Lucy M Anderson

Summary

Affiliation: National Cancer Institute
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Marked liver tumorigenesis by Helicobacter hepaticus requires perinatal exposure
    Bhalchandra A Diwan
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1352-6. 2008
  2. pmc Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models
    L M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:573-94. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 199:85-90. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Predictive values of traditional animal bioassay studies for human perinatal carcinogenesis risk determination
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 199:162-74. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Preconceptional fasting of fathers alters serum glucose in offspring of mice
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Nutrition 22:327-31. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Environmental genotoxicants/carcinogens and childhood cancer: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Mutat Res 608:136-56. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint DNA damage, superoxide, and mutant K-ras in human lung adenocarcinoma cells
    Malgorzata Romanowska
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Building 538 206, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:1145-55. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Gene expression dose-response changes in microarrays after exposure of human peripheral lung epithelial cells to nickel(II)
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Bldg 538, Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 191:22-39. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Cell cycle activation in lung adenocarcinoma cells by the ErbB3/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway
    Gunamani Sithanandam
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Building 538, Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Carcinogenesis 24:1581-92. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Epigenetic and gene expression changes related to transgenerational carcinogenesis
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Mol Carcinog 40:1-11. 2004

Detail Information

Publications44

  1. pmc Marked liver tumorigenesis by Helicobacter hepaticus requires perinatal exposure
    Bhalchandra A Diwan
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1352-6. 2008
    ..Although severe hepatitis and liver tumors occur in a high percentage of A/J male mice naturally infected with Helicobacter hepaticus, these effects have not been observed after injection of adult mice with the bacteria...
  2. pmc Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models
    L M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 108:573-94. 2000
    ..Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues...
  3. ncbi request reprint Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 199:85-90. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Predictive values of traditional animal bioassay studies for human perinatal carcinogenesis risk determination
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 199:162-74. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Preconceptional fasting of fathers alters serum glucose in offspring of mice
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Nutrition 22:327-31. 2006
    ..Maternal nutrition has long-term effects on offspring characteristics. Similar effects mediated through fathers have not been tested...
  6. ncbi request reprint Environmental genotoxicants/carcinogens and childhood cancer: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Mutat Res 608:136-56. 2006
    ..Investigations of interactions between factors may be key to understanding risk. Finally, fathers and newborn infants should receive more attention as especially sensitive targets...
  7. ncbi request reprint DNA damage, superoxide, and mutant K-ras in human lung adenocarcinoma cells
    Malgorzata Romanowska
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Building 538 206, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:1145-55. 2007
    ..These results suggest that persistent DNA damage in some lung adenocarcinoma cells may be caused by superoxide resulting from mutant K-ras activity, and that OGG1 is important for prevention of this damage...
  8. ncbi request reprint Gene expression dose-response changes in microarrays after exposure of human peripheral lung epithelial cells to nickel(II)
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Bldg 538, Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 191:22-39. 2003
    ..Overall, most of the genes impacted by nontoxic concentrations of nickel(II) acetate related to gene transcription, protein synthesis and stability, cytoskeleton, signaling, metabolism, cell membrane, and extracellular matrix...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cell cycle activation in lung adenocarcinoma cells by the ErbB3/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway
    Gunamani Sithanandam
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Building 538, Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Carcinogenesis 24:1581-92. 2003
    ..It could be a useful therapeutic target...
  10. ncbi request reprint Epigenetic and gene expression changes related to transgenerational carcinogenesis
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Mol Carcinog 40:1-11. 2004
    ..These results also support the hypothesis of an epigenetic and/or gene expression-based mechanism for transgenerational carcinogenesis. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  11. pmc Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) pathway characterizes effective arylated diazeniumdiolate-based nitric oxide-releasing anticancer prodrugs
    Anna E Maciag
    SAIC Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, United States
    J Med Chem 54:7751-8. 2011
    ..The data suggest that rate of reactivity with glutathione and activation of JNK/ATF3 are determinants of cancer cell killing by these prodrugs...
  12. pmc Alternate paths from epidermal growth factor receptor to Akt in malignant versus nontransformed lung epithelial cells: ErbB3 versus Gab1
    Gunamani Sithanandam
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 33:490-9. 2005
    ..Complexes of EGFR/Grb2/Gab1/Shp2 after TGF-alpha stimulation were prominent only in E10 and C10 cells. Thus, alternate pathways downstream of EGFR regulate mitosis in these paired malignant versus nontransformed lung cell lines...
  13. doi request reprint Molecular and organismal changes in offspring of male mice treated with chemical stressors
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 53:392-407. 2012
    ....
  14. pmc Structural modifications modulate stability of glutathione-activated arylated diazeniumdiolate prodrugs
    Rahul S Nandurdikar
    Drug Design Section, Chemical Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 20:3094-9. 2012
    ..We show that nitro-to-cyano substitution increases the half-life of the prodrug in the presence of GSH without compromising the compound's in vivo antitumor activity...
  15. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of ErbB3 by siRNA promotes apoptosis and attenuates growth and invasiveness of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549
    Gunamani Sithanandam
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Oncogene 24:1847-59. 2005
    ..All three Akt isoforms are to varying degrees involved in these cell behaviors, with Akt2 especially implicated in migration and invasion. ErbB3 and the Akts are promising targets for therapy, and siRNAs may be useful for this purpose...
  16. pmc Nitric oxide (NO) releasing poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitors targeted to glutathione S-transferase P1-overexpressing cancer cells
    Anna E Maciag
    Chemical Biology Laboratory, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702, United States
    J Med Chem 57:2292-302. 2014
    ..Compounds 5b and 13 reduced the growth rates of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts with no evidence of systemic toxicity. ..
  17. ncbi request reprint Mutations in the VHL gene from potassium bromate-induced rat clear cell renal tumors
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, USA
    Cancer Lett 187:207-14. 2002
    ..No VHL mutations were observed in three chromophilic tumors. KBrO(3)-induced rat renal tumors are morphologically similar to their human counterpart but the genetic basis of tumorigenesis is different...
  18. ncbi request reprint Reactive oxygen species and lung tumorigenesis by mutant K-ras: a working hypothesis
    Anna Maciag
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Exp Lung Res 31:83-104. 2005
    ..Literature is reviewed regarding generation of reactive oxygen and cyclooxygenase-2 induction by ras, cyclooxygenase-2 release of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen, and involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 and reactive oxygen in lung cancer..
  19. ncbi request reprint Effects of selenium supplementation on expression of glutathione peroxidase isoforms in cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines
    Malgorzata Romanowska
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Building 538, Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Lung Cancer 55:35-42. 2007
    ..Characterization of individual tumors with regard to GPX1 and GPX4 levels and regulation might be useful for interpretation of clinical studies on effects of selenium in lung cancer risk...
  20. pmc Anti-tumor efficacy of naked siRNAs for ERBB3 or AKT2 against lung adenocarcinoma cell xenografts
    Gunamani Sithanandam
    Basic Science Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick, MD, USA
    Int J Cancer 130:251-8. 2012
    ..There were no significant changes in serum cytokines. These results show that naked siRNAs to ERBB3 or AKT2 may have potential for lung cancer therapy...
  21. pmc Increased serum corticosterone and glucose in offspring of chromium(III)-treated male mice
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:801-4. 2002
    ..Risk of neoplasia may be influenced by these changes...
  22. ncbi request reprint Protease inhibitor-induced stabilization of p21(waf1/cip1) and cell-cycle arrest in chemical carcinogen-exposed mammary and lung cells
    Qasim A Khan
    Cellular Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Mol Carcinog 33:1-8. 2002
    ..The results suggest that failure of cell-cycle arrest in carcinogen-treated mammary and lung cells is related to increased protease-mediated degradation of p21(waf1/cip1) and/or related regulatory proteins...
  23. ncbi request reprint Increased K-ras protein and activity in mouse and human lung epithelial cells at confluence
    Wafa Kammouni
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 13:441-8. 2002
    ..In sum, increased protein expression and activity of K-ras p21 are associated with growth arrest, not with proliferation, in mouse and human lung cell lines...
  24. ncbi request reprint Allele-specific germ cell epimutation in the spacer promoter of the 45S ribosomal RNA gene after Cr(III) exposure
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, West 7th Street, Building 538, Room 205, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 205:290-6. 2005
    ..0001). Thus, one allele of the 45S rRNA spacer promoter is hypomethylated in sperm germ cells after Cr(III) exposure. This epimutation may lead to increase of tumor risk in the offspring...
  25. pmc An intergenic non-coding rRNA correlated with expression of the rRNA and frequency of an rRNA single nucleotide polymorphism in lung cancer cells
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7505. 2009
    ..We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics...
  26. pmc Ontogeny-driven rDNA rearrangement, methylation, and transcription, and paternal influence
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22266. 2011
    ..Thus, the genome is also dynamic during mammalian ontogeny and its rearrangement may trigger epigenetic changes and subsequent transcriptional controls, that are further influenced by paternal exposures...
  27. ncbi request reprint Mutant K-rasV12 increases COX-2, peroxides and DNA damage in lung cells
    Anna Maciag
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Inc, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Carcinogenesis 25:2231-7. 2004
    ..Our data suggest that up-regulation of COX-2, with a consequent increase in peroxides and DNA damage, contributes to the dominant oncogenicity of mutant K-ras...
  28. ncbi request reprint VHL down-regulation and differential localization as mechanisms in tumorigenesis
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Kidney Int 64:1671-4. 2003
    ..Early studies in animal tumors suggest that changes in VHL protein level and localization may be also important in tumorigenesis. In this study, we determined the role of VHL protein in human renal cell carcinomas...
  29. ncbi request reprint Cancer biology and hormesis: comments on Calabrese (2005)
    Lucy M Anderson
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Ft Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:583-6. 2005
    ..Further investigations are warranted, especially for therapeutic drugs, phytochemicals, and environmental toxicants...
  30. pmc The nitric oxide prodrug JS-K is effective against non-small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: involvement of reactive oxygen species
    Anna E Maciag
    SAIC Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:313-20. 2011
    ..PRX1 and OGG1 proteins, which can be easily measured, could function as biomarkers for identifying tumors sensitive to the therapy...
  31. ncbi request reprint Robustness of the Chen-Dougherty-Bittner procedure against non-normality and heterogeneity in the coefficient of variation
    Douglas A Powell
    National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Data Management Services, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Biomed Opt 7:650-60. 2002
    ..This effect mitigated the inflation in the size of the ratio as a result of increasing CV heterogeneity. These findings suggest that the Chen-Dougherty-Bittner procedure may be used even if underlying assumptions do not hold...
  32. ncbi request reprint Decrease in K-ras p21 and increase in Raf1 and activated Erk 1 and 2 in murine lung tumors initiated by N-nitrosodimethylamine and promoted by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
    Gayatri Ramakrishna
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 179:21-34. 2002
    ..TCDD may promote tumors by contributing to downregulation of K-ras and stimulation of raf-1...
  33. pmc Elevated K-ras activity with cholestyramine and lovastatin, but not konjac mannan or niacin in lung--importance of mouse strain
    Richard J Calvert
    Division of Research and Applied Technology, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 72:1749-55. 2006
    ..KM feeding and PF treatment had no significant effects on K-ras activity. These data are consistent with the concept that K-ras in lung has an oncogenic function when mutated, but may act as a tumor suppressor when wild-type...
  34. ncbi request reprint Alterations in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic K-ras protein levels in mouse lung induced by treatment with lovastatin, cholestyramine, or niacin: effects are highly mouse strain dependent
    Richard J Calvert
    Division of Research and Applied Technology, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U S Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 64:41-8. 2002
    ..A difference in response among the mouse strains suggests that individual genetic differences may alter the effect of hypocholesterolemic agents on K-ras membrane localization, and potentially the risk of ras-dependent cancer...
  35. ncbi request reprint Treatment with lovastatin, cholestyramine or niacin alters K-ras membrane association in mouse lung in a strain-dependent manner: results in females
    Richard J Calvert
    Division of Research and Applied Technology, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 66:393-403. 2003
    ..In the light of these data, both sexes should be included in future animal and human chemoprevention trials...
  36. ncbi request reprint Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in the TM4 Sertoli-like cell line exposed to chromium(III) chloride
    Robert Y S Cheng
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Box B, Building 538, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 16:223-36. 2002
    ..The largest average increase was observed for the transcription factor Bach2, and this increase was confirmed by RT-PCR. The results show that Cr(III) has significant effects on gene expression in a Sertoli-like cell line...
  37. doi request reprint Challenges and opportunities in research on early-life events/exposures and cancer development later in life
    Somdat Mahabir
    Modifiable Risk Factors Branch, Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 23:983-90. 2012
    ..This in turn has the potential to transform cancer prevention strategies through interventions in early-life rather than later in life, as is the current practice, where it is perhaps less effective...
  38. ncbi request reprint Gestation stage-specific oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage from sidestream smoke in pregnant rats and their fetuses
    Anna Maciag
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Arch Environ Health 58:238-44. 2003
    ..These gestational stage- and tissue-specific increases of 1.2- to 1.4-fold are similar to the putative relative increases in risk of human cancers related to ETS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of von Hippel-Lindau protein in N-nitroso compound-induced rat non-clear cell renal tumors
    Yih Horng Shiao
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Building 538, Room 205, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Cancer Lett 179:33-8. 2002
    ..Immunoblotting of normal kidney detected two VHL proteins of 20 and 22kDa in a 16-day-old fetal rat but only 20kDa protein in an adult rat. This is the first demonstration of VHL alteration at the protein level...
  40. pmc The biology of tobacco and nicotine: bench to bedside
    Phillip A Dennis
    Cancer Therapeutics Branch, Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:764-7. 2005
    ..Importantly, new opportunities to use molecular biology to identify and abrogate tobacco-mediated carcinogenesis and to identify high-risk individuals were recognized...
  41. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility to postnatal growth retardation induced by 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine in utero: gender specificity and correlation with reduced insulin-like growth factor 1
    Francisco Javier Cisneros
    North Carolina State University, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Department, 850 Main Campus Dr, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Life Sci 72:2887-94. 2003
    ..Our data suggest that the decreased levels of IGF-1 associated with the treatment could be the cause of the observed growth retardation in the in utero-exposed mice. A gender dimorphic effect, where males are more affected, is evident...
  42. ncbi request reprint Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) blocks proliferation of human breast cancer cells through a PKCdelta-dependent increase in p27Kip1 and decrease in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation
    Ivana Vucenik
    Department of Medical and Research Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 100 Penn Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 91:35-45. 2005
    ..Our data suggest potential usefulness of IP6 as a novel therapeutic modulator of PKC delta and p27Kip1, an important prognostic factor in human breast cancers...
  43. ncbi request reprint DNA adducts and liver DNA replication in rats during chronic exposure to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and their relationships to the dose-dependence of NDMA hepatocarcinogenesis
    Vassilis L Souliotis
    National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635, Greece
    Mutat Res 500:75-87. 2002
    ..These results suggest that, in addition to the accumulation of DNA damage, alterations in hepatocyte DNA replication during the chronic NDMA exposure may influence the dose-dependence of its carcinogenic efficacy...
  44. ncbi request reprint Intra- and intercellular variations in the repair efficiency of O6-methylguanine, and their contribution to kinetic complexity
    Vassilis L Souliotis
    National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Ave, Athens 11635, Greece
    Mutat Res 568:155-70. 2004
    ..The additional cellular factors involved appear not to be related to the transcriptional state of the sequences being repaired, but may reflect different states of chromatin condensation...