Jeffrey I Cohen

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Regions of the varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein important for replication in vitro are also critical for efficient establishment of latency
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bldg 10, Room 11N228, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 79:5069-77. 2005
  2. pmc Soluble rhesus lymphocryptovirus gp350 protects against infection and reduces viral loads in animals that become infected with virus after challenge
    Junji Sashihara
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002308. 2011
  3. pmc Insulin degrading enzyme induces a conformational change in varicella-zoster virus gE, and enhances virus infectivity and stability
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11327. 2010
  4. pmc The need and challenges for development of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 31:B194-6. 2013
  5. pmc Epstein-Barr virus: an important vaccine target for cancer prevention
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, U S National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Sci Transl Med 3:107fs7. 2011
  6. pmc Varicella-zoster vaccine virus: evolution in action
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982 1888, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7-8. 2007
  7. pmc Detection of vaccinia virus DNA, but not infectious virus, in the blood of smallpox vaccine recipients
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Vaccine 25:4571-4. 2007
  8. pmc The varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein is critical for establishment of latency
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bldg 10, Room 11N228, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:11833-40. 2004
  9. pmc Licking latency with licorice
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:591-3. 2005
  10. pmc HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) to treat Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoma
    J I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Medical Virology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Rm 11N228, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1888, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Br J Cancer 92:1593-8. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications98

  1. pmc Regions of the varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein important for replication in vitro are also critical for efficient establishment of latency
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bldg 10, Room 11N228, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 79:5069-77. 2005
    ..Thus, regions of ORF63 that are important for replication in vitro are also required for efficient establishment of latency...
  2. pmc Soluble rhesus lymphocryptovirus gp350 protects against infection and reduces viral loads in animals that become infected with virus after challenge
    Junji Sashihara
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002308. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with other EBV proteins, should be considered to reduce EBV infection or virus-associated malignancies in humans...
  3. pmc Insulin degrading enzyme induces a conformational change in varicella-zoster virus gE, and enhances virus infectivity and stability
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11327. 2010
    ..The ability of rIDE to enhance infectivity of cell-free VZV over a wide range of incubation times and temperatures suggests that rIDE may be useful for increasing the stability of varicella or zoster vaccines...
  4. pmc The need and challenges for development of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 31:B194-6. 2013
    ....
  5. pmc Epstein-Barr virus: an important vaccine target for cancer prevention
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, U S National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Sci Transl Med 3:107fs7. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc Varicella-zoster vaccine virus: evolution in action
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982 1888, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7-8. 2007
  7. pmc Detection of vaccinia virus DNA, but not infectious virus, in the blood of smallpox vaccine recipients
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Vaccine 25:4571-4. 2007
    ..Throat swabs were negative by PCR and culture. Thus, while some blood specimens contained vaccinia virus DNA, infectious virus was not detected. Current guidelines for deferral of blood donation in vaccinees seem appropriate...
  8. pmc The varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein is critical for establishment of latency
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bldg 10, Room 11N228, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:11833-40. 2004
    ..Since the present vaccine can reactivate and cause shingles, a VZV vaccine based on the ORF63 mutant virus might be safer...
  9. pmc Licking latency with licorice
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:591-3. 2005
    ..This finding suggests a novel way to interrupt latency...
  10. pmc HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) to treat Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoma
    J I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Medical Virology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Rm 11N228, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1888, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Br J Cancer 92:1593-8. 2005
    ..Studies in severe combined immunodeficiency mice show that simvastatin delays the development of EBV-lymphomas in these animals. These statins might be considered for the treatment of EBV-lymphomas in selected patients...
  11. pmc Varicella-zoster virus ORF4 latency-associated protein is important for establishment of latency
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 79:6969-75. 2005
    ..Thus, in addition to VZV ORF63, which was previously shown to be critical for efficient establishment of latency, ORF4 is also important for latent infection...
  12. pmc Varicella-zoster virus immediate-early 63 protein interacts with human antisilencing function 1 protein and alters its ability to bind histones h3.1 and h3.3
    Aruna P Ambagala
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr, Building 10, Room 11N234, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:200-9. 2009
    ..Since ASF1 mediates eviction and deposition of histones during transcription, the interaction of VZV IE63 with ASF1 may help to regulate transcription of viral or cellular genes during lytic and/or latent infection...
  13. pmc Strategies for herpes zoster vaccination of immunocompromised patients
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:S237-41. 2008
    ..In addition, the use of other vaccines, including heat-inactivated or replication-defective varicella-zoster virus to prevent HZ in immunocompromised persons, is also discussed...
  14. pmc Current understanding of the role of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphomagenesis and therapeutic approaches to EBV-associated lymphomas
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1888, USA
    Leuk Lymphoma 49:27-34. 2008
    ..Another potential therapeutic strategy could be to try to induce lytic EBV infection in the tumor cells. This could be done by targeting genes that switch the EBV-infected B cells from the latent to the lytic cycle...
  15. pmc Absence or overexpression of the Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) ORF29 latency-associated protein impairs late gene expression and reduces VZV latency in a rodent model
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bldg 10, Room 11N234, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:1586-91. 2007
    ..0044). These studies indicate that regulation of ORF29 at appropriate levels is critical for VZV latency in a rodent model...
  16. ncbi request reprint Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1)
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1191-203. 2002
    ..The present report updates previous recommendations for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of B virus infection in humans and considers the role of newer antiviral agents in postexposure prophylaxis...
  17. pmc Characterization and treatment of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease: a 28-year experience in the United States
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 117:5835-49. 2011
    ..These studies are registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00032513 for CAEBV, NCT00062868 and NCT00058812 for EBV-specific T-cell studies, and NCT00578539 for the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation protocol...
  18. pmc Human herpesvirus 6-A, 6-B, and 7 in vitreous fluid samples
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1888, USA
    J Med Virol 82:996-9. 2010
    ..HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 DNA are detectable in less than 2% of vitreous samples in patients with ocular inflammation...
  19. pmc Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus is not associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in patients from different areas of the us in the 1990s
    Mir A Ali
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Virol J 8:450. 2011
    ..Since then numerous reports failed to detect XMRV in other cohorts of CFS patients, and some studies suggested that XMRV sequences in human samples might be due to contamination of these samples with mouse DNA...
  20. ncbi request reprint Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF65 virion protein is dispensable for replication in cell culture and is phosphorylated by casein kinase II, but not by the VZV protein kinases
    J I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 280:62-71. 2001
    ..Thus, VZV ORF65 more closely resembles its pseudorabies virus homolog in its localization in infected cells and virions...
  21. pmc The varicella-zoster virus genome
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:1-14. 2010
    ..Further studies of the VZV genome, using recombinant viruses, may facilitate the development of safer and more effective VZV vaccines. Furthermore, VZV might be useful as a vaccine vector to immunize against both VZV and other viruses...
  22. ncbi request reprint The biology of Epstein-Barr virus: lessons learned from the virus and the host
    J I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Building 10, Room 11N214, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 11:365-70. 1999
    ..Analysis of the immune response to the virus is leading to novel therapies for EBV-associated malignancies, including the use of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell infusions...
  23. pmc Epstein-Barr virus BARF1 protein is dispensable for B-cell transformation and inhibits alpha interferon secretion from mononuclear cells
    J I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 73:7627-32. 1999
    ..These experiments indicate that BARF1 expressed from the EBV genome directly inhibits alpha interferon secretion, which may modulate the innate host response to the virus...
  24. pmc Rodent models of varicella-zoster virus neurotropism
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:277-89. 2010
    ..The rodent model for VZV latency allows one to study ganglia removed immediately after death, avoiding the possibility of reactivation, and helps to identify VZV genes required for latency...
  25. pmc Kinetics of serum cytokines after primary or repeat vaccination with the smallpox vaccine
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1183-91. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Comparison of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of genital herpes vaccine candidates herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L in mice and guinea pigs
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Vaccine 26:4034-40. 2008
    ..Both dl5-29-41L and dl5-29 are equally effective and immunogenic in guinea pigs, and dl5-29 is very safe in immunocompromised animals...
  27. pmc Protection from herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection with replication-defective HSV-2 or glycoprotein D2 vaccines in HSV-1-seropositive and HSV-1-seronegative guinea pigs
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:1088-95. 2009
    ..A herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 candidate vaccine consisting of glycoprotein D (gD2) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) reduced genital herpes disease in HSV-1-seronegative women but not in men or HSV-1-seropositive women...
  28. pmc Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF17 protein induces RNA cleavage and is critical for replication of VZV at 37 degrees C but not 33 degrees C
    Hitoshi Sato
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 28092 1888, USA
    J Virol 76:11012-23. 2002
    ..The importance of ORF17 protein for viral replication at 37 degrees C but not at 33 degrees C suggests that this protein may facilitate the growth of virus in certain tissues in vivo...
  29. pmc Long-term administration of valacyclovir reduces the number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells but not the number of EBV DNA copies per B cell in healthy volunteers
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:11857-61. 2009
    ..Valacyclovir reduces the frequency of EBV-infected B cells when administered over a long period and, in theory, might allow eradication of EBV from the body if reinfection does not occur...
  30. pmc A varicella-zoster virus mutant impaired for latency in rodents, but not impaired for replication in cell culture
    Aruna P N Ambagala
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 399:194-200. 2010
    ..A VZV Oka mutant, replicating to similar titers and inducing a comparable immune response as parental virus, but impaired for latency, might serve as a safer vaccine and be less likely to reactivate to cause zoster...
  31. pmc Comparison of methods for detection of vaccinia virus in patient specimens
    Daniel P Fedorko
    Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1508, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4602-6. 2005
    ..In summary, PCR was the most sensitive test for detecting vaccinia virus in clinical specimens, while the DFA was the most rapid but the least sensitive test...
  32. pmc Downregulation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate-early ORF62 transcription by VZV ORF63 correlates with virus replication in vitro and with latency
    Susan E Hoover
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:3459-68. 2006
    ..The ability of ORF63 to downregulate ORF62 transcription may play an important role in virus replication and latency...
  33. pmc The insulin degrading enzyme binding domain of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E is important for cell-to-cell spread and VZV infectivity, while a glycoprotein I binding domain is essential for infection
    Mir A Ali
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 386:270-9. 2009
    ..We conclude that the IDE binding domain is important for efficient cell-to-cell spread and infectivity of cell-free virus...
  34. pmc Serological diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infections by luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay
    Peter D Burbelo
    Neurobiology and Pain Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Sensory Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:366-71. 2009
    ....
  35. pmc Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, diminishes lymphoproliferation in the Fas -deficient MRL/lpr(-/-) murine model of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)
    Kennichi C Dowdell
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1888, USA
    Exp Hematol 37:487-94. 2009
    ..We sought to test the ability of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to induce apoptosis and inhibit lymphoproliferation...
  36. pmc Impairment in reactivation of a latency associated transcript (LAT)-deficient HSV-2 is not solely dependent on the latent viral load or the number of CD8(+) T cells infiltrating the ganglia
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 387:193-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, LAT likely has additional functions important for reactivation...
  37. pmc Tubacin kills Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-Burkitt lymphoma cells by inducing reactive oxygen species and EBV lymphoblastoid cells by inducing apoptosis
    Junichi Kawada
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1888, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:17102-9. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that the combination of a proteasome inhibitor and an HDAC6 inhibitor may represent a useful strategy for the treatment of certain EBV-associated B cell lymphomas...
  38. pmc Bortezomib induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells and prolongs survival of mice inoculated with EBV-transformed B cells
    Ping Zou
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:10029-36. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that bortezomib may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of certain EBV-associated lymphomas...
  39. ncbi request reprint Insulin degrading enzyme is a cellular receptor mediating varicella-zoster virus infection and cell-to-cell spread
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Medical Virology Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 USA
    Cell 127:305-16. 2006
    ..These studies indicate that IDE is a cellular receptor for both cell-free and cell-associated VZV...
  40. pmc Comparative efficacy and immunogenicity of replication-defective, recombinant glycoprotein, and DNA vaccines for herpes simplex virus 2 infections in mice and guinea pigs
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 79:410-8. 2005
    ..Given its efficacy, its defectiveness for latency, and its ability to induce rapid, virus-specific CD8(+)-T-cell responses, the dl5-29 vaccine may be a good candidate for early-phase human trials...
  41. pmc A herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein D mutant generated by bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis is severely impaired for infecting neuronal cells and infects only Vero cells expressing exogenous HVEM
    Kening Wang
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:12891-902. 2012
    ..The inability of the HSV2-gD27 mutant to infect neuronal cells in vitro or sensory ganglia in mice after intramuscular inoculation suggests that this HSV-2 mutant might be an attractive candidate for a live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine...
  42. pmc Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 21, which is expressed during latency, is essential for virus replication but dispensable for establishment of latency
    Dongxiang Xia
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 77:1211-8. 2003
    ..Thus, ORF21 is the first VZV gene expressed during latency that has been shown to be dispensable for the establishment of latent infection...
  43. pmc Distinct EBV and CMV reactivation patterns following antibody-based immunosuppressive regimens in patients with severe aplastic anemia
    Phillip Scheinberg
    Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 109:3219-24. 2007
    ....
  44. pmc An acutely and latently expressed herpes simplex virus 2 viral microRNA inhibits expression of ICP34.5, a viral neurovirulence factor
    Shuang Tang
    Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10931-6. 2008
    ..5, a key viral neurovirulence factor. We hypothesize that miR-I may modulate the outcome of viral infection in the peripheral nervous system by functioning as a molecular switch for ICP34.5 expression...
  45. pmc The amino terminus of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E is required for binding to insulin-degrading enzyme, a VZV receptor
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:8525-32. 2007
    ..The amino portion of IDE, as well an IDE mutant in the catalytic domain of the protein, bound to gE. Therefore, distinct motifs of VZV gE are important for binding to IDE or to gI...
  46. ncbi request reprint The NS3 protein of hepatitis C virus induces caspase-8-mediated apoptosis independent of its protease or helicase activities
    Elena A Prikhod'ko
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 329:53-67. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that HCV NS3 promotes caspase-8 induced apoptosis at a pathway site distal to FADD, and that flavivirus NS3 may represent a new class of pro-apoptotic proteins...
  47. pmc Human antibody titers to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) gp350 correlate with neutralization of infectivity better than antibody titers to EBV gp42 using a rapid flow cytometry-based EBV neutralization assay
    Junji Sashihara
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 391:249-56. 2009
    ..Furthermore, we show that antibody titers to EBV gp350 correlate more strongly with neutralization than antibody titers to gp42. These assays should be useful in accessing antibody responses to candidate EBV vaccines...
  48. pmc The number of herpes simplex virus-infected neurons and the number of viral genome copies per neuron correlate with the latent viral load in ganglia
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 372:56-63. 2008
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Triad of severe abdominal pain, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and disseminated varicella-zoster virus infection preceding cutaneous manifestations after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: utility of PCR for early recognition and ther
    Rachel Rau
    Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1104, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:265-8. 2008
    ..She was treated with acyclovir and subsequently developed VZV antigen-positive zoster. Detection of VZV DNA in blood may be useful for early diagnosis in immunocompromised hosts who present with zoster without skin lesions...
  50. pmc Varicella-Zoster virus IE63, a major viral latency protein, is required to inhibit the alpha interferon-induced antiviral response
    Aruna P N Ambagala
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:7844-51. 2007
    ..Since IFN-alpha has been shown to limit VZV replication in human skin xenografts, the ability of VZV IE63 to block the effects of the cytokine may play a critical role in VZV pathogenesis...
  51. pmc Diverse herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase mutants in individual human neurons and Ganglia
    Kening Wang
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Disease, NIAID NIH, Building 10, Room 11N 234, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:6817-26. 2007
    ..These data suggest that diverse tk mutants arise independently under drug selection and establish latency in human sensory ganglia alone or together with wild-type virus...
  52. pmc Varicella-zoster virus ORF47 protein kinase, which is required for replication in human T cells, and ORF66 protein kinase, which is expressed during latency, are dispensable for establishment of latency
    Hitoshi Sato
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1888, USA
    J Virol 77:11180-5. 2003
    ..Thus, seven genes, including one expressed during latency, are dispensable for establishing latent VZV infection...
  53. ncbi request reprint Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection associated with mutations in perforin that impair its maturation
    Harutaka Katano
    Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 103:1244-52. 2004
    ..Mutations in the perforin gene are associated with some cases of CAEBV with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis...
  54. ncbi request reprint Use of a rodent model to show that varicella-zoster virus ORF61 is dispensable for establishment of latency
    Hitoshi Sato
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, Building 10, Room 11N228, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 1888, USA
    J Med Virol 70:S79-81. 2003
    ..Thus, the cotton rat can be used to study the ability of mutants in the Oka vaccine strain of VZV to establish latent infection...
  55. ncbi request reprint Activation of H2AX and ATM in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells is associated with expression of specific VZV genes
    Takenobu Yamamoto
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Virology 452:52-8. 2014
    ..Cells lacking ATM had no reduction in VZV replication. Thus, VZV induces phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM and this effect is associated with the presence of specific VZV genes in virus-infected cells. ..
  56. pmc Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV lymphomas
    Harutaka Katano
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4960-5. 2004
    ..These data suggest that simvastatin may have promise for treatment or prevention of EBV-associated lymphomas that occur in immunocompromised persons...
  57. pmc Rhesus and human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein L are required for infection and cell-to-cell spread of virus but cannot complement each other
    J Jason Bowman
    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 85:2089-99. 2011
    ..These data indicate that RhCMV and HCMV gL are both essential for replication of their corresponding viruses and, although the two gLs are highly homologous, they are unable to complement each another...
  58. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus infection sensitizes cells to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
    Alexander Kotelkin
    Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:9156-72. 2003
    ....
  59. pmc Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 2 encodes a membrane phosphoprotein that is dispensable for viral replication and for establishment of latency
    Hitoshi Sato
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1888, USA
    J Virol 76:3575-8. 2002
    ..Thus, ORF2 is the first VZV gene shown to be dispensable for establishment of latent infection in an animal model...
  60. pmc Rapid, simple, quantitative, and highly sensitive antibody detection for lyme disease
    Peter D Burbelo
    Neurobiology and Pain Therapeutics Section, 49 Convent Drive, Building 49, Room 1C20, NIDCR, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 4410, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:904-9. 2010
    ..These results suggest that screening by the LIPS test with VOVO and other B. burgdorferi antigens offers an efficient quantitative approach for evaluation of the antibody responses in patients with Lyme disease...
  61. pmc Cell type specific accumulation of the major latency-associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus type 2 in LAT transgenic mice
    Kening Wang
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 10 Center Drive, Room 11N234 Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 386:79-87. 2009
    ..These data indicate that HSV-2 LAT promoter activity is not restricted to neurons and that LAT accumulation in ganglionic neurons is likely regulated by cell-specific factors...
  62. pmc Rates of reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from mouse trigeminal ganglia ex vivo correlate directly with viral load and inversely with number of infiltrating CD8+ T cells
    Yo Hoshino
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:8157-64. 2007
    ..04). The reactivation of HSV-2 from ganglia ex vivo is determined both by the latent viral load and the number of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells...
  63. ncbi request reprint Ascorbic acid kills Epstein-Barr virus positive Burkitt lymphoma cells and Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-cells in vitro, but not in vivo
    Amber N Shatzer
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Leuk Lymphoma 54:1069-78. 2013
    ..Thus, while ascorbic acid was highly effective at killing EBV-positive BL cells and LCLs in vitro, it antagonized cell killing by bortezomib and was ineffective in an animal model...
  64. pmc Detection of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA in the plasma of an immunocompromised patient and possible reduction of MCV DNA with CMX-001
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:794-7. 2012
    ..Although MCV is caused by direct inoculation of virus into skin in healthy persons, in a severely immunocompromised person MCV DNA was present in blood and may spread by viremia...
  65. pmc Oropharyngeal shedding of Epstein-Barr virus in the absence of circulating B cells
    Susan E Hoover
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:318-23. 2008
    ....
  66. pmc Use of a universal virus detection assay to identify human metapneumovirus in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with pneumonia of unknown origin
    Christine Uhlenhaut
    Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics, Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 4555, USA
    J Clin Virol 44:337-9. 2009
    ..We present a case report of an immunocompromised patient suffering from pneumonia, for which the causative agent was not identified by routine methods...
  67. pmc Somatic FAS mutations are common in patients with genetically undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
    Kennichi C Dowdell
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1888, USA
    Blood 115:5164-9. 2010
    ..These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children...
  68. pmc Varicella-Zoster virus ORF12 protein triggers phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibits apoptosis
    Xueqiao Liu
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:3143-51. 2012
    ..Cells infected with a VZV ORF12 deletion mutant have reduced levels of p-ERK1/2 and are more susceptible to apoptosis than cells infected with wild-type VZV...
  69. pmc LIPS arrays for simultaneous detection of antibodies against partial and whole proteomes of HCV, HIV and EBV
    Peter D Burbelo
    Neurobiology and Pain Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Sensory Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Biosyst 7:1453-62. 2011
    ..These results suggest that LIPS arrays offer a highly discriminating platform for simultaneously profiling a wide spectrum of antibodies associated with many infectious agents...
  70. pmc Langat flavivirus protease NS3 binds caspase-8 and induces apoptosis
    Grigori G Prikhod'ko
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 76:5701-10. 2002
    ..The protease domain and tetrahelix region of the helicase domain are required for NS3 to augment caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Thus, the LGT virus NS3 protein is a multifunctional protein that binds to caspase-8 and induces apoptosis...
  71. pmc Human herpesvirus-6-associated acute lymphadenitis in immunocompetent adults
    Irina Maric
    Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mod Pathol 17:1427-33. 2004
    ..This is the first report that documents distinctive histologic features of HHV-6 lymphadenitis and demonstrates that the cells harboring the virus in vivo are CD4-positive T lymphocytes...
  72. pmc Binding of FADD and caspase-8 to molluscum contagiosum virus MC159 v-FLIP is not sufficient for its antiapoptotic function
    Tara L Garvey
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Molecular Development of the Immune System Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 76:697-706. 2002
    ..Thus, charged or hydrophobic amino acids in three regions of the MC159 DEDs (hydrophobic patch 1, alpha2, and alpha6) are critical for the protein's ability to interact with cellular proteins and to block apoptosis...
  73. ncbi request reprint Increased frequency and broadened specificity of latent EBV nuclear antigen-1-specific T cells in multiple sclerosis
    Jan D Lunemann
    Neuroimmunology Branch, Cellular Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Brain 129:1493-506. 2006
    ..We suggest that the accumulation of highly antigen-sensitive EBNA1-specific Th1 cells in multiple sclerosis is capable of sustaining autoimmunity by cross-recognition of autoantigens or by TCR-independent bystander mechanisms...
  74. ncbi request reprint Feline calicivirus replication induces apoptosis in cultured cells
    Stanislav V Sosnovtsev
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive MSC8007, Building 50, Room 6316, Bethesda, MD 20892 8007, USA
    Virus Res 94:1-10. 2003
    ....
  75. pmc Severe viral infections and primary immunodeficiencies
    Lesia K Dropulic
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:897-909. 2011
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Viral gene expression in rat trigeminal ganglia following neonatal infection with varicella-zoster virus
    P A Brunell
    Ahmanson Pediatrics Center, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, and University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA
    J Med Virol 58:286-90. 1999
    ..The neonatal rat may represent a useful new model for the study of VZV latency...
  77. pmc Bovine herpesvirus 4 BORFE2 protein inhibits Fas- and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-induced apoptosis and contains death effector domains shared with other gamma-2 herpesviruses
    G H Wang
    Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 71:8928-32. 1997
    ..Furthermore, we show that BHV4 BORFE2 is a member of a family of DED-containing proteins that includes other gamma-2 herpesviruses, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and herpesvirus saimiri...
  78. ncbi request reprint Varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 47 (ORF47) protein is critical for virus replication in dendritic cells and for spread to other cells
    Huiling Hu
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 337:304-11. 2005
    ..Infection of DCs with parental VZV resulted in a different pattern of phosphoproteins compared with the ORF47 mutant virus. Thus, VZV ORF47 is important for replication in immature DCs and for spread to other cells...
  79. pmc Death effector domain-containing herpesvirus and poxvirus proteins inhibit both Fas- and TNFR1-induced apoptosis
    J Bertin
    Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:1172-6. 1997
    ..These findings identify a novel control point exploited by viruses to regulate Fas- and TNFR1-mediated apoptosis...
  80. ncbi request reprint Interleukin 17 modulates the immune response to vaccinia virus infection
    Andriani C Patera
    Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 299:56-63. 2002
    ..03) vaccinia virus-specific antibody titers were observed in mice infected with vv-IL17 versus vv-pRB, suggesting a Th-2-like response to infection. These data indicate that IL-17 modulates the immune response during virus infection...
  81. pmc Lymphocytic vasculitis involving the central nervous system occurs in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease in the absence of Epstein-Barr virus infection
    Kawsar R Talaat
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 53:1120-3. 2009
    ..Thus, loss of SAP function can lead to dysregulated immune responses characterized by the uncontrolled expansion and activation of T cells independent of EBV infection...
  82. ncbi request reprint Sequence comparison of woodchuck hepatitis virus replicative forms shows conservation of the genome
    J I Cohen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Virology 162:12-20. 1988
    ..Thus, the nucleotide sequence of two different replicative forms of WHV DNA, separated by two in vivo passages, were virtually identical...
  83. pmc Attenuation and cell culture adaptation of hepatitis A virus (HAV): a genetic analysis with HAV cDNA
    J I Cohen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Virol 63:5364-70. 1989
    ..Inoculation of marmosets with transfection-derived virus also suggested that the P2-P3 region plays an important role in attenuation of HAV HM-175...
  84. ncbi request reprint Benign and malignant Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases
    Jeffrey I Cohen
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Semin Hematol 40:116-23. 2003
    ..While chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are mainstays of treatment, clinical trials are being developed using cytotoxic T cells directed against EBV proteins in these tumors...
  85. pmc Evidence of prior exposure to human bocavirus as determined by a retrospective serological study of 404 serum samples from adults in the United States
    Sylvain Cecchini
    Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:597-604. 2009
    ..Using ELISA, we tested 404 human serum samples and established a range of antibody titers in a large U.S. adult population sample...
  86. pmc Update on new antivirals under development for the treatment of double-stranded DNA virus infections
    L K Dropulic
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 88:610-9. 2010
    ..Most of these drugs have completed at least phase I trials in humans, and many are in additional clinical trials...
  87. ncbi request reprint Distinct interactions of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP with cytoplasmic domains of members of the CD2 receptor family
    J Lewis
    Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1578, USA
    Clin Immunol 100:15-23. 2001
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Infection with Langat Flavivirus or expression of the envelope protein induces apoptotic cell death
    G G Prikhod'ko
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 286:328-35. 2001
    ..These observations indicate that infection of cells with LGT virus or expression of LGT virus E protein induces apoptosis through a caspase-3-like protease pathway...
  89. pmc Increased frequency of EBV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells correlates with higher viral load in rheumatoid arthritis
    Jan D Lunemann
    Laboratory of Viral Immunobiology, Christopher H Browne Center for Immunology and Immune Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Immunol 181:991-1000. 2008
    ..Our data show that the regulation of EBV infection is perturbed in RA and suggest that increased EBV-specific effector T cell and Ab responses are driven by an elevated EBV load in RA...
  90. pmc Comparison of virus transcription during lytic infection of the Oka parental and vaccine strains of Varicella-Zoster virus
    Randall J Cohrs
    Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, 80262, USA
    J Virol 80:2076-82. 2006
    ..Together, our results indicate that mutations in V-Oka IE 62 alone are unlikely to account for vaccine virus attenuation...
  91. ncbi request reprint Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus by methotrexate: a potential contributor to methotrexate-associated lymphomas
    Wen hai Feng
    Department of Medicine and Microbiology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599 7295, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 96:1691-702. 2004
    ..Here we determined whether MTX, in contrast to other commonly used medications for rheumatoid arthritis or polymyositis, is unique in its ability to induce the release of infectious EBV from latently infected cells...
  92. pmc Phosphorylation by the varicella-zoster virus ORF47 protein serine kinase determines whether endocytosed viral gE traffics to the trans-Golgi network or recycles to the cell membrane
    T K Kenyon
    Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Virol 76:10980-93. 2002
    ..Taken together, the results showed that phosphorylation of VZV gE by ORF47 or CKII determined whether VZV infection proceeded toward a pathway likely involved with either virion production or cell-cell spread...
  93. ncbi request reprint Varicella-zoster virus expressing HSV-2 glycoproteins B and D induces protection against HSV-2 challenge
    Thomas C Heineman
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA
    Vaccine 22:2558-65. 2004
    ..These data show that recombinant VZV expressing HSV-2 antigens must be infectious to offer significant protection against challenge with HSV-2, and that ROka-gB2/gD2 has promise as a candidate HSV-2 vaccine...
  94. pmc Identification of small molecule compounds that selectively inhibit varicella-zoster virus replication
    Robert J Visalli
    Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Molecular Biology Virology, Wyeth Vaccines, Pearl River, NY 1096, USA
    J Virol 77:2349-58. 2003
    ..These data suggest that the VZV-specific thiourea inhibitor series block virus replication by interfering with the function of the ORF54 protein and/or other proteins that interact with the ORF54 protein...
  95. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms in the genes for herpesvirus entry
    Andriani Patera
    J Infect Dis 186:444-5. 2002
  96. ncbi request reprint Generation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-immortalized B cell lines
    Giovanna Tosato
    National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Curr Protoc Immunol . 2007
    ..The protocol described in this unit to accomplish this can be divided into three stages: preparation of virus, preparation of target cells to be immortalized, and EBV infection and growth of infected cells...
  97. ncbi request reprint Prevention of herpes zoster: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
    Rafael Harpaz
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 57:1-30; quiz CE2-4. 2008
    ..Before administration of zoster vaccine, patients do not need to be asked about their history of varicella (chickenpox) or to have serologic testing conducted to determine varicella immunity...
  98. pmc Enhanced SIV replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein
    Silvija I Staprans
    Emory Vaccine Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13026-31. 2004
    ..These data suggest suggest that candidate AIDS vaccines may not simply be either efficacious or neutral; they may also have the potential to be harmful...