J N Crawley

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: experimental design and evaluation of general health, sensory functions, motor abilities, and specific behavioral tests
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 10, Room 4D11, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Brain Res 835:18-26. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of galanin in feeding behavior
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Neuropeptides 33:369-75. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint Minireview. Galanin-acetylcholine interactions: relevance to memory and Alzheimer's disease
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1380, USA
    Life Sci 58:2185-99. 1996
  4. ncbi request reprint Neurogranin null mutant mice display performance deficits on spatial learning tasks with anxiety related components
    T Miyakawa
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1375, USA
    Hippocampus 11:763-75. 2001
  5. pmc Mouse model of GM2 activator deficiency manifests cerebellar pathology and motor impairment
    Y Liu
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:8138-43. 1997
  6. pmc A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder
    Y Liu
    Genetics of Development and Disease Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 103:497-505. 1999
  7. pmc Bone marrow transplantation prolongs life span and ameliorates neurologic manifestations in Sandhoff disease mice
    F Norflus
    Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 101:1881-8. 1998
  8. ncbi request reprint Mice lacking both subunits of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase display gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis
    K Sango
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1810, USA
    Nat Genet 14:348-52. 1996
  9. ncbi request reprint Galanin receptor antagonist M40 blocks galanin-induced choice accuracy deficits on a delayed-nonmatching-to-position task
    M P McDonald
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:1025-32. 1996
  10. ncbi request reprint Galanin peptide levels in hippocampus and cortex of galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice evaluated for cognitive performance
    C C Wrenn
    Section on Behavioral Genomics, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuropeptides 36:413-26. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: experimental design and evaluation of general health, sensory functions, motor abilities, and specific behavioral tests
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 10, Room 4D11, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Brain Res 835:18-26. 1999
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of galanin in feeding behavior
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Neuropeptides 33:369-75. 1999
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Minireview. Galanin-acetylcholine interactions: relevance to memory and Alzheimer's disease
    J N Crawley
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1380, USA
    Life Sci 58:2185-99. 1996
    ..Selective galanin receptor antagonists provide a novel approach for increasing cholinergic function, as a potential adjunct to the clinical treatment of dementias...
  4. ncbi request reprint Neurogranin null mutant mice display performance deficits on spatial learning tasks with anxiety related components
    T Miyakawa
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1375, USA
    Hippocampus 11:763-75. 2001
    ..These findings of apparent deficits in spatial learning and anxiety-like tendencies in Ng -/- support a role for neurogranin in the hippocampally-mediated interaction between stress and performance...
  5. pmc Mouse model of GM2 activator deficiency manifests cerebellar pathology and motor impairment
    Y Liu
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:8138-43. 1997
    ..The results demonstrate that the activator protein is required for GM2 degradation and also may indicate a role for the GM2 activator in GA2 degradation...
  6. pmc A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder
    Y Liu
    Genetics of Development and Disease Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 103:497-505. 1999
    ..The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations...
  7. pmc Bone marrow transplantation prolongs life span and ameliorates neurologic manifestations in Sandhoff disease mice
    F Norflus
    Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 101:1881-8. 1998
    ..These results may be important for the design of treatment approaches for the GM2 gangliosidoses...
  8. ncbi request reprint Mice lacking both subunits of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase display gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis
    K Sango
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1810, USA
    Nat Genet 14:348-52. 1996
    ..This result demonstrates that glycosaminoglycans are crucial substrates for beta-hexosaminidase and that their lack of storage in Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases is due to functional redundancy in the beta-hexosaminidase enzyme system...
  9. ncbi request reprint Galanin receptor antagonist M40 blocks galanin-induced choice accuracy deficits on a delayed-nonmatching-to-position task
    M P McDonald
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Behav Neurosci 110:1025-32. 1996
    ..M40 appears to be an effective galanin antagonist in a rodent memory paradigm, indicating that this compound may prove useful in investigating the role of endogenous galanin in learning and memory...
  10. ncbi request reprint Galanin peptide levels in hippocampus and cortex of galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice evaluated for cognitive performance
    C C Wrenn
    Section on Behavioral Genomics, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuropeptides 36:413-26. 2002
    ..Several interpretations of these findings are discussed, including the possibility that a threshold level of galanin overexpression is sufficient to impair performance on learning and memory tasks in mice...
  11. ncbi request reprint Mice expressing only monosialoganglioside GM3 exhibit lethal audiogenic seizures
    H Kawai
    Genetics of Development and Disease Branch, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:6885-8. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate unequivocally that gangliosides play an essential role in the proper functioning of the CNS...
  12. ncbi request reprint Abnormal anxiety-related behavior in serotonin transporter null mutant mice: the influence of genetic background
    A Holmes
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 10, Room 4D11, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 2:365-80. 2003
    ..Furthermore, these data highlight the utility of conducting behavioral phenotyping of mutant mice on multiple genetic backgrounds...
  13. ncbi request reprint Behavioral profiles of inbred strains on novel olfactory, spatial and emotional tests for reference memory in mice
    A Holmes
    Section on Behavioral Genomics, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda MD 20892 1375, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 1:55-69. 2002
    ..A DBA/2J background may be particularly useful for investigating the genetic basis of emotional memory using fear conditioning...
  14. pmc Unusual repertoire of vocalizations in adult BTBR T+tf/J mice during three types of social encounters
    M L Scattoni
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 10:44-56. 2011
    ..Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared with B6...
  15. ncbi request reprint Analysis of galanin and the galanin antagonist M40 on delayed non-matching-to-position performance in rats lesioned with the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin
    M P McDonald
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Behav Neurosci 111:552-63. 1997
    ..These results suggest that excess galanin can produce further deficits in DNMTP performance in a lesion model of AD, but blocking endogenous galanin is not sufficient alone to improve performance in lesioned rats...
  16. pmc Alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunits are not necessary for hippocampal-dependent learning or sensorimotor gating: a behavioral characterization of Acra7-deficient mice
    R Paylor
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 5:302-16. 1998
    ..Future studies will examine the contribution of alpha7 nAChR to the enhancement of learning and sensorimotor gating following nicotine treatments...
  17. ncbi request reprint Motor deficits in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 null mutant mice
    M P McDonald
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 12:477-86. 2001
    ..Simple, robust behavioural symptoms, such as poor rotorod performance in Fgfr3 knockout mice, can provide useful surrogate markers to evaluate pharmacological treatments and gene therapies for human genetic diseases...
  18. pmc Reduced ultrasonic vocalizations in vasopressin 1b knockout mice
    M L Scattoni
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Behav Brain Res 187:371-8. 2008
    ..These results indicate that Avpr1b null mutant mice are impaired in the modulation of ultrasonic vocalizations within different social contexts at infant and adult ages...
  19. ncbi request reprint Pharmacological evidence supporting a role for galanin in cognition and affect
    C C Wrenn
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1375, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 25:283-99. 2001
    ..6. Intraventricular galanin has anxiolytic effects in a punished drinking test. Intra-amygdala galanin has anxiogenic effects in a punished drinking test...
  20. ncbi request reprint Behavioral characterization of dopamine D5 receptor null mutant mice
    A Holmes
    Section on Behavioral Genomics, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1375, USA
    Behav Neurosci 115:1129-44. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Autism-like behavioral phenotypes in BTBR T+tf/J mice
    H G McFarlane
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3730, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 7:152-63. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Social interaction and sensorimotor gating abnormalities in mice lacking Dvl1
    N Lijam
    Laboratory of Genetic Disease Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell 90:895-905. 1997
    ..These results are consistent with an interpretation that common genetic mechanisms underlie abnormal social behavior and sensorimotor gating deficits and implicate Dvl1 in processes underlying complex behaviors...
  23. pmc Galanin impairs cognitive abilities in rodents: relevance to Alzheimer's disease
    J N Crawley
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Porter Neuroscience Research, Center Building 35, Room 1C 903, Mail Code 3730, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3730, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:1836-41. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Learning impairments and motor dysfunctions in adult Lhx5-deficient mice displaying hippocampal disorganization
    R Paylor
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 4D11, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Physiol Behav 73:781-92. 2001
    ..These results reveal functional outcomes of Lhx5 gene deletion on the integrity of hippocampal neuroanatomy and behavior in the adult mouse...
  25. pmc AMPAKINE enhancement of social interaction in the BTBR mouse model of autism
    J L Silverman
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3730, USA
    Neuropharmacology 64:268-82. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'...
  26. pmc Dysbindin-1 modulates prefrontal cortical activity and schizophrenia-like behaviors via dopamine/D2 pathways
    F Papaleo
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 17:85-98. 2012
    ..These results elucidate dysbindin's modulation of D2-related behavior, cortical activity and mPFC CaMK components, implicating cellular and molecular mechanisms of the association of dysbindin with psychosis...
  27. ncbi request reprint Galanin microinjected into the medial septum inhibits scopolamine-induced acetylcholine overflow in the rat ventral hippocampus
    J K Robinson
    Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res 709:81-7. 1996
    ..These results are consistent with an interpretation that galanin terminals synapsing on cholinergic cell bodies of the basal forebrain may serve to inhibit the release of acetylcholine in the terminal fields of the cholinergic neurons...
  28. pmc Low stress reactivity and neuroendocrine factors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism
    J L Silverman
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuroscience 171:1197-208. 2010
    ..Our findings support the interpretation that autism-relevant social deficits, vocalizations, and repetitive behaviors are not the result of abnormal stress reactivity in the BTBR mouse model of autism...
  29. pmc Reduced scent marking and ultrasonic vocalizations in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism
    M Wohr
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 10:35-43. 2011
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response
    R Paylor
    Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1375, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 132:169-80. 1997
    ..There was no correlation between the level of prepulse inhibition and the amplitude of the startle response. These findings indicate that inbred strains of mice may be a useful tool to study the genetic basis of sensorimotor gating...
  31. ncbi request reprint Opioidergic and dopaminergic gene expression in the caudate-putamen and accumbens of the mutant mouse, tottering (tg/tg)
    A de Bartolomeis
    Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 46:321-4. 1997
    ..No differences were observed in the expression of dynorphin and D2 receptor mRNA distribution in brain regions examined in the mutant mice as compared to wild-type controls...
  32. ncbi request reprint Biochemical and morphometric analyses show that myelination in the insulin-like growth factor 1 null brain is proportionate to its neuronal composition
    C M Cheng
    Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 18:5673-81. 1998
    ..These data make a strong case for the primacy of axonal factors, not including IGF1, in determining oligodendrocyte survival and myelination...
  33. ncbi request reprint Atm-deficient mice: a paradigm of ataxia telangiectasia
    C Barlow
    Laboratory of Genetic Disease Research, National Center for Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell 86:159-71. 1996
    ..Atm-disrupted mice recapitulate the ataxia telangiectasia phenotype in humans, providing a mammalian model in which to study the pathophysiology of this pleiotropic disorder...
  34. ncbi request reprint Galanin impairs cognitive abilities in rodents: relevance to Alzheimer's disease
    J N Crawley
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, Building 35, Room 1C 903, Mail Code 3730, Bethesda, MA 208923730, USA
    EXS 102:133-41. 2010
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Pain responses, anxiety and aggression in mice deficient in pre-proenkephalin
    M Konig
    Unit on Developmental Biology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section on Neuroanatomy, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 383:535-8. 1996
    ..Unexpectedly, enk-/- mice exhibit normal stress-induced analgesia. Our results show that enkephalins modulate responses to painful stimuli. Thus, genetic factors may contribute significantly to the experience of pain...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mouse models of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases differ in neurologic phenotype and ganglioside metabolism
    K Sango
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 11:170-6. 1995
    ..In contrast, the Sandhoff model was severely affected. The phenotypic difference between the two mouse models is the result of differences in the ganglioside degradation pathway between mice and humans...
  37. ncbi request reprint Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in cerebellar Purkinje neurons of the mutant tottering and leaner mouse
    M C Austin
    Unit on Behavioral Neuropharmarcology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 15:227-40. 1992
    ..The present findings demonstrate that the classically GABAergic Purkinje cells in the cerebellum express low levels of TH, and that the mutant tottering and leaner strains of mice express extremely high levels of mRNA and protein for TH...
  38. ncbi request reprint Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice
    S S Moy
    North Carolina STAART Center for Autism Research, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 3:287-302. 2004
    ..This new standardized procedure to quantitate sociability and preference for social novelty in mice provides a method to assess tendencies for social avoidance in mouse models of autism...
  39. pmc Selectively enhanced contextual fear conditioning in mice lacking the transcriptional regulator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta
    E Sterneck
    Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Section, Advanced BioScience Laboratories Basic Research Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10908-13. 1998
    ..These data demonstrate a selectively enhanced contextual fear response in mice carrying a targeted genomic mutation and implicate C/EBPdelta in the regulation of a specific type of learning and memory...
  40. pmc Impaired learning and motor behavior in heterozygous Pafah1b1 (Lis1) mutant mice
    R Paylor
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Learn Mem 6:521-37. 1999
    ..The behavioral findings also support the use of the Lis1 mutant mice as a model from human type 1 lissencephaly...
  41. ncbi request reprint Galanin: neurobiologic mechanisms and therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease
    S E Counts
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, 2242 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    CNS Drug Rev 7:445-70. 2001
    ..This information will be critical to understanding whether pharmacological manipulation of GALRs would be effective for the amelioration of cognitive deficits in AD...
  42. pmc Galanin transgenic mice display cognitive and neurochemical deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease
    R A Steiner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7290, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4184-9. 2001
    ..These results suggest that elevated expression of galanin contributes to the neurochemical and cognitive impairments characteristic of AD...
  43. pmc Targeted disruption of the Hexa gene results in mice with biochemical and pathologic features of Tay-Sachs disease
    S Yamanaka
    Section on Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9975-9. 1994
    ..This model may also be valuable for studying the biochemical and pathologic changes occurring during the course of the disease...
  44. ncbi request reprint Automated apparatus for quantitation of social approach behaviors in mice
    J J Nadler
    Department of Genetics, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, North Carolina STAART Center for Autism Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7264, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 3:303-14. 2004
    ..The automated equipment provides an accurate and objective approach to measuring social tendencies in mice. Its use may allow higher-throughput scoring of mouse social behaviors in mouse models of social dysfunction...
  45. ncbi request reprint Ectopic galanin expression and normal galanin receptor 2 and galanin receptor 3 mRNA levels in the forebrain of galanin transgenic mice
    B He
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neuroscience 133:371-80. 2005
    ..The GAL-tg mouse model may provide a useful tool for the investigation of GAL ligand-receptor relationships and their role in normal cognitive and affective functions as well as in the onset of neurological disease...
  46. ncbi request reprint Hyperalgesia and increased neuropathic pain-like response in mice lacking galanin receptor 1 receptors
    K H Blakeman
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Technology, Division of Clinical Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroscience 117:221-7. 2003
    ..The results provide some evidence for an inhibitory function for the neuropeptide galanin acting on galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) in nociception and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury in mice...
  47. ncbi request reprint Mice lacking the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor are hypophagic and lean
    M Yamada
    Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Nature 410:207-12. 2001
    ..Our data indicate that there may be a cholinergic pathway that involves M3-receptor-mediated facilitation of food intake at a site downstream of the hypothalamic leptin/melanocortin system and upstream of the MCH system...