Scott M Smith


Affiliation: NASA Ames Research Center
Country: USA


  1. Zwart S, Gregory J, Zeisel S, Gibson C, Mader T, Kinchen J, et al. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes. FASEB J. 2016;30:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients. ..
  2. Smith S, Gardner K, Locke J, Zwart S. Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1092-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings also have implications for other persons with limited ultraviolet light exposure, including polar workers and the elderly. ..
  3. Smith S, Heer M, Shackelford L, Sibonga J, Spatz J, Pietrzyk R, et al. Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions. Bone. 2015;81:712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Key questions remain about the effect of exercise-induced alterations in bone metabolism on bone strength and fracture risk. ..
  4. Smith S, Zwart S. Magnesium and Space Flight. Nutrients. 2015;7:10209-22 pubmed publisher
    ..While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. ..
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    Smith S, Wastney M, O Brien K, Morukov B, Larina I, Abrams S, et al. Bone markers, calcium metabolism, and calcium kinetics during extended-duration space flight on the mir space station. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:208-18 pubmed
    ..01). These bone marker and calcium kinetic studies indicated that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. ..
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    Smith S, Zwart S, Block G, Rice B, Davis Street J. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station. J Nutr. 2005;135:437-43 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers. ..
  7. Smith S, Zwart S, Heer M, Baecker N, Evans H, Feiveson A, et al. Effects of artificial gravity during bed rest on bone metabolism in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..05) effect of time for whole body total BMC and total hip and trochanter BMD. These data failed to demonstrate efficacy of this AG prescription to prevent the changes in bone metabolism observed during 3 wk of bed rest. ..
  8. Smith S, Heer M, Wang Z, Huntoon C, Zwart S. Long-duration space flight and bed rest effects on testosterone and other steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. ..
  9. Smith S, Heer M, Shackelford L, Sibonga J, Ploutz Snyder L, Zwart S. Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence that improving nutrition and resistance exercise during spaceflight can attenuate the expected BMD deficits previously observed after prolonged missions. ..

More Information


  1. Zwart S, Gibson C, Gregory J, Mader T, Stover P, Zeisel S, et al. Astronaut ophthalmic syndrome. FASEB J. 2017;31:3746-3756 pubmed publisher
    ..Zwart, S. R., Gibson, C. R., Gregory, J. F., Mader, T. H., Stover, P. J., Zeisel, S. H., Smith, S. M. Astronaut ophthalmic syndrome. ..
  2. Heacox H, Gillman P, Zwart S, Smith S. Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity. J Nutr. 2017;147:1113-1120 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the importance of determining dietary requirements for astronauts on space missions and ensuring provision and intake of all nutrients. ..