Mary E Klotman

Summary

Affiliation: Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Defensins in innate antiviral immunity
    Mary E Klotman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1090, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:447-56. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint PRO 2000 gel inhibits HIV and herpes simplex virus infection following vaginal application: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
    Marla J Keller
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:27-35. 2006
  3. doi request reprint HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage response in renal tubule epithelial cells
    Paul E Rosenstiel
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    AIDS 23:2054-6. 2009
  4. pmc Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced human defensins 5 and 6 increase HIV infectivity: role in enhanced transmission
    Mary E Klotman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Immunol 180:6176-85. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint ACIDFORM inactivates herpes simplex virus and prevents genital herpes in a mouse model: optimal candidate for microbicide combinations
    Ana C G Tuyama
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:795-803. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 infection initiates an inflammatory cascade in human renal tubular epithelial cells
    Michael J Ross
    Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:1-11. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide suppresses HIV infection in human primary macrophages through induction of innate immunity
    Xinyan Liu
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:751-9. 2006
  8. pmc FAT10: a novel mediator of Vpr-induced apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy
    Alexandra Snyder
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Box 1243, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:11983-8. 2009
  9. pmc SAMMA, a mandelic acid condensation polymer, inhibits dendritic cell-mediated HIV transmission
    Theresa L Chang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1090, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FEBS Lett 581:4596-602. 2007
  10. pmc The differential binding and activity of PRO 2000 against diverse HIV-1 envelopes
    Darpun D Sachdev
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:125-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Defensins in innate antiviral immunity
    Mary E Klotman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1090, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:447-56. 2006
    ..Understanding the complex function of defensins in innate immunity against viral infection has implications for the prevention and treatment of viral disease...
  2. ncbi request reprint PRO 2000 gel inhibits HIV and herpes simplex virus infection following vaginal application: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
    Marla J Keller
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:27-35. 2006
    ..This study was designed to determine the antiviral activity in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected after intravaginal application of 0.5% PRO 2000 gel (Indevus)...
  3. doi request reprint HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage response in renal tubule epithelial cells
    Paul E Rosenstiel
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    AIDS 23:2054-6. 2009
    ..Here, we report that Vpr activates the DNA damage response resulting in the observed renal phenotype. Renal sections from the HIVAN transgenic mouse model and human biopsies both show an abundant DNA damage response...
  4. pmc Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced human defensins 5 and 6 increase HIV infectivity: role in enhanced transmission
    Mary E Klotman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Immunol 180:6176-85. 2008
    ..Furthermore, this study demonstrates the complexity of defensins as innate immune mediators in HIV transmission and warrants further investigation of the mechanism by which defensins modulate HIV infection...
  5. ncbi request reprint ACIDFORM inactivates herpes simplex virus and prevents genital herpes in a mouse model: optimal candidate for microbicide combinations
    Ana C G Tuyama
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:795-803. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that ACIDFORM offers considerable protection against HSV and may be an optimal candidate for developing combination microbicides...
  6. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 infection initiates an inflammatory cascade in human renal tubular epithelial cells
    Michael J Ross
    Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:1-11. 2006
    ..These studies provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which HIV-1 infection of tubular epithelial cells leads to tubulointerstitial inflammation and progressive renal injury...
  7. ncbi request reprint Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide suppresses HIV infection in human primary macrophages through induction of innate immunity
    Xinyan Liu
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:751-9. 2006
    ..We conclude that LOS expressed by various strains of N. gonorrhoeae induce specific innate immune responses through TLR4 signaling, resulting in anti-HIV activity in human primary macrophages in vitro...
  8. pmc FAT10: a novel mediator of Vpr-induced apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy
    Alexandra Snyder
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Box 1243, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:11983-8. 2009
    ..Moreover, we found that Vpr interacts with FAT10 and that these proteins colocalize at mitochondria. These studies establish FAT10 as a novel mediator of Vpr-induced cell death...
  9. pmc SAMMA, a mandelic acid condensation polymer, inhibits dendritic cell-mediated HIV transmission
    Theresa L Chang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1090, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FEBS Lett 581:4596-602. 2007
    ..In addition, SAMMA blocked HIV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion. This study suggests that SAMMA prevents HIV infection through multiple mechanisms...
  10. pmc The differential binding and activity of PRO 2000 against diverse HIV-1 envelopes
    Darpun D Sachdev
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:125-9. 2009
    ..We studied the breadth of PRO 2000 activity against HIV-1 derived from recently transmitted R5 viruses. We also investigated the interaction of this compound with X4 and R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins using an epitope-mapping strategy...
  11. pmc Neisseria gonorrhoeae enhances HIV-1 infection of primary resting CD4+ T cells through TLR2 activation
    Jian Ding
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Immunol 184:2814-24. 2010
    ..This study provides a molecular mechanism by which nonulcerative sexually transmitted infections mediate enhancement of HIV infection and has implication for HIV prevention and therapeutics...
  12. ncbi request reprint Dual tropism of HIV-1 envelopes derived from renal tubular epithelial cells of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy
    Bouchra Zerhouni-Layachi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    AIDS 20:621-4. 2006
    ..HIV-1 variants derived from renal epithelium were dual tropic whereas simultaneously derived viruses from PBMC were R5-tropic. Utilization of alternative co-receptors CCR3, BONZO and BOB, also differed...
  13. pmc Inhibitory effect of PRO 2000, a candidate microbicide, on dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transfer
    Natalia Teleshova
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1751-8. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc Prothymosin-alpha inhibits HIV-1 via Toll-like receptor 4-mediated type I interferon induction
    Arevik Mosoian
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10178-83. 2010
    ..Understanding the mechanism of IFN induction by ProTalpha may provide therapeutic leads for IFN-sensitive viruses...
  15. pmc HIV-1 viral protein r induces ERK and caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells
    Alexandra Snyder
    Department of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    AIDS 24:1107-19. 2010
    ..HIV-1 viral protein r (Vpr) has been implicated in HIV-induced RTEC apoptosis but the mechanisms of Vpr-induced RTEC apoptosis are unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the mechanisms of Vpr-induced apoptosis in RTEC...
  16. doi request reprint HIV-1 Vpr inhibits cytokinesis in human proximal tubule cells
    Paul E Rosenstiel
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Kidney Int 74:1049-58. 2008
    ..Our study provides evidence of a new clinical phenotype in HIVAN that may result from the ability of Vpr to impair cytokinesis...
  17. pmc Virological synapses allow HIV-1 uptake and gene expression in renal tubular epithelial cells
    Ping Chen
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 22:496-507. 2011
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Cervicovaginal secretions contribute to innate resistance to herpes simplex virus infection
    Minnie John
    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1731-40. 2005
    ..In contrast, all 15 mice challenged with untreated HSV-2 died. These findings are evidence that cervicovaginal secretions contribute to innate resistance to HSV-2 and identify defensins as contributors to this activity...
  19. pmc CAF-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 transcriptional inhibition is distinct from alpha-defensin-1 HIV inhibition
    Theresa Li Yun Chang
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 77:6777-84. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that alpha-defensin-1 inhibits HIV-1 infection following viral entry but that alpha-defensins 1 to 3 are not responsible for the HIV-1 transcriptional inhibition by CAF...
  20. ncbi request reprint alpha-Defensin inhibits influenza virus replication by cell-mediated mechanism(s)
    Mirella Salvatore
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 100129, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:835-43. 2007
    ..Our data expand the previously known activity of alpha -defensins against influenza virus. Characterizing the mechanism of action of alpha -defensins may lead to the identification of new strategies for prevention and therapy...
  21. ncbi request reprint Role of ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 in epithelial apoptosis in renal disease
    Michael J Ross
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Box 1243, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 17:996-1004. 2006
    ..These results suggest a novel role for FAT10 in epithelial apoptosis, which is an important component of the pathogenesis of many renal diseases...
  22. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 extrachromosomal 2-LTR circular DNA is long-lived in human macrophages
    Laura Gillim-Ross
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Viral Immunol 18:190-6. 2005
    ..Furthermore, exrachromosomal circular DNA in this cell population could be a source of persisent viral protein expression...
  23. pmc The spectrum of kidney disease in patients with AIDS in the era of antiretroviral therapy
    Christina M Wyatt
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Kidney Int 75:428-34. 2009
    ....
  24. pmc A soluble factor(s) secreted from CD8(+) T lymphocytes inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication through STAT1 activation
    Theresa Li Yun Chang
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Public Health Research Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:569-81. 2002
    ..This study therefore helps clarify one molecular mechanism of host defense against HIV-1...
  25. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infects human hepatic stellate cells and promotes collagen I and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression: implications for the pathogenesis of HIV/hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis
    Ana C Tuyama
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Hepatology 52:612-22. 2010
    ..The role of early highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection warrants further investigation...
  26. pmc Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication following viral entry in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages
    Fleur Francois
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 77:2539-49. 2003
    ..This type of host-virus interaction has implications for anti-HIV therapeutics that target cellular signaling machinery...
  27. ncbi request reprint Chronic kidney disease in HIV infection: an urban epidemic
    Christina M Wyatt
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    AIDS 21:2101-3. 2007
    ..These data suggest that chronic kidney disease remains a common complication of HIV infection in the era of antiretroviral therapy...
  28. ncbi request reprint Lentiviral gene transduction of kidney
    G Luca Gusella
    Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 13:407-14. 2002
    ..These results provide the first evidence that lentiviral vectors can stably transduce renal cells in vivo and may be effective vehicles for gene delivery to the kidney...
  29. ncbi request reprint Replication and compartmentalization of HIV-1 in kidney epithelium of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy
    Daniele Marras
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicien, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Med 8:522-6. 2002
    ..These data, along with the detection of HIV-1-specific proviral DNA and mRNA in tubular epithelium cells, argue strongly for localized replication of HIV-1 in the kidney and the existence of a renal viral reservoir...
  30. ncbi request reprint The homophilic adhesion molecule sidekick-1 contributes to augmented podocyte aggregation in HIV-associated nephropathy
    Lewis Kaufman
    Mt Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Box 1243, One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FASEB J 21:1367-75. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that sdk-1 is an important mediator of cellular adhesion in HIV-infected podocytes and may contribute to podocyte clustering that is characteristic of pseudocrescent formation in HIVAN...
  31. ncbi request reprint Podocan, a novel small leucine-rich repeat protein expressed in the sclerotic glomerular lesion of experimental HIV-associated nephropathy
    Michael D Ross
    Department of Medicine, Divisions of Nephrology and Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:33248-55. 2003
    ..Thus, podocan defines a new class within the SLR protein family and is a previously unrecognized component of the sclerotic glomerular lesion that develops in the course of experimental HIVAN...
  32. ncbi request reprint In vivo gene transfer to kidney by lentiviral vector
    G Luca Gusella
    Divisions of Nephrology and Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Kidney Int 61:S32-6. 2002
    ..To date, the potential of lentiviral vectors to transfer genes in kidney has not been investigated. The scope of this work was to analyze the efficiencies of in vivo transduction of kidney by a lentiviral vector...
  33. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Nef induces proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in podocytes
    Mohammad Husain
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 13:1806-15. 2002
    ..These data indicate that Nef induces multiple proliferative effects in podocytes in culture and that nef may therefore be an important gene in the pathogenesis of HIVAN in vivo...
  34. pmc Nef stimulates proliferation of glomerular podocytes through activation of Src-dependent Stat3 and MAPK1,2 pathways
    John Cijiang He
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:643-51. 2004
    ..These data suggest that Nef-induced activation of Stat3 and Ras-MAPK1,2 via Src-dependent pathways is responsible for podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation, a characteristic finding in collapsing FSGS of HIVAN...
  35. ncbi request reprint Nef expressed from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 extrachromosomal DNA downregulates CD4 on primary CD4+ T lymphocytes: implications for integrase inhibitors
    Laura Gillim-Ross
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Gen Virol 86:765-71. 2005
    ..These results suggest that proteins expressed in the absence of integration may have potential clinical consequences, an issue that should be further explored with the introduction of IN inhibitors...
  36. ncbi request reprint Topical microbicides: the time has come
    Darpun Dhawan
    Division of Infectious Disease, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA
    AIDS Read 16:144-8, 155-8, 161; discussion 148, 156-7. 2006
    ....
  37. pmc Candidate sulfonated and sulfated topical microbicides: comparison of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities and mechanisms of action
    Irini A Scordi-Bello
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3607-15. 2005
    ..When mixed with cervicovaginal lavage fluid, SPs maintain inhibitory activity at concentrations achievable in formulations...
  38. pmc Dual role of alpha-defensin-1 in anti-HIV-1 innate immunity
    Theresa L Chang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:765-73. 2005
    ..Studying the complex function of alpha-defensin-1 in innate immunity against HIV has implications for prevention as well as therapeutics...
  39. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Nef induces dedifferentiation of podocytes in vivo: a characteristic feature of HIVAN
    Mohammad Husain
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA
    AIDS 19:1975-80. 2005
    ..To determine the specific role of Nef in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy...
  40. ncbi request reprint Acute renal failure in hospitalized patients with HIV: risk factors and impact on in-hospital mortality
    Christina M Wyatt
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    AIDS 20:561-5. 2006
    ..Kidney disease is an increasingly important complication of HIV...
  41. ncbi request reprint Rigorous pre-clinical evaluation of topical microbicides to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus
    Marla J Keller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Box 1657, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:1099-102. 2003
  42. ncbi request reprint Defensins: natural anti-HIV peptides
    Theresa L Chang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    AIDS Rev 6:161-8. 2004
    ....
  43. pmc Candidate topical microbicides bind herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B and prevent viral entry and cell-to-cell spread
    Natalia Cheshenko
    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1657, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2025-36. 2004
    ..These studies support further development and rigorous evaluation of these candidate microbicides...
  44. ncbi request reprint Mutations in the chemokine receptor gene CXCR4 are associated with WHIM syndrome, a combined immunodeficiency disease
    Paolo A Hernandez
    Department of Human Genetics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Genet 34:70-4. 2003
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Polarity of alpha-galactosidase A uptake by renal tubule cells
    Aaron S Stern
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Kidney Int 61:S52-5. 2002
    ..Fabry disease is an attractive candidate for gene therapy, but uptake mechanisms of the enzyme must be understood for it to be used in treating patients with Fabry disease...
  46. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 dynamics in haemodialysis patients
    Elissa J Schwartz
    AIDS 16:1301-3. 2002
  47. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects human arterial smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro: implications for the pathogenesis of HIV-mediated vascular disease
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    Am J Pathol 172:1100-11. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that direct infection of human arterial SMCs by HIV represents a potential mechanism in a multifactorial paradigm to explain the exacerbated atherosclerosis and vasculopathy reported in individuals infected with HIV...
  48. ncbi request reprint Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the epidemic of HIV+ end-stage renal disease
    Elissa J Schwartz
    Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 16:2412-20. 2005
    ..It is concluded that prevention of progression to ESRD should focus on early antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infected patients who have evidence of HIV-associated nephropathy...
  49. ncbi request reprint Retroviral E-DNA: persistence and gene expression in nondividing immune cells
    Andrea Cara
    Department of Drug Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Itlay
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1013-7. 2006
    ..This review is focused on recent work in this field with an emphasis on exploring the potential role of E-DNA in both pathogenesis of retroviral infections, especially HIV-1, and as a tool to deliver and express genes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Persulfated molecular umbrellas as anti-HIV and anti-HSV agents
    Bingwen Jing
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 126:15930-1. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Successful immunization with a single injection of non-integrating lentiviral vector
    Donatella R M Negri
    Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Mol Ther 15:1716-23. 2007
    ..These data provide evidence that a single administration of an IN-defective sinLV elicits a significant immune response in the absence of vector integration and may be a safe and useful strategy for vaccine development...