R James R Blair

Summary

Affiliation: National Institutes of Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Turning a deaf ear to fear: impaired recognition of vocal affect in psychopathic individuals
    R James R Blair
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 111:682-6. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Deafness to fear in boys with psychopathic tendencies
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Heath, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:327-36. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Applying a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the disorder of psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 17:865-91. 2005
  4. doi request reprint Psychopathy, frustration, and reactive aggression: the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Bethesda MD 20892, USA
    Br J Psychol 101:383-99. 2010
  5. pmc Psychopathy, attention and emotion
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychol Med 39:543-55. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Differentiating among prefrontal substrates in psychopathy: neuropsychological test findings
    K S Blair
    National Institute of Mental Health and University College, London, UK
    Neuropsychology 20:153-65. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Fine cuts of empathy and the amygdala: dissociable deficits in psychopathy and autism
    R J R Blair
    Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:157-70. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:387-92. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, USA
    Cognition 101:414-42. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Dysfunctions of medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex in psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:461-79. 2007

Detail Information

Publications63

  1. ncbi request reprint Turning a deaf ear to fear: impaired recognition of vocal affect in psychopathic individuals
    R James R Blair
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 111:682-6. 2002
    ..The results indicated that psychopathic inmates were particularly impaired in the recognition of fearful vocal affect. These results are interpreted with reference to the low-fear and violence inhibition mechanism models of psychopathy...
  2. ncbi request reprint Deafness to fear in boys with psychopathic tendencies
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Heath, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:327-36. 2005
    ..These results are interpreted with reference to amygdala dysfunction and components of the Integrated Emotion Systems model...
  3. ncbi request reprint Applying a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the disorder of psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 17:865-91. 2005
    ..Some directions for future work are considered...
  4. doi request reprint Psychopathy, frustration, and reactive aggression: the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Bethesda MD 20892, USA
    Br J Psychol 101:383-99. 2010
    ..It is argued that both are known consequences of impairment in ventromedial prefrontal cortex, one of the regions principally implicated in psychopathy...
  5. pmc Psychopathy, attention and emotion
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychol Med 39:543-55. 2009
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Differentiating among prefrontal substrates in psychopathy: neuropsychological test findings
    K S Blair
    National Institute of Mental Health and University College, London, UK
    Neuropsychology 20:153-65. 2006
    ..In contrast, the 2 groups did not show impairment on the measures preferentially sensitive to the functioning of the DLPFC or ACC. These results are interpreted with reference to executive dysfunction accounts of the disorder...
  7. ncbi request reprint Fine cuts of empathy and the amygdala: dissociable deficits in psychopathy and autism
    R J R Blair
    Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:157-70. 2008
    ..It is concluded that while both conditions can be considered disorders of social cognition, fine cuts can be made dissociating the impairments associated with each...
  8. ncbi request reprint The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:387-92. 2007
    ..In psychopathy, dysfunction in these structures means that care-based moral reasoning is compromised and the risk that antisocial behavior is used instrumentally to achieve goals is increased...
  9. ncbi request reprint The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, USA
    Cognition 101:414-42. 2006
    ..However, caveats to the neuropsychological approach with reference to this disorder are noted...
  10. ncbi request reprint Dysfunctions of medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex in psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:461-79. 2007
    ..It is suggested that the impairment in the role of medial OFC in prediction error signaling and the detection of contingency change may underlie the impairments in flexible behavioral change seen in psychopathy...
  11. pmc Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Room 206, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:76-82. 2010
    ..This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals face difficulties with basic forms of emotional learning and decision making...
  12. ncbi request reprint Responding to the emotions of others: dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, Room 206, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Conscious Cogn 14:698-718. 2005
    ..In contrast, individuals with psychopathy show clear difficulties with a specific form of emotional empathy but no indications of impairment with cognitive and motor empathy...
  13. pmc Author response - Reactive aggression and functional, not neural, specificity
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Br J Psychol 101:407-10. 2010
    ..This article is an author response to Harenski and Kiehl's (2010) commentary on Blair (2010)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Aggression, psychopathy and free will from a cognitive neuroscience perspective
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Behav Sci Law 25:321-31. 2007
    ..However, instrumental aggression, at least from a compatibilist perspective, must involve free will...
  15. pmc Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and neuro-cognitive substrates
    R J R Blair
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358:561-72. 2003
    ..In acquired sociopathy, the response to angry expressions in particular is attenuated resulting in reduced regulation of social behaviour...
  16. ncbi request reprint The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Room 206, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Brain Cogn 55:198-208. 2004
    ..Impairments in response reversal are also seen in psychopathic individuals. However, it remains unclear whether impairment in response reversal per se is associated with antisocial behavior...
  17. pmc Disrupted expected value and prediction error signaling in youths with disruptive behavior disorders during a passive avoidance task
    Stuart F White
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 170:315-23. 2013
    ..This partly reflects previous failures to differentiate responses during decision making and feedback processing and to take advantage of computational model-based functional MRI (fMRI)...
  18. ncbi request reprint Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder
    Erin B McClure
    Emotional Development and Affective Neuroscience Branch, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:97-106. 2007
    ..However, in pediatric anxiety, no research has examined attention modulation of neural response to threat cues...
  19. ncbi request reprint Emotion at the expense of cognition: psychopathic individuals outperform controls on an operant response task
    Derek G V Mitchell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 115:559-66. 2006
    ..Results are discussed with reference to current models regarding the modulation of attention by emotion and the emotional impairment seen in individuals with psychopathy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Reduced amygdala response in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits: decreased emotional response versus increased top-down attention to nonemotional features
    Stuart F White
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 169:750-8. 2012
    ..However, there has been disagreement as to whether this dysfunction reflects a primary emotional deficit or is secondary to atypical attentional control. The authors examined the validity of the contrasting predictions...
  21. ncbi request reprint Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders
    Abigail A Marsh
    Mood and Anxiety Program, NIMH, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:712-20. 2008
    ..Moreover, despite high comorbidity of callous-unemotional traits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no research has attempted to distinguish neural correlates of pediatric callous-unemotional traits and ADHD...
  22. pmc The relationship between large cavum septum pellucidum and antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits and psychopathy in adolescents
    Stuart F White
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 54:575-81. 2013
    ..The presence of a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been previously associated with antisocial behavior/psychopathic traits in an adult community sample...
  23. pmc Neural correlates of reversal learning in severe mood dysregulation and pediatric bipolar disorder
    Nancy E Adleman
    National Institute of Mental Health NIMH, National Institutes of Health NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:1173-1185.e2. 2011
    ..Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine neural correlates of cognitive flexibility deficits in patients with SMD and BD versus healthy volunteers (HV)...
  24. pmc Stimulus-reinforcement-based decision making and anxiety: impairment in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) but not in generalized social phobia (GSP)
    J DeVido
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychol Med 39:1153-61. 2009
    ..In this study, we examined stimulus-reinforcement-based decision making in GSP and GAD...
  25. pmc Dominance and submission: the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and responses to status cues
    Abigail A Marsh
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 21:713-24. 2009
    ..We suggest that the VLPFC retrieves information from these regions when processing hierarchy cues to facilitate socially adaptive behavior...
  26. pmc Common regions of dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal-parietal cortices provide attentional control of distracters varying in emotionality and visibility
    Qian Luo
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Room 300C, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuroimage 38:631-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, a conjunction analysis indicated considerable overlap in the regions of prefrontal, parietal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex responding to distracters of increased emotionality and visibility...
  27. pmc Adapting to dynamic stimulus-response values: differential contributions of inferior frontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral regions of prefrontal cortex to decision making
    Derek G V Mitchell
    National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10827-34. 2009
    ..These data are interpreted with reference to models of dmPFC, dlPFC, and IFG functioning...
  28. ncbi request reprint The neural basis of implicit moral attitude--an IAT study using event-related fMRI
    Qian Luo
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, Room 206, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 30:1449-57. 2006
    ..The functional contributions of these regions in moral reasoning are discussed...
  29. ncbi request reprint The impact of affect and frequency on lexical decision: the role of the amygdala and inferior frontal cortex
    Marina Nakic
    Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 31:1752-61. 2006
    ....
  30. pmc Response to emotional expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder: evidence for separate disorders
    Karina Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, NIMH, NIH, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:1193-202. 2008
    ..Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed the neural response to facial expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder...
  31. pmc Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia
    Madeline Jacobs
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institutes of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 22:1487-95. 2008
    ..These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP...
  32. ncbi request reprint The development of psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Heath, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:262-76. 2006
    ..These impairments disrupt the impact of standard socialization techniques and increase the risk for frustration-induced reactive aggression respectively...
  33. ncbi request reprint They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy
    K S Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Biol Psychol 73:114-23. 2006
    ..In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy...
  34. doi request reprint The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths
    R James R Blair
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 14:786-99. 2013
    ..Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social-environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. ..
  35. pmc Differing amygdala responses to facial expressions in children and adults with bipolar disorder
    Pilyoung Kim
    NIMH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 169:642-9. 2012
    ..The authors used functional MRI to compare amygdala activity during a face processing task in children and adults with bipolar disorder and in healthy comparison subjects...
  36. ncbi request reprint Impaired recognition of fear facial expressions in 5-HTTLPR S-polymorphism carriers following tryptophan depletion
    Abigail A Marsh
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:387-94. 2006
    ..Acute tryptophan depletion has been associated with the processing of fear-relevant cues, such as emotional expressions, but the effect of genotype at the 5-HTTLPR has not been assessed...
  37. ncbi request reprint Theory of mind and psychopathy: can psychopathic individuals read the 'language of the eyes'?
    R A Richell
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University College, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 41:523-6. 2003
    ..Results indicated that the psychopathic individuals did not present with any generalised impairment in ToM. The data are discussed with reference to the putative neural system mediating performance on this task and models of psychopathy...
  38. doi request reprint The development of antisocial behavior: what can we learn from functional neuroimaging studies?
    S L Crowe
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 20:1145-59. 2008
    ..We suggest why such pathology would increase the risk for reactive and instrumental aggression and thus also lead to the association with a CD/ODD diagnosis...
  39. ncbi request reprint Fractionation of visual memory: agency detection and its impairment in autism
    R J R Blair
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, WC1H 3AR, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 40:108-18. 2002
    ..The data is interpreted in terms of reduced sensitivity to agency cues in individuals with autism and general information processing capacity...
  40. pmc The impact of processing load on emotion
    D G V Mitchell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuroimage 34:1299-309. 2007
    ..Together, the data suggest that the processing of task-irrelevant emotional information, like neutral information, is subject to the effects of processing load and is under top-down control...
  41. pmc Impaired fixation to eyes during facial emotion labelling in children with bipolar disorder or severe mood dysregulation
    Pilyoung Kim
    Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colo, USA
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 38:407-16. 2013
    ..In those with other psychiatric disorders, such deficits have been associated with reduced attention to eye regions while looking at faces...
  42. ncbi request reprint Impaired reversal but intact acquisition: probabilistic response reversal deficits in adult individuals with psychopathy
    Salima Budhani
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 115:552-8. 2006
    ..Results are discussed with reference to current models of the development of psychopathy...
  43. pmc Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety
    Amanda E Guyer
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Dr, Room 208, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1303-12. 2008
    ..Such fear-circuitry dysfunction may also manifest when anticipated social evaluation leads socially anxious adolescents to misperceive peers as threatening...
  44. pmc Neural response to self- and other referential praise and criticism in generalized social phobia
    Karina Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 15K North Dr, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1176-84. 2008
    ..However, studies have not examined the neural response in GSP to another equally important class of social stimuli, the communication of praise or criticism...
  45. ncbi request reprint Response reversal and children with psychopathic tendencies: success is a function of salience of contingency change
    S Budhani
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Heath, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2670, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:972-81. 2005
    ..Previous work has inconsistently reported difficulties with response reversal/extinction in children with psychopathic tendencies...
  46. ncbi request reprint Dissociable systems for empathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, Room 206, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Novartis Found Symp 278:134-41; discussion 141-5, 216-21. 2007
    ..The implications of these forms of empathy for understanding specific psychiatric conditions are briefly considered...
  47. pmc Deficits in facial affect recognition among antisocial populations: a meta-analysis
    Abigail A Marsh
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:454-65. 2008
    ..This impairment cannot be attributed solely to task difficulty. These results suggest dysfunction among antisocial individuals in specified neural substrates, namely the amygdala, involved in processing fearful facial affect...
  48. pmc The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex: functional contributions and dysfunction in psychopathy
    R J R Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:2557-65. 2008
    ..It is concluded that these critical functions of the amygdala and vmPFC, and their interaction, are compromised in individuals with the disorder. It is argued that these impairments lead to the development of psychopathy...
  49. pmc Face emotion labeling deficits in children with bipolar disorder and severe mood dysregulation
    Brendan A Rich
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Building 15K, Room 204, MSC2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Dev Psychopathol 20:529-46. 2008
    ..These deficits are associated with psychosocial impairments. Understanding the neural circuitry associated with face-labeling deficits has the potential to clarify the pathophysiology of these disorders...
  50. ncbi request reprint Instrumental learning and relearning in individuals with psychopathy and in patients with lesions involving the amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex
    D G V Mitchell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuropsychology 20:280-9. 2006
    ..The results are interpreted with reference to current neurocognitive models of stimulus-reinforcement learning, relearning, and developmental psychopathy...
  51. pmc Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion
    K S Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Neuroimage 35:430-40. 2007
    ..NeuroImage, 29 (3), 721-733] and negative connectivity with bilateral amygdala. These data suggest that processes involved in emotional regulation are recruited during task performance in the context of emotional distractors...
  52. ncbi request reprint The role of 5-HTTLPR in choosing the lesser of two evils, the better of two goods: examining the impact of 5-HTTLPR genotype and tryptophan depletion in object choice
    K S Blair
    Department of Health and Human Services, Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15K North Drive, Room 300A, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892 2670, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:29-38. 2008
    ..The serotonin (5-HT) system is considered important for decision-making. However, its role in reward- and punishment-based processing has not yet been clearly determined...
  53. ncbi request reprint Biased emotional attention in post-traumatic stress disorder: a help as well as a hindrance?
    M Vythilingam
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Psychol Med 37:1445-55. 2007
    ..We investigated these possibilities both with respect to threatening and positive stimuli among traumatized individuals with and without PTSD...
  54. ncbi request reprint Divergent patterns of aggressive and neurocognitive characteristics in acquired versus developmental psychopathy
    D G V Mitchell
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurocase 12:164-78. 2006
    ....
  55. pmc Social norm processing in adult social phobia: atypically increased ventromedial frontal cortex responsiveness to unintentional (embarrassing) transgressions
    Karina S Blair
    Mood and Anxiety Program, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:1526-32. 2010
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Deficits on a probabilistic response-reversal task in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder
    Tristan Gorrindo
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg 10, Rm 4N 208, 10 Center Dr MSC 1255, Bethesda, MD 20892 1255, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1975-7. 2005
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Evidence for substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds
    Essi Viding
    Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:592-7. 2005
    ..We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children...
  58. pmc Dissociable roles of medial orbitofrontal cortex in human operant extinction learning
    Elizabeth C Finger
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuroimage 43:748-55. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that in humans, frontopolar OFC modulates activity in caudal mOFC, rACC and amygdala during successful operant extinction learning...
  59. ncbi request reprint Irritability in pediatric mania and other childhood psychopathology
    Ellen Leibenluft
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health DHHS, 10 Center Drive, Room 4N 208, MSC 1255, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1008:201-18. 2003
    ..Examples of such paradigms are described, and the pharmacology of irritability is reviewed briefly...
  60. pmc Response options and expectations of reward in decision-making: the differential roles of dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex
    Abigail A Marsh
    Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 15K North Drive, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 35:979-88. 2007
    ..The current results suggest functional specificity with respect to the roles of dACC/dmFC and rACC/mPFC in decision-making...
  61. ncbi request reprint Neurobiological basis of psychopathy
    R James R Blair
    Br J Psychiatry 182:5-7. 2003
  62. ncbi request reprint Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder
    Christopher S Monk
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 2000 East Hall, 530 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:1091-7. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Doing the right thing: a common neural circuit for appropriate violent or compassionate behavior
    John A King
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Neuroimage 30:1069-76. 2006
    ..The findings indicate a common system that guides behavioral expression appropriate to social or societal context irrespective of its aggressive or compassionate nature...