induced factitious pheochromocytoma in a young woman with a past medical history of Conn's syndrome...
  56. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytoma: rediscovery as a catecholamine-metabolizing tumor
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Endocr Pathol 14:193-212. 2003
    ..This review provides an update on the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, with emphasis on identifying and correcting relevant misconceptions about catecholamine metabolism...
  57. ncbi request reprint Proteomic profiling of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 pheochromocytomas reveals different expression of chromogranin B
    Frederieke M Brouwers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 14:463-71. 2007
    ..In light of these new findings, as well as existing evidence for differences between both types of pheochromocytomas, we propose that these tumors may have different developmental origins...
  58. ncbi request reprint Positron emission imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function using 18F-6-fluorodopamine: effects of chemical sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Hypertens 9:417-23. 1991
    ..Combined assessments of PET time-activity curves and plasma levels of metabolites of 18F-6-fluorodopamine constitute a new, potentially clinically applicable means by which to examine cardiac sympathetic function...
  59. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytoma as a catecholamine producing tumor: implications for clinical practice
    T Zelinka
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Stress 10:195-203. 2007
    ..Although prognosis after tumor resection is excellent, a significant proportion of pheochromocytomas recur, some as metastases. Thus, appropriate follow-up is mandatory...
  60. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma: the coming of age of positron emission tomography
    Karel Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NIH, Building 10, Room 9D42, 10 Center Drive MSC 1583, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 970:170-6. 2002
    ..In this report we provide an update regarding nuclear imaging of primary and metastatic pheochromocytoma, particularly using 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic scanning...
  61. doi request reprint Update on pediatric pheochromocytoma
    Bas Havekes
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892 1109, USA
    Pediatr Nephrol 24:943-50. 2009
    ..This article reviews recent advances in biochemistry, genetics, and imaging and outlines recommendations for improved evaluation and treatment of children with benign or malignant pheochromocytomas...
  62. ncbi request reprint Emergencies caused by pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, or ganglioneuroma
    Frederieke M Brouwers
    Section on Medical Neuroendocrinology, Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892 1109, USA
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 35:699-724, viii. 2006
    ..If they occur, they are often linked to catecholamine excess, paraneoplastic phenomena, or local tumor mass effect...
  63. ncbi request reprint Mutations associated with succinate dehydrogenase D-related malignant paragangliomas
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive Biology and Adult Endocrinology Program, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 68:561-6. 2008
    ..Recently, however, malignant PGLs were also reported among a small minority of Dutch carriers of the SDHD founder mutation D92Y. The aim of the study was to investigate which SDHD mutations are associated with malignant PGL...
  64. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma
    Shoichiro Ohta
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892 1583, USA
    Int J Cancer 114:139-43. 2005
    ..Thus, we conclude that altered function of these metastasis suppressor gene pathways may play an important role in the malignant behavior of pheochromocytoma...
  65. ncbi request reprint Norepinephrine spillover from human adipose tissue before and after a 72-hour fast
    J N Patel
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3373-7. 2002
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Plasma metanephrines: a novel and cost-effective test for pheochromocytoma
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Braz J Med Biol Res 33:1157-69. 2000
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Dysautonomias: clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive MSC 1620, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:753-63. 2002
    ..Dysautonomias are an important subject in clinical neurocardiology...
  68. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic denervation preceding motor signs in Parkinson disease
    David S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Clin Auton Res 17:118-21. 2007
    ..The results lead us to hypothesize that cardiac noradrenergic denervation and decreased baroreflex-cardiovagal function may occur early in the pathogenesis of PD...
  69. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling of rat pheochromocytoma
    Abdel G Elkahloun
    Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 50, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1073:290-9. 2006
    ..Cross-comparison with a human pheochromocytoma database showed greater than 60% correlation. Results of this study reveal both generic and specific parallels between rat and human pheochromocytomas...
  70. ncbi request reprint Dopamine lesion-induced changes in subthalamic nucleus activity are not associated with alterations in firing rate or pattern in layer V neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex in anesthetized rats
    Louise C Parr-Brownlie
    Neurophysiological Pharmacology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 35 Convent Drive, Building 35 Room 1C 905, Bethesda, MD 20892 3702, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1925-39. 2007
    ..Data show that alterations in STN activity in the dopamine-lesioned hemisphere are not associated with alterations in neuronal activity in layer V of the anterior cingulate cortex in anesthetized rats...
  71. ncbi request reprint Functional imaging of endocrine tumors: role of positron emission tomography
    Karel Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9D42, 10 Center Drive MSC 1583, Bethesda, MD 20892 1583, USA
    Endocr Rev 25:568-80. 2004
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Current approaches and new advances in endocrine hypertension
    Karel Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:96-7. 2002
  73. doi request reprint Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) promotes neuroendocrine differentiation of chromaffin pheochromocytoma PC12 cells
    Alexander W Krug
    Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Medical Clinic III, University of Dresden, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 300:126-31. 2009
    ..Our study provides support for the notion that adrenocortical-derived DHEA-S impacts adrenomedullary chromaffin cells during development and differentiation...
  74. pmc Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in vivo
    S R Bornstein
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:14742-7. 2000
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Implications of plasma levels of catechols in the evaluation of sympathoadrenomedullary function
    D S Goldstein
    Hypertension-Endocrine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Am J Hypertens 2:133S-139S. 1989
    ..Positron emission tomography after injection of positron-emitting fluorodopamine may allow in vivo, noninvasive assessments of regional sympathetic function...
  76. doi request reprint Adrenomedullary function in patients with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    S Verma
    the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Horm Metab Res 42:607-12. 2010
    ..The degree of epinephrine deficiency in patients with CAH is associated with the severity of adrenocortical dysfunction, as well as glucocorticoid therapy...
  77. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic nerve function in congestive heart failure
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1424, USA
    Circulation 93:1667-76. 1996
    ..This study used a comprehensive neurochemical approach to examine the mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities...
  78. ncbi request reprint Adrenomedullary function is severely impaired in 21-hydroxylase-deficient mice
    S R Bornstein
    Section on Endocrine Physiology, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    FASEB J 13:1185-94. 1999
    ..This hitherto unrecognized mechanism may contribute to the frequent clinical, mental, and therapeutic problems encountered in humans with this genetic disease...
  79. ncbi request reprint Acidic dopamine metabolites are actively extruded from PC12 cells by a novel sulfonylurea-sensitive transporter
    I Lamensdorf
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 361:654-64. 2000
    ..These results show that acidic dopamine metabolites are actively secreted from dopaminergic cells into surrounding extracellular fluid by a previously undescribed transporter...
  80. ncbi request reprint Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:2523-31. 1999
    ..The findings suggest an enzymatic gut-blood barrier for detoxifying exogenous dopamine and delimiting autocrine/paracrine effects of endogenous dopamine generated in a "third catecholamine system."..
  81. ncbi request reprint Metabolic stress in PC12 cells induces the formation of the endogenous dopaminergic neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
    I Lamensdorf
    CNS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurosci Res 60:552-8. 2000
    ..The rapid appearance of DOPAL and DOPET after inhibition of complex I may be a useful early index of oxidative stress in DA-forming neurons...
  82. ncbi request reprint Chromogranin a expression in phaeochromocytomas associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    S Cleary
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Horm Metab Res 39:876-83. 2007
    ..Alternatively the differences in expression in CGA and other secretory constituents may reflect downregulation of the entire regulated secretory pathway in VHL compared to MEN 2 tumours...
  83. ncbi request reprint Norepinephrine spillover in forearm and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after eating
    J N Patel
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:2815-9. 1999
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Effect of glipizide on dopamine synthesis, release and metabolism in PC12 cells
    I Lamensdorf
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 388:147-54. 2000
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde potentiates the toxic effects of metabolic stress in PC12 cells
    I Lamensdorf
    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, NINDS, Building 10, Room 6N252, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1620, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Brain Res 868:191-201. 2000
    ....
  86. ncbi request reprint Distinct gene expression profiles in norepinephrine- and epinephrine-producing hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytomas: activation of hypoxia-driven angiogenic pathways in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
    G Eisenhofer
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 11:897-911. 2004
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Chromaffin cell function and structure is impaired in corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1-null mice
    M Yoshida-Hiroi
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 7:967-74. 2002
    ..In conclusion, CRHR1 is required for a normal chromaffin cell structure and function and deletion of this gene is associated with a significant impairment of epinephrine biosynthesis...
  88. ncbi request reprint Non-neuronal dopamine in the gastrointestinal system
    E Mezey
    Basic Neuroscience Program, NINDS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 26:S14-22. 1999
    ..4. Because DA, its biosynthetic enzymes and its transporters are also found in parietal cells in the human stomach, a mucosal protective system involving DA could be important clinically...
  89. ncbi request reprint A "pheo" lurks: novel approaches for locating occult pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1583, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3641-6. 2001
    ..These novel approaches may be of value in difficult cases, where biochemical and clinical evidence of pheochromocytoma is compelling, yet conventional imaging modalities fail to locate the tumor...
  90. ncbi request reprint Plasma levels of catechols and metanephrines in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    D S Goldstein
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
    Neurology 60:1327-32. 2003
    ..From the concept of a unitary sympathoadrenomedullary system, one might predict parallel sympathoneural and adrenomedullary abnormalities in NOH...
  91. ncbi request reprint 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Hypertension 38:6-8. 2001
    ..These findings justify a clinical trial of 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning as a diagnostic tool...
  92. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment of pheochromocytoma
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9D42, 10 Center Drive MSC 1583, Bethesda, MD 20892 1583, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:315-29. 2001
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour
    K Pacak
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Intern Med 257:60-8. 2005
    ..g. tumours larger than 5 cm). Laparoscopic surgery is the treatment of choice and subtotal (cortical-sparing) adrenalectomy is the procedure of choice in bilateral pheochromocytomas...
  94. ncbi request reprint Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma
    F M Brouwers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1109, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 12:263-72. 2005
    ..In the future, measurement of these biomarkers could be potentially used to improve the ability to identify patients with metastatic disease...
  95. ncbi request reprint Pheochromocytoma as an endocrine emergency
    Frederieke M Brouwers
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, University Medical Center, St Radboud Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 4:121-8. 2003
  96. ncbi request reprint Impaired adrenal catecholamine system function in mice with deficiency of the ascorbic acid transporter (SVCT2)
    Stefan R Bornstein
    Endocrinology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    FASEB J 17:1928-30. 2003
    ..The data, however, establish a crucial role for ascorbic acid in adrenal chromaffin cell function...
  97. ncbi request reprint Editorial: biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma--is it time to switch to plasma-free metanephrines?
    Graeme Eisenhofer
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:550-2. 2003
  98. ncbi request reprint New advances in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: moving beyond catecholamines
    Jacques W M Lenders
    Department of Internal Medicine, St Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 970:29-40. 2002
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Increased cardiac sympathetic drive in renovascular hypertension
    Magnus J Petersson
    Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Hypertens 20:1181-7. 2002
    ..Patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In these patients, overall sympathetic nerve activity is increased. It is unknown, however, whether this increase also involves the heart...
  100. ncbi request reprint Long-term outcome in relation to renal sympathetic activity in patients with chronic heart failure
    Magnus Petersson
    Department of Cardiology, The Cardiovascular Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S 413 45 Goteborg, Sweden
    Eur Heart J 26:906-13. 2005
    ..We assessed the hypothesis that renal noradrenaline (NA) spillover is a predictor of the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and heart transplantation in CHF...
  101. ncbi request reprint Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
    Henri J L M Timmers
    Reproductive Biology and Medicine Branch, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda MD 20892 1109, USA
    J Clin Oncol 25:2262-9. 2007
    ..Timely and accurate localization of these aggressive tumors is critical for guiding optimal treatment. Our aim is to evaluate the performance of functional imaging modalities in the detection of metastatic lesions of SDHB-associated PGL...