Peter L Collins

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Impairment of the CD8+ T cell response in lungs following infection with human respiratory syncytial virus is specific to the anatomical site rather than the virus, antigen, or route of infection
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virol J 5:105. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Respiratory syncytial virus: virology, reverse genetics, and pathogenesis of disease
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6517, 50 South Dr MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD, 20892 8007, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 372:3-38. 2013
  3. pmc Progress in understanding and controlling respiratory syncytial virus: still crazy after all these years
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virus Res 162:80-99. 2011
  4. pmc Mutation of the elongin C binding domain of human respiratory syncytial virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) results in degradation of NS1 and attenuation of the virus
    Claire P Straub
    The University of Queensland, Clinical Medical Virology Centre, QLD 4072, Australia
    Virol J 8:252. 2011
  5. pmc Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75
    Baibaswata Nayak
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
    Virol J 5:124. 2008
  6. pmc Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9
    Arthur S Samuel
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
    Vet Res 42:38. 2011
  7. pmc New generation live vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus designed by reverse genetics
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 2:166-73. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Respiratory syncytial virus: reverse genetics and vaccine strategies
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0720, USA
    Virology 296:204-11. 2002
  9. pmc Viral and host factors in human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis
    Peter L Collins
    NIAID, NIH, 50 South Drive, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 82:2040-55. 2008
  10. pmc Chimeric recombinant human metapneumoviruses with the nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein open reading frame replaced by that of avian metapneumovirus exhibit improved growth in vitro and attenuation in vivo
    Quynh N Pham
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:15114-22. 2005

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Impairment of the CD8+ T cell response in lungs following infection with human respiratory syncytial virus is specific to the anatomical site rather than the virus, antigen, or route of infection
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virol J 5:105. 2008
    ..It was suggested that the impairment specifically suppressed the host cellular immune response, a finding that could help explain the ability of RSV to re-infect throughout life...
  2. doi request reprint Respiratory syncytial virus: virology, reverse genetics, and pathogenesis of disease
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6517, 50 South Dr MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD, 20892 8007, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 372:3-38. 2013
    ..However, development of subunit or other protein-based vaccines for pediatric use is hampered by the possibility of enhanced disease and the difficulty of reliably demonstrating its absence in preclinical studies...
  3. pmc Progress in understanding and controlling respiratory syncytial virus: still crazy after all these years
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virus Res 162:80-99. 2011
    ..Vaccines and new antiviral drugs are in pre-clinical and clinical development, but controlling RSV remains a formidable challenge...
  4. pmc Mutation of the elongin C binding domain of human respiratory syncytial virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) results in degradation of NS1 and attenuation of the virus
    Claire P Straub
    The University of Queensland, Clinical Medical Virology Centre, QLD 4072, Australia
    Virol J 8:252. 2011
    ..It has been proposed that NS1 binds to elongin C to form a ubiquitin ligase (E3) complex that targets STAT2 for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation...
  5. pmc Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75
    Baibaswata Nayak
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
    Virol J 5:124. 2008
    ..Newcastle disease virus represents APMV-1 and is the most characterized among all APMV types. Very little is known about the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of APMV 2-9...
  6. pmc Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9
    Arthur S Samuel
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
    Vet Res 42:38. 2011
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology...
  7. pmc New generation live vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus designed by reverse genetics
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 2:166-73. 2005
    ..This would obviate the difficulties inherent in the fragility and inefficient in vitro growth of RSV, simplifying vaccine design and use...
  8. ncbi request reprint Respiratory syncytial virus: reverse genetics and vaccine strategies
    Peter L Collins
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0720, USA
    Virology 296:204-11. 2002
  9. pmc Viral and host factors in human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis
    Peter L Collins
    NIAID, NIH, 50 South Drive, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 82:2040-55. 2008
  10. pmc Chimeric recombinant human metapneumoviruses with the nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein open reading frame replaced by that of avian metapneumovirus exhibit improved growth in vitro and attenuation in vivo
    Quynh N Pham
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:15114-22. 2005
    ..Both chimeras were comparable to wild-type HMPV in immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Thus, the P chimera is a promising live HMPV vaccine candidate that paradoxically combines improved growth in vitro with attenuation in vivo...
  11. pmc Deletion of M2 gene open reading frames 1 and 2 of human metapneumovirus: effects on RNA synthesis, attenuation, and immunogenicity
    Ursula J Buchholz
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:6588-97. 2005
    ..The HMPV rdeltaM2-2 virus is a promising and highly attenuated HMPV vaccine candidate...
  12. ncbi request reprint Mucosal immunisation of African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with an attenuated parainfluenza virus expressing the SARS coronavirus spike protein for the prevention of SARS
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Lancet 363:2122-7. 2004
    ..We have developed an experimental SARS vaccine for direct immunisation of the respiratory tract, the major site of SARS- coronavirus transmission and disease...
  13. pmc Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 2 with mutations in V that permit cellular interferon signaling are not attenuated in non-human primates
    Anne Schaap-Nutt
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, RNA Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 406:65-79. 2010
    ..This indicates that loss of HPIV2's ability to inhibit IFN signaling is insufficient to attenuate virus replication in vivo as long as IFN induction is still inhibited...
  14. pmc Infection of nonhuman primates with recombinant human metapneumovirus lacking the SH, G, or M2-2 protein categorizes each as a nonessential accessory protein and identifies vaccine candidates
    Stephane Biacchesi
    National Institutes of Health, NIAID, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:12608-13. 2005
    ..The deltaG and deltaM2-2 viruses are promising vaccine candidates that are based on independent mechanisms of attenuation and are appropriate for clinical evaluation...
  15. pmc Infection and maturation of monocyte-derived human dendritic cells by human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and human parainfluenza virus type 3
    Cyril Le Nouen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 385:169-82. 2009
    ..Maturation by these viruses was anti-apoptotic. Inefficient infection of IDC and sub-optimal maturation might result in reduced immune responses, but these effects would be common to all three viruses rather than specific to HRSV...
  16. pmc A novel human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) with separated P and C genes is useful for generating C gene mutants for evaluation as live-attenuated virus vaccine candidates
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, RNA Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 2007, USA
    Vaccine 28:767-79. 2010
    ..rHPIV1-C(Delta 84-85)+P will be investigated as a potential live-attenuated vaccine candidate for HPIV1...
  17. pmc The two major human metapneumovirus genetic lineages are highly related antigenically, and the fusion (F) protein is a major contributor to this antigenic relatedness
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6511, 50 South Dr, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 78:6927-37. 2004
    ....
  18. pmc Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge
    Alexander Bukreyev
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 383:348-61. 2009
    ..Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV...
  19. pmc Contributions of the structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to protective immunity
    Ursula J Buchholz
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9804-9. 2004
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 345:492-501. 2006
    ..Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen...
  21. pmc Generation of recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine candidates by importation of temperature-sensitive and attenuating mutations from heterologous paramyxoviruses
    Jason T Newman
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:2017-28. 2004
    ..Thus, importation of attenuating mutations from heterologous viruses is an effective means for rapidly identifying mutations that attenuate HPIV1 and for generating live-attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates...
  22. pmc Recombinant human Metapneumovirus lacking the small hydrophobic SH and/or attachment G glycoprotein: deletion of G yields a promising vaccine candidate
    Stephane Biacchesi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 78:12877-87. 2004
    ..This indicates that SH is completely dispensable in vivo and that its deletion does not confer an attenuating effect, at least in this rodent model...
  23. pmc Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 81:6379-88. 2007
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model...
  24. ncbi request reprint Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics
    Ursula J Buchholz
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6505, 50 South Dr MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:695-706. 2006
    ..Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed...
  25. pmc Effects of human respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 3 and influenza virus on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells
    Cyril Le Nouen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e15017. 2010
    ..One causative factor is thought to be viral interference with dendritic cell (DC)-mediated stimulation of CD4+ T cells...
  26. pmc A single intranasal inoculation with a paramyxovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs against a lethal-dose Ebola virus challenge
    Alexander Bukreyev
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:2267-79. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Sendai virus, a murine parainfluenza virus type 1, replicates to a level similar to human PIV1 in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys and chimpanzees
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 297:153-60. 2002
    ..Its ability to efficiently replicate in nonhuman primates suggests that MPIV1 lacks a significant host range restriction in primates and could theoretically cause zoonotic disease in humans...
  28. pmc Human parainfluenza virus type 1 C proteins are nonessential proteins that inhibit the host interferon and apoptotic responses and are required for efficient replication in nonhuman primates
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 82:8965-77. 2008
    ..Thus, the C proteins of HPIV1 are nonessential but have anti-IFN and antiapoptosis activities required for virulence in primates...
  29. pmc Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Virol J 4:67. 2007
    ..These mutations were evaluated on the HPIV1 backbone, both individually and in combination, for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs)...
  30. ncbi request reprint Human parainfluenza virus type I (HPIV1) vaccine candidates designed by reverse genetics are attenuated and efficacious in African green monkeys
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 6511, 50 South Drive MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 23:4631-46. 2005
    ..One genetically and phenotypically stable vaccine candidate, rC(R84G/F170S)L(Y942A/L992C), was attenuated and efficacious in AGMs and is a promising live attenuated intranasal HPIV1 vaccine candidate suitable for clinical evaluation...
  31. ncbi request reprint An improved method for the recovery of recombinant paramyxovirus vaccine candidates suitable for use in human clinical trials
    Sonja R Surman
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Virol Methods 141:30-3. 2007
    ..Since it is likely that all live-attenuated parainfluenza virus and pneumovirus vaccines in the future will be generated using reverse genetics, this simplified method provides guidance on how this can be achieved...
  32. pmc Recombinant newcastle disease virus expressing a foreign viral antigen is attenuated and highly immunogenic in primates
    Alexander Bukreyev
    LID, NIAID, NIH, 50 South Dr, Rm 6505, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:13275-84. 2005
    ..NDV appears to be a promising vector for the development of vaccines for humans; one application would be in controlling localized outbreaks of emerging pathogens...
  33. pmc Delivery to the lower respiratory tract is required for effective immunization with Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines intended for humans
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 27:1530-9. 2009
    ....
  34. pmc Human parainfluenza virus serotypes differ in their kinetics of replication and cytokine secretion in human tracheobronchial airway epithelium
    Anne Schaap-Nutt
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, RNA Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2007, USA
    Virology 433:320-8. 2012
    ..The T cell chemoattractants CXCL10 and CXCL11 were the most abundant chemokines induced. Differences in replication and cytokine secretion might explain some of the differences in PIV serotype-specific pathogenesis and epidemiology...
  35. pmc Codon substitution mutations at two positions in the L polymerase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 1 yield viruses with a spectrum of attenuation in vivo and increased phenotypic stability in vitro
    Josephine M McAuliffe
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:2029-36. 2004
    ..These findings identify the use of alternative codon substitution mutations as a method that can be used to generate candidate vaccine viruses with increased genetic stability and/or a modified level of attenuation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Attenuating mutations in the P/C gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates abrogate the inhibition of both induction and signaling of type I interferon (IFN) by wild-type HPIV1
    William Van Cleve
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, NIH, Bldg 50, Room 6511 50 South Drive MSC 8007 Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 352:61-73. 2006
    ....
  37. pmc Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine candidates containing a 3' genomic promoter mutation and L polymerase mutations are attenuated and protective in non-human primates
    Sheila M Nolan
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 25:6409-22. 2007
    ....
  38. pmc Respiratory tract immunization of non-human primates with a Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccine candidate against Ebola virus elicits a neutralizing antibody response
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 MSC, USA
    Vaccine 29:17-25. 2010
    ..These data suggest that NDV/GP can be effective for immunization against EBOV alone, or in combination with either HPIV3/GP or another vaccine platform in a heterologous prime-boost regimen...
  39. pmc Identification of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) V protein amino acid residues that reduce binding of V to MDA5 and attenuate HPIV-2 replication in nonhuman primates
    Anne Schaap-Nutt
    LID, NIAID, NIH, 50 South Drive, Room 6511, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 85:4007-19. 2011
    ..Using a transient expression system, 20 additional mutant V proteins were screened for MDA5 binding, and the region spanning residues 175 to 180 was found to be essential for this activity...
  40. pmc Chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein: effect of insert position on expression, replication, immunogenicity, stability, and protection against RSV infection
    Bo Liang
    RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 88:4237-50. 2014
    ..Vector passaged in vitro accumulated mutations in the HN open reading frame, causing a dramatic increase in plaque size that may have implications for vaccine production and immunogenicity...
  41. pmc Determinants of the host range restriction of replication of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in rhesus monkeys are polygenic
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:1141-8. 2003
    ....
  42. pmc Nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 of respiratory syncytial virus suppress maturation of human dendritic cells
    Shirin Munir
    Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 82:8780-96. 2008
    ..The observed suppression of DC maturation may result in decreased antigen presentation and T-lymphocyte activation, leading to incomplete and/or weak immune responses that might contribute to RSV reinfection...
  43. pmc Newcastle disease virus, a host range-restricted virus, as a vaccine vector for intranasal immunization against emerging pathogens
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9788-93. 2007
    ..NDV has the potential for further development as a pretested, highly attenuated, intranasal vector to be available for expedited vaccine development for humans, who generally lack preexisting immunity against NDV...
  44. pmc Deletion of nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 from pneumonia virus of mice attenuates viral replication and reduces pulmonary cytokine expression and disease
    Ursula J Buchholz
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:1969-80. 2009
    ..In contrast, in the absence of NS2, there was an early, transient innate response involving moderate levels of IFN, IL-6, and CXCL10 that restricted virus replication and prevented disease...
  45. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus interferon antagonist NS1 protein suppresses and skews the human T lymphocyte response
    Shirin Munir
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001336. 2011
    ....
  46. pmc A paramyxovirus-vectored intranasal vaccine against Ebola virus is immunogenic in vector-immune animals
    Lijuan Yang
    Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Rm 6505, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 377:255-64. 2008
    ....
  47. pmc Human metapneumovirus SH and G glycoproteins inhibit macropinocytosis-mediated entry into human dendritic cells and reduce CD4+ T cell activation
    Cyril Le Nouen
    RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 88:6453-69. 2014
    ..This study describes a previously unknown mechanism of virus immune evasion...
  48. pmc Role of C596 in the C-terminal extension of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in replication and pathogenicity of a highly virulent Indonesian strain of Newcastle disease virus
    Shin Hee Kim
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    J Gen Virol 95:331-6. 2014
    ..These results indicate that this attenuating mechanism in avirulent strains such as Ulster can be applied directly to a highly virulent strain recently in circulation. ..
  49. pmc Generation by reverse genetics of an effective, stable, live-attenuated newcastle disease virus vaccine based on a currently circulating, highly virulent Indonesian strain
    Sa Xiao
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e52751. 2012
    ..These results suggest that Ban/AF can provide better protection than commercial vaccines and is a promising vaccine candidate against NDV strains circulating in Indonesia...
  50. ncbi request reprint Rapid human metapneumovirus microneutralization assay based on green fluorescent protein expression
    Stephane Biacchesi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, 50 South Drive, MSC 8007 Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol Methods 128:192-7. 2005
    ..This assay also permits automation and up-scaling, making it suitable for broad HMPV seroepidemiology studies and experiments that require large scale serology, such as vaccine studies...
  51. pmc The secreted G protein of human respiratory syncytial virus antagonizes antibody-mediated restriction of replication involving macrophages and complement
    Alexander Bukreyev
    RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:10880-4. 2012
    ..The present study demonstrated that effective antibody-mediated restriction in vivo, and the evasion of this restriction by sG, involves pulmonary macrophages and complement, but not neutrophils...
  52. pmc Role of interferon in the replication of human parainfluenza virus type 1 wild type and mutant viruses in human ciliated airway epithelium
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2007, USA
    J Virol 82:8059-70. 2008
    ....
  53. pmc The secreted form of respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein helps the virus evade antibody-mediated restriction of replication by acting as an antigen decoy and through effects on Fc receptor-bearing leukocytes
    Alexander Bukreyev
    LID, NIAID, NIH, 50 South Drive, Room 6505, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 82:12191-204. 2008
    ..Thus, sG helps RSV escape the antibody-dependent restriction of replication via effects as an antigen decoy and as a modulator of leukocytes bearing Fc gamma receptors...
  54. pmc Immunization of primates with a Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccine via the respiratory tract induces a high titer of serum neutralizing antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    Joshua M DiNapoli
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:11560-8. 2007
    ..This vaccine is a candidate for clinical evaluation in humans...
  55. pmc Modification of the trypsin-dependent cleavage activation site of the human metapneumovirus fusion protein to be trypsin independent does not increase replication or spread in rodents or nonhuman primates
    Stephane Biacchesi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 80:5798-806. 2006
    ..These results suggest that cleavage activation is not a major determinant of HMPV virulence...
  56. pmc Codon stabilization analysis of the "248" temperature sensitive mutation for increased phenotypic stability of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidates
    Cindy Luongo
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 27:5667-76. 2009
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Live-attenuated intranasal parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine candidates developed by reverse genetics containing L polymerase protein mutations imported from heterologous paramyxoviruses
    Sheila M Nolan
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Building 50, Room 6509, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 23:4765-74. 2005
    ..rHPIV2s bearing these modified mutations exhibited enhanced attenuation. The genetically stabilized mutations conferring a high level of attenuation will be useful in generating a live-attenuated virus vaccine for HPIV2...
  58. pmc The NS2 protein of human respiratory syncytial virus suppresses the cytotoxic T-cell response as a consequence of suppressing the type I interferon response
    Alexander Kotelkin
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 80:5958-67. 2006
    ..Thus, the NS2 protein of HRSV suppresses the CTL component of the adaptive immune response, and this appears to be a consequence of its suppression of type I IFN...
  59. pmc The C proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 1 block IFN signaling by binding and retaining Stat1 in perinuclear aggregates at the late endosome
    Henrick Schomacker
    RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e28382. 2012
    ..The F170S mutation in HPIV1 C did not prevent perinuclear co-localization with Stat1, but apparently weakened this interaction such that, upon IFN stimulation, Stat1 was translocated to the nucleus to induce an antiviral response...
  60. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus modified by deletions of the NS2 gene and amino acid S1313 of the L polymerase protein is a temperature-sensitive, live-attenuated vaccine candidate that is phenotypically stable at physiological temperature
    Cindy Luongo
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 87:1985-96. 2013
    ..The level of attenuation and genetic stability identify ΔNS2/Δ1313/1314L as a promising candidate for evaluation in pediatric phase I studies...
  61. pmc Increased genetic and phenotypic stability of a promising live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate by reverse genetics
    Cindy Luongo
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:10792-804. 2012
    ....
  62. pmc Low CCR7-mediated migration of human monocyte derived dendritic cells in response to human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus
    Cyril Le Nouen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002105. 2011
    ..We propose that inefficient migration of HRSV- and HMPV-stimulated DC to lymphatic tissue contributes to reduced adaptive responses to these viruses...
  63. pmc The C proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) control the transcription of a broad array of cellular genes that would otherwise respond to HPIV1 infection
    Jim B Boonyaratanakornkit
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 83:1892-910. 2009
    ..Thus, changes in host cell transcription did not reflect the striking phenotypic differences observed between these two viruses...
  64. pmc Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits interferon production and signaling and is required for replication in non-human primates
    Anne Schaap-Nutt
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, RNA Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 397:285-98. 2010
    ....
  65. pmc Mucosal parainfluenza virus-vectored vaccine against Ebola virus replicates in the respiratory tract of vector-immune monkeys and is immunogenic
    Alexander A Bukreyev
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 399:290-8. 2010
    ..These data suggest that HPIV3/EboGP will be immunogenic in adults as well as children...
  66. pmc Frequent frameshift and point mutations in the SH gene of human metapneumovirus passaged in vitro
    Stephane Biacchesi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 81:6057-67. 2007
    ..Adaptation involving the functional loss of a gene is unusual for an RNA virus...
  67. ncbi request reprint Recovery of human metapneumovirus from cDNA: optimization of growth in vitro and expression of additional genes
    Stephane Biacchesi
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virology 321:247-59. 2004
    ....
  68. pmc Mucosal immunization of rhesus monkeys against respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B and human parainfluenza virus type 3 by using a live cDNA-derived vaccine based on a host range-attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vector backbone
    Alexander C Schmidt
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 76:1089-99. 2002
    ....
  69. pmc More antibody with less antigen: can immunogenicity of attenuated live virus vaccines be improved?
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Room 6517, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16987-91. 2002
    ..Thus, it might be possible to develop live-attenuated vaccines that are as immunogenic as parental WT virus or, possibly, even more so...
  70. pmc Effects of altering the transcription termination signals of respiratory syncytial virus on viral gene expression and growth in vitro and in vivo
    Kim C Tran
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:692-9. 2004
    ....
  71. pmc Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus with the G and F genes shifted to the promoter-proximal positions
    Christine Krempl
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 76:11931-42. 2002
    ....
  72. pmc Alpha and lambda interferon together mediate suppression of CD4 T cells induced by respiratory syncytial virus
    Bo Chi
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:5032-40. 2006
    ..Defining the mechanism of RSV-induced suppression may guide vaccine design and provide insight into previously uncharacterized human T-cell responses and activities of interferons...
  73. pmc The genome length of human parainfluenza virus type 2 follows the rule of six, and recombinant viruses recovered from non-polyhexameric-length antigenomic cDNAs contain a biased distribution of correcting mutations
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:270-9. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate, in the context of complete infectious virus, that HPIV2 has a strong and seemingly absolute requirement for a polyhexameric genome...
  74. ncbi request reprint Introducing point and deletion mutations into the P/C gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) by reverse genetics generates attenuated and efficacious vaccine candidates
    Emmalene J Bartlett
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Vaccine 24:2674-84. 2006
    ..This virus will be evaluated clinically as a live intranasal HPIV1 vaccine, one that can be further attenuated as necessary by the introduction of additional stabilized att mutations previously developed in the L protein...
  75. pmc Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines
    Alexander C Schmidt
    RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Expert Rev Respir Med 5:515-26. 2011
    ..Vaccines against HPIV1 and HPIV2 are less advanced and have just entered pediatric trials...
  76. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the replication and immunogenicity of recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 3 vectors expressing up to three foreign glycoproteins
    Mario H Skiadopoulos
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 297:136-52. 2002
    ..Thus, it is possible to use a single HPIV vector expressing two foreign gene inserts to protect infants and young children from the severe lower respiratory tract disease caused by the three major human PIV pathogens...
  77. pmc Nonsegmented negative-strand viruses as vaccine vectors
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, NIH, 50 South Dr, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 80:10293-306. 2006
  78. pmc The central conserved cystine noose of the attachment G protein of human respiratory syncytial virus is not required for efficient viral infection in vitro or in vivo
    Michael N Teng
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 76:6164-71. 2002
    ..Thus, although the G protein is necessary for efficient virus replication in vivo, this activity does not require the central conserved cystine noose region...
  79. pmc Suppression of the induction of alpha, beta, and lambda interferons by the NS1 and NS2 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus in human epithelial cells and macrophages [corrected]
    Kirsten M Spann
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 78:4363-9. 2004
    ..F. Valarcher, J. Furze, S. Wyld, R. Cook, K. K. Conzelmann, and G. Taylor, J. Virol. 77:8426-8439, 2003). This pattern of inhibition by HRSV NS1 and NS2 also extended to the newly described antiviral cytokines IFN-lambda 1, -2 and -3...
  80. pmc Mapping the transcription and replication promoters of respiratory syncytial virus
    Rachel Fearns
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0720, USA
    J Virol 76:1663-72. 2002
    ..This indicates that the promoters for transcription and replication involve overlapping sets of nucleotides at the very 3" end of the genome and provides evidence that the nucleotide preferences for the two processes are not identical...
  81. pmc The cysteine-rich region and secreted form of the attachment G glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus enhance the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response despite lacking major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes
    Alexander Bukreyev
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 80:5854-61. 2006
    ..These findings reveal a novel function for the GCRR with potential implications for the generation of protective cellular responses and vaccine development...
  82. pmc Effects of nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 of human respiratory syncytial virus on interferon regulatory factor 3, NF-kappaB, and proinflammatory cytokines
    Kirsten M Spann
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Building 50, Room 6503, 50 South Dr, MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:5353-62. 2005
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Sequence analysis of the Washington/1964 strain of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) and recovery and characterization of wild-type recombinant HPIV1 produced by reverse genetics
    Jason T Newman
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0720, USA
    Virus Genes 24:77-92. 2002
    ..This rHPIV1 can now be used to study the biological properties of HPIV1 and as a substrate to introduce attenuating mutations for the generation of live-attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates...
  84. pmc Genetic recombination during coinfection of two mutants of human respiratory syncytial virus
    Kirsten M Spann
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 77:11201-11. 2003
    ..However, the isolation of only a single rec-RSV under these optimized conditions supports the idea that RSV recombination is rare indeed...
  85. pmc Expression of interleukin-4 by recombinant respiratory syncytial virus is associated with accelerated inflammation and a nonfunctional cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response following primary infection but not following challenge with wild-type virus
    Alexander Bukreyev
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 79:9515-26. 2005
    ..Thus, a strong Th2 environment during primary pulmonary immunization with live RSV resulted in early inflammation and a largely nonfunctional primary CTL response but had a minimal effect on the secondary response...
  86. doi request reprint Responses against a subdominant CD8+ T cell epitope protect against immunopathology caused by a dominant epitope
    Tracy J Ruckwardt
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 185:4673-80. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate efficient viral clearance, and a protective effect of subdominant CD8(+) T cell responses...
  87. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G glycoprotein is not necessary for vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV
    Teresa R Johnson
    VRC, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 40 Room 2614, 40 Convent Dr, MSC 3017, Bethesda, MD 20892 3017, USA
    J Virol 78:6024-32. 2004
    ....
  88. pmc Reevaluation of the virulence of prototypic strain 15 of pneumonia virus of mice
    Christine D Krempl
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8007, USA
    J Virol 78:13362-5. 2004
    ..Interestingly, the majority sequence of strain J3666 was found to encode a G protein with an extended cytoplasmic tail, suggesting that there is the potential for considerable plasticity in the cytoplasmic tail of the G protein of PVM...
  89. pmc Live-attenuated virus vaccines for respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses: applications of reverse genetics
    Brian R Murphy
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, Building 50, Room 6517, 50 South Drive MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:21-7. 2002
  90. ncbi request reprint Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for humans
    Alexander Bukreyev
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Infectious Disease, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Mol Ther 10:46-55. 2008
    ....
  91. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus infection of human airway epithelial cells is polarized, specific to ciliated cells, and without obvious cytopathology
    Liqun Zhang
    Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7248, USA
    J Virol 76:5654-66. 2002
    ..Since rgRSV appears to breach the lumenal barriers encountered by other gene transfer vectors in the airway, this virus may be a good candidate for the development of a gene transfer vector for CF lung disease...
  92. pmc Complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 2 (strain Yucaipa) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses
    Madhuri Subbiah
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA
    Virus Res 137:40-8. 2008
    ....
  93. pmc Virally delivered cytokines alter the immune response to future lung infections
    James Harker
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:13105-11. 2007
    ..Counter to expectation, Th2-biased responses were more beneficial but also influenced the pathological effects of heterologous viral challenge...
  94. ncbi request reprint Identification of a recombinant live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate that is highly attenuated in infants
    Ruth A Karron
    Center for Immunization Research, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1093-104. 2005
    ..Recombination technology can be used to create live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines that contain combinations of known attenuating mutations...
  95. pmc The absence of enhanced disease with wild type respiratory syncytial virus infection occurring after receipt of live, attenuated, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines
    Peter F Wright
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Vaccine 25:7372-8. 2007
    ..The impact of RSV during this surveillance will inform the design of future efficacy studies with RSV vaccines...
  96. pmc What are the risks--hypothetical and observed--of recombination involving live vaccines and vaccine vectors based on nonsegmented negative-strain RNA viruses?
    Peter L Collins
    J Virol 82:9805-6. 2008
  97. ncbi request reprint Complete sequence of the RNA genome of pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)
    Christine D Krempl
    Department of Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
    Virus Genes 30:237-49. 2005
    ..The various genes of PVM shared 29-62% nucleotide sequence identity and 10-60% amino acid sequence identity with human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and BRSV), its closest relatives...
  98. pmc A role for immune complexes in enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease
    Fernando P Polack
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Exp Med 196:859-65. 2002
    ..Further, we show correlation with the enhanced disease observed in children by providing evidence of complement activation in postmortem lung sections from children with enhanced RSV disease...
  99. pmc Identification of internal sequences in the 3' leader region of human respiratory syncytial virus that enhance transcription and confer replication processivity
    David R McGivern
    Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee Medical School, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    J Virol 79:2449-60. 2005
    ....
  100. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus infection sensitizes cells to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
    Alexander Kotelkin
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:9156-72. 2003
    ....
  101. pmc Identification of a novel virulence factor in recombinant pneumonia virus of mice
    Christine D Krempl
    Department of Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 81:9490-501. 2007
    ..In addition to its intrinsic interest, a recombinant virus that replicates with wild-type-like efficiency but does not cause disease defines optimal properties for vaccine development...