Scott M Smith

Summary

Affiliation: NASA Ames Research Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research
    S M Smith
    Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 email
    Annu Rev Nutr 34:377-400. 2014
  2. pmc Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight
    Sara R Zwart
    Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 26:948-54. 2011
  3. pmc Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth
    Scott M Smith
    Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Nutrients 4:2047-68. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1896-906. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project
    Scott M Smith
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 134:1765-71. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period
    S M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 74:336-41. 2004
  7. doi request reprint Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter
    Scott M Smith
    Space Life Sciences Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1092-8. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Bone markers, calcium metabolism, and calcium kinetics during extended-duration space flight on the mir space station
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 20:208-18. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 135:437-43. 2005
  10. pmc Effects of artificial gravity during bed rest on bone metabolism in humans
    S M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 107:47-53. 2009

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research
    S M Smith
    Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 email
    Annu Rev Nutr 34:377-400. 2014
    ..Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth. ..
  2. pmc Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight
    Sara R Zwart
    Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 26:948-54. 2011
    ..The data presented here do not support either a need for vitamin K supplementation during spaceflight or the suggestion of using vitamin K as a bone loss countermeasure in spaceflight...
  3. pmc Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth
    Scott M Smith
    Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Nutrients 4:2047-68. 2012
    ..It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight...
  4. doi request reprint Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1896-906. 2012
    ..This is the first evidence that improving nutrition and resistance exercise during spaceflight can attenuate the expected BMD deficits previously observed after prolonged missions...
  5. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project
    Scott M Smith
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 134:1765-71. 2004
    ..Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures...
  6. ncbi request reprint Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period
    S M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 74:336-41. 2004
    ..In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings...
  7. doi request reprint Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter
    Scott M Smith
    Space Life Sciences Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1092-8. 2009
    ..Persons with limited exposure to ultraviolet B light, including space travelers, may not receive enough vitamin D. Recent studies indicate that optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] should be > or = 80 nmol/L...
  8. ncbi request reprint Bone markers, calcium metabolism, and calcium kinetics during extended-duration space flight on the mir space station
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 20:208-18. 2005
    ..Bone markers, calcitropic hormones, and calcium kinetics of crew members on space missions of 4-6 months were evaluated. Spaceflight-induced bone loss was associated with increased bone resorption and decreased calcium absorption...
  9. ncbi request reprint The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 135:437-43. 2005
    ..These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers...
  10. pmc Effects of artificial gravity during bed rest on bone metabolism in humans
    S M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 107:47-53. 2009
    ..05) effect of time for whole body total BMC and total hip and trochanter BMD. These data failed to demonstrate efficacy of this AG prescription to prevent the changes in bone metabolism observed during 3 wk of bed rest...
  11. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status is altered in the self-neglecting elderly
    Scott M Smith
    Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 136:2534-41. 2006
    ..Evaluation of these data in relation to other functional and cognitive assessments are critical for evaluating the relation between nutrition and self-neglect...
  12. doi request reprint WISE-2005: supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and flywheel resistive exercise as a countermeasure to bed rest-induced bone loss in women during 60-day simulated microgravity
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Bone 42:572-81. 2008
    ..The combination of resistive and aerobic exercise did not prevent bone resorption but did promote bone formation, and helped mitigate the net bone loss associated with simulated microgravity...
  13. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber as a countermeasure for weightlessness-induced bone loss: a bed rest study with identical twins
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 18:2223-30. 2003
    ..Eight pairs of identical twins were randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups. Exercise within LBNP decreased the bone resorption caused by bed rest and may provide a countermeasure for spaceflight...
  14. ncbi request reprint Thyroid status of Space Shuttle crewmembers: effects of iodine removal
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, Space Medicine Division, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Attn Mail Code SK3, 101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 82:49-51. 2011
    ..We report here thyroid hormone data from crews flying before and after this system was implemented...
  15. pmc Long-duration space flight and bed rest effects on testosterone and other steroids
    Scott M Smith
    Space Life Sciences Directorate, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:270-8. 2012
    ..Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss...
  16. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status assessment before, during, and after long-duration head-down bed rest
    Sara R Zwart
    Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 80:A15-22. 2009
    ..Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes that are associated with spaceflight. Nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 d of head-down bed rest were evaluated...
  17. pmc Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest
    Jennifer L L Morgan
    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 113:1519-29. 2012
    ..Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration...
  18. pmc Lower body negative pressure treadmill exercise as a countermeasure for bed rest-induced bone loss in female identical twins
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Bone 40:529-37. 2007
    ..Dietary acid load of these female subjects was significantly correlated with calcium excretion but not with other bone resorption markers...
  19. ncbi request reprint The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects
    Sara R Zwart
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1058-65. 2004
    ..Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss...
  20. doi request reprint Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station
    Sara R Zwart
    Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 98:217-23. 2013
    ..Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone...
  21. ncbi request reprint Skeletal effects of long-duration head-down bed rest
    Elisabeth R Spector
    Bone and Mineral Laboratory, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 80:A23-8. 2009
    ..This study was undertaken by the NASA Flight Analogs Project (FAP) to collect control data for upcoming countermeasure studies...
  22. pmc Saturation diving alters folate status and biomarkers of DNA damage and repair
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31058. 2012
    ..In addition, folate status decreases quickly in this environment, and this study provides evidence that folate requirements may be greater when body iron stores and DNA damage repair responses are elevated...
  23. doi request reprint A 250 μg/week dose of vitamin D was as effective as a 50 μg/d dose in healthy adults, but a regimen of four weekly followed by monthly doses of 1250 μg raised the risk of hypercalciuria
    Sara R Zwart
    Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    Br J Nutr 110:1866-72. 2013
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent one-carbon metabolism
    Sara R Zwart
    Division of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    J Nutr 142:427-31. 2012
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Adv Clin Chem 46:87-130. 2008
    ..We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond...
  26. doi request reprint Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device
    James A Loehr
    Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:146-56. 2011
    ..The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise...
  27. ncbi request reprint Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Nutrition 18:849-52. 2002
    ..It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss...
  28. ncbi request reprint Effects of 21 days of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity, on nutritional status of humans
    S R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 107:54-62. 2009
    ..These data provide evidence that artificial gravity itself does not negatively affect nutritional status during bed rest. Likewise, artificial gravity has no protective effect on nutritional status during bed rest...
  29. ncbi request reprint Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight
    Scott M Smith
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Nutrition 18:864-6. 2002
    ..Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood...
  30. ncbi request reprint Increased dietary iron and radiation in rats promote oxidative stress, induce localized and systemic immune system responses, and alter colon mucosal environment
    Jennifer L L Morgan
    1Mail Code SK3, 2101 NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    FASEB J 28:1486-98. 2014
    ..The model presented may help us better understand the changes to these systems that have been identified among astronauts...
  31. ncbi request reprint Assessment of urinary N-telopeptide: point-of-care testing, sample types, and relationship to urinary helical peptide excretion
    Sara R Zwart
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Clin Chim Acta 372:65-9. 2006
    ..Helical peptide (HP), another crosslink, was compared in second voids and 24-h urine pools...
  32. doi request reprint Stability of analytes related to clinical chemistry and bone metabolism in blood specimens after delayed processing
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Biochem 42:907-10. 2009
    ..We investigated the stability of 36 analytes related to clinical chemistry in a controlled storage study...
  33. ncbi request reprint Capacity of omega-3 fatty acids or eicosapentaenoic acid to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation: from cells to bed rest to astronauts
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, NASA Johnson Space Center, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 25:1049-57. 2010
    ..62, p < .05). Together these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for EPA to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight...
  34. doi request reprint Body iron stores and oxidative damage in humans increased during and after a 10- to 12-day undersea dive
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 139:90-5. 2009
    ..Labile plasma iron was measurable only during the dive. These data indicate that the NEEMO environment increases body iron stores and labile forms of iron, which may contribute to oxidative damage...
  35. pmc The role of nutritional research in the success of human space flight
    Helen W Lane
    Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX
    Adv Nutr 4:521-3. 2013
    ..Food development has improved nutritional quality as well as safety and acceptability. ..
  36. ncbi request reprint Sedentary long-duration head-down bed rest and ECG repolarization heterogeneity
    Chris Sakowski
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 82:416-23. 2011
    ..Based on prior observations of lengthening of the QTc interval during long-duration spaceflight, we hypothesized that abnormalities in ECG repolarization would also occur during long-duration HDBR...
  37. ncbi request reprint Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs
    Scott M Smith
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    Nutrition 18:926-9. 2002
    ..This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section...
  38. ncbi request reprint Training with the International Space Station interim resistive exercise device
    Suzanne M Schneider
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1935-45. 2003
    ..A unique, interim elastomer-based resistive exercise device (iRED) is being used on the International Space Station...
  39. ncbi request reprint Response to vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter is related to BMI, and supplementation can mitigate Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation
    Sara R Zwart
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 141:692-7. 2011
    ..The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica...
  40. ncbi request reprint Nutritional biochemistry of space flight
    S M Smith
    Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Life Sciences Research Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Life Support Biosph Sci 6:5-8. 1999
    ..Providing the required nutrients is also limited by the types of foods that can be provided by the food system on board the space craft, and the dietary habits of space crews...
  41. ncbi request reprint Gravity and space flight: effects on nutritional status
    S M Smith
    Life Sciences Research Laboratories SD3, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:335-8. 1999
    ..The surge in life sciences research during this decade serves as a preamble to the opportunities to be provided by the latest addition to the Earth-orbiting structures--the International Space Station...
  42. ncbi request reprint Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans
    S M Smith
    Life Sciences Research Laboratories, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center Houston TX 77058, USA
    J Nutr 131:2053-61. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight...
  43. ncbi request reprint Collagen cross-link excretion during space flight and bed rest
    S M Smith
    Life Sciences Research Laboratories, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3584-91. 1998
    ..e. within days to weeks) suggests that alterations in bone metabolism are an early effect of weightlessness. These studies are important for a better understanding of bone metabolism in space crews and in those who are bedridden...
  44. ncbi request reprint Calcium metabolism before, during, and after a 3-mo spaceflight: kinetic and biochemical changes
    S M Smith
    Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Life Sciences Research Laboratories, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    Am J Physiol 277:R1-10. 1999
    ..Further studies are required to determine the time course of changes in calcium homeostasis during flight to develop and assess countermeasures against flight-induced bone loss...
  45. ncbi request reprint The use of chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate as a urine preservative
    Jeannie L Nillen
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, Wyle Laboratories, USA
    Clin Lab Sci 17:149-54. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate a preservative that would reduce the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity and would be safe for personnel...
  46. doi request reprint Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS
    S R Zwart
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Div, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Food Sci 74:H209-17. 2009
    ..This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions...
  47. ncbi request reprint Men and women in space: bone loss and kidney stone risk after long-duration spaceflight
    Scott M Smith
    Human Health and Performance Directorate, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 29:1639-45. 2014
    ..The responses of men and women to spaceflight with respect to these measures of bone health were not different. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. ..
  48. ncbi request reprint Stability of i-Stat EC6+ cartridges: effect of storage temperature on shelf life
    Myra D Smith
    Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Chem 50:669-73. 2004
  49. ncbi request reprint Stability of blood analytes after storage in BD SST tubes for 12 mo
    Grace Mathew
    Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Biochem 42:1732-4. 2009
    ..We studied the stability of 33 analytes related to clinical chemistry, bone, and vitamin metabolism, after storage in serum separator tubes (SST)...
  50. ncbi request reprint Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight
    S M Smith
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Adv Space Biol Med 6:123-65. 1997
    ..More complete knowledge of these processes can be expected to produce countermeasures that are even more successful, as well as expand our comprehension of the range of adaptability of human physiologic processes...
  51. ncbi request reprint Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective
    D L Harm
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 91:2374-83. 2001
    ..Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se...
  52. ncbi request reprint Vitamin D deficiency associated with self-neglect in the elderly
    Koko Aung
    CREST, University of Texas Medical School Houston, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio Division of General Internal Medicine, 78229 3901, USA
    J Elder Abuse Negl 18:63-78. 2006
    ..Vitamin D deficiency is common in elders. However, little is known about the implications of vitamin D deficiency in elder self-neglect...
  53. ncbi request reprint Space exercise and Earth benefits
    Brandon R Macias
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Diego, 350 Dickinson Street, Suite 121, San Diego, CA 92103 8894, USA
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol 6:305-17. 2005
    ..Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients...
  54. ncbi request reprint Natural calcium isotopic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance
    Joseph Skulan
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Clin Chem 53:1155-8. 2007
    ..If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques...
  55. ncbi request reprint The making of a self-neglect severity scale
    Carmel Bitondo Dyer
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School Houston, Harris County Hospital District, USA
    J Elder Abuse Negl 18:13-23. 2006
    ..The lack of a gold standard to measure self-neglect has hampered efforts to study this phenomenon...
  56. ncbi request reprint Smart medical systems with application to nutrition and fitness in space
    Babs R Soller
    Department of Surgery and Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nutrition 18:930-6. 2002
    ..Earth-based application of these sensors is also described...