Garrett Gross

Summary

Affiliation: Medical College of Wisconsin
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-induced cardioprotection against infarction in intact rat hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA Electronic address
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 59:20-9. 2013
  2. pmc Factors mediating remote preconditioning of trauma in the rat heart: central role of the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase pathway in mediating infarct size reduction
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 18:38-45. 2013
  3. pmc Acute and chronic cardioprotection by the enkephalin analogue, Eribis peptide 94, is mediated via activation of nitric oxide synthase and adenosine triphosphate-regulated potassium channels
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pharmacology 90:110-6. 2012
  4. pmc Eribis peptide 94 reduces infarct size in rat hearts via activation of centrally located μ opioid receptors
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 59:194-7. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint The JAK/STAT pathway is essential for opioid-induced cardioprotection: JAK2 as a mediator of STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3 beta
    Eric R Gross
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H827-34. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 and arachidonic acid metabolites: role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury revisited
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 68:18-25. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotection following adenosine kinase inhibition in rat hearts
    J N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 100:328-36. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Extending the cardioprotective window using a novel delta-opioid agonist fentanyl isothiocyanate via the PI3-kinase pathway
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H2744-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Effect of COX-1/COX-2 inhibition versus selective COX-2 inhibition on coronary vasodilator responses to arachidonic acid and acetylcholine
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc 53226 3548, USA
    Pharmacology 71:135-42. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Acute aspirin treatment abolishes, whereas acute ibuprofen treatment enhances morphine-induced cardioprotection: role of 12-lipoxygenase
    Eric R Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:185-91. 2004

Research Grants

  1. Cytochrome P450 Eicosanoids and Myocardial Injury
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Effect of Drugs on Myocardial Hypoxia
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. EFFECT OF DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. EFFECT OF DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 1993
  5. DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 1999
  6. Effect of Drugs on Myocardial Hypoxia
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications75

  1. pmc Roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-induced cardioprotection against infarction in intact rat hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA Electronic address
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 59:20-9. 2013
    ....
  2. pmc Factors mediating remote preconditioning of trauma in the rat heart: central role of the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase pathway in mediating infarct size reduction
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 18:38-45. 2013
    ..3% ± 1.3%). The 2 EET antagonists completely blocked capsaicin-induced cardioprotection. These results clearly suggest that EETs mediate RPCT-, bradykinin- and capsaicin-induced cardioprotection in rat hearts...
  3. pmc Acute and chronic cardioprotection by the enkephalin analogue, Eribis peptide 94, is mediated via activation of nitric oxide synthase and adenosine triphosphate-regulated potassium channels
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pharmacology 90:110-6. 2012
    ..Eribis peptide 94 (EP 94) is a new enkephalin derivative which potently binds to the µ- and δ-opioid receptor. In this study, we determined the effects of EP 94 and potential mechanism(s) involved in cardioprotection of the rat heart...
  4. pmc Eribis peptide 94 reduces infarct size in rat hearts via activation of centrally located μ opioid receptors
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 59:194-7. 2012
    ..These results suggest that EP 94 reduces infarct size (expressed as a percent of the area at risk) in the rat primarily via activation of central μ opioid receptors...
  5. ncbi request reprint The JAK/STAT pathway is essential for opioid-induced cardioprotection: JAK2 as a mediator of STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3 beta
    Eric R Gross
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H827-34. 2006
    ..These data suggest that OIC occurs via the JAK2 regulation of PI3K pathway-dependent STAT3, Akt, and GSK-3 beta, with GSK-3 beta contributing a central role in acute OIC...
  6. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 and arachidonic acid metabolites: role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury revisited
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 68:18-25. 2005
    ..The therapeutic potential of increasing EET concentrations and/or reducing 20-HETE concentrations will also be addressed...
  7. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotection following adenosine kinase inhibition in rat hearts
    J N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 100:328-36. 2005
    ..8%). These data suggest that inhibition of adenosine kinase is effective in reducing infarct development via A(1)AR, A(3)AR and DOR activation. Data also suggest that this protection is mediated via ROS, PKC-delta and mitoK(ATP) channels...
  8. ncbi request reprint Extending the cardioprotective window using a novel delta-opioid agonist fentanyl isothiocyanate via the PI3-kinase pathway
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H2744-9. 2005
    ..These data suggest that FIT has a prolonged cardioprotective window greater than that of any previously described cardioprotective agent that requires PI3K primarily in the trigger phase but also partially, as a mediator or end effector...
  9. ncbi request reprint Effect of COX-1/COX-2 inhibition versus selective COX-2 inhibition on coronary vasodilator responses to arachidonic acid and acetylcholine
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc 53226 3548, USA
    Pharmacology 71:135-42. 2004
    ..These data also suggest that vasodilatory responses to AA in the dog are primarily COX-1 dependent. Selective COX-2 inhibition does not affect either prostacyclin or nitric oxide mediated vasodilation in the canine coronary circulation...
  10. ncbi request reprint Acute aspirin treatment abolishes, whereas acute ibuprofen treatment enhances morphine-induced cardioprotection: role of 12-lipoxygenase
    Eric R Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:185-91. 2004
    ..Furthermore, acute aspirin administration has a detrimental interaction with morphine that abrogates morphine-induced infarct size reduction...
  11. pmc Reperfusion injury: does it exist?
    Garrett J Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 42:12-8. 2007
    ....
  12. pmc Mechanisms by which epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) elicit cardioprotection in rat hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 42:687-91. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Pharmacologic therapeutics for cardiac reperfusion injury
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 12:367-88. 2007
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Delayed cardioprotection afforded by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor SB-216763 occurs via a KATP- and MPTP-dependent mechanism at reperfusion
    Eric R Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H1497-500. 2008
    ..Hence, GSK inhibition reduces infarct size when given 24 h before the administration via the opening K(ATP) channels and MPTP closure...
  15. pmc Effects of the selective EET antagonist, 14,15-EEZE, on cardioprotection produced by exogenous or endogenous EETs in the canine heart
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H2838-44. 2008
    ..These data also suggest that 14,15-EEZE is not blocking the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel as a mechanism for antagonizing the cardioprotective effects of the EETs...
  16. pmc Evidence for role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in mediating ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning in dog
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H47-52. 2009
    ..These results suggest a unique role for endogenous EETs in both IPC and POC...
  17. pmc Evidence for a role of opioids in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-induced cardioprotection in rat hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H2201-7. 2010
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the major cardioprotective effects of the EETs depend on activation of a G(i/o) protein-coupled delta- and/or kappa-opioid receptor...
  18. pmc Abdominal surgical incision induces remote preconditioning of trauma (RPCT) via activation of bradykinin receptors (BK2R) and the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway in canine hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 25:517-22. 2011
    ..The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have also recently been shown to be antinociceptive and have been shown to mimic ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and postconditioning (POC) in dogs, therefore, we tested the role of the EETs in RPCT...
  19. ncbi request reprint Opioid-induced cardioprotection occurs via glycogen synthase kinase beta inhibition during reperfusion in intact rat hearts
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Circ Res 94:960-6. 2004
    ..Furthermore, no differences were seen in phosphorylation of GSKalpha (Ser21 or Tyr279) or phosphorylation of GSKbeta (Tyr216). These data indicate that OIC occurs via the phosphorylation of GSKbeta at Ser9 during reperfusion...
  20. pmc The role of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in the antiarrhythmic effects of ischaemic preconditioning in dogs
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53226, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 137:939-40. 2002
  21. pmc Soluble epoxide hydrolase: a new target for cardioprotection
    Garrett J Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 10:253-8. 2009
    ..These results and others obtained in models of myocardial stunning and hypertrophy suggest that inhibitors of EPHX2 or sEH have therapeutic potential in a broad range of cardiovascular diseases...
  22. ncbi request reprint KATP channels and myocardial preconditioning: an update
    Garrett J Gross
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:H921-30. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint GSK3beta inhibition and K(ATP) channel opening mediate acute opioid-induced cardioprotection at reperfusion
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 102:341-9. 2007
    ..6;; 49.4+/-1.7;, 61.6+/-1.6%, respectively, * or ; P<0.001). These data indicate that both the sK(ATP) and mK(ATP) channel are involved in acute OIC and the GSK signaling axis regulates cardioprotection via K(ATP) channel opening...
  24. ncbi request reprint Delta opioid agonists and volatile anesthetics facilitate cardioprotection via potentiation of K(ATP) channel opening
    Hemal H Patel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    FASEB J 16:1468-70. 2002
    ..To date, this is the first demonstration that opioids and volatile anesthetics work in conjunction to confer protection against myocardial infarction through potentiation of cardiac K(ATP) channel opening...
  25. ncbi request reprint Effects of selective inhibition of cytochrome P-450 omega-hydroxylases and ischemic preconditioning in myocardial protection
    Kasem Nithipatikom
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290:H500-5. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint COX-2 and iNOS in opioid-induced delayed cardioprotection in the intact rat
    Hemal H Patel
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Life Sci 75:129-40. 2004
    ..It appears that the trigger effect is not dependent on the activity of iNOS or COX-2 but the late phase of cardioprotection is dependent on the upregulation of these enzymes...
  27. ncbi request reprint Delayed cardioprotection by isoflurane: role of K(ATP) channels
    Marija Tonkovic-Capin
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283:H61-8. 2002
    ..We conclude that both mitochondrial and sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels contribute to isoflurane-induced delayed cardioprotection...
  28. pmc The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CP-532,903 [N6-(2,5-dichlorobenzyl)-3'-aminoadenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide] protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via the sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel
    Tina C Wan
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324:234-43. 2008
    ..We conclude that CP-532,903 is a highly selective agonist of the mouse A(3)AR that protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels...
  29. ncbi request reprint Sarcolemmal KATP channel triggers delayed ischemic preconditioning in rats
    Hemal H Patel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H445-7. 2005
    ..0 +/- 5.0 vs. 29.2 +/- 4.7%, respectively; P </= 0.001). These data suggest that the sK(ATP) channel is required as a trigger but not a mediator for delayed IPC-induced infarct size reduction in rat hearts...
  30. ncbi request reprint Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in cardioprotection: ischemic versus reperfusion injury
    Kasem Nithipatikom
    Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H537-42. 2006
    ..Finally, the protective effects of EETs are mediated by cardiac K(ATP) channels...
  31. ncbi request reprint 12-lipoxygenase in opioid-induced delayed cardioprotection: gene array, mass spectrometric, and pharmacological analyses
    Hemal H Patel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Circ Res 92:676-82. 2003
    ..These data suggest that SNC-121 appears to enhance message and subsequently the activity and expression of 12-LO protein during times of stress, resulting in delayed cardioprotection...
  32. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of cytochrome P450omega-hydroxylase: a novel endogenous cardioprotective pathway
    Kasem Nithipatikom
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Circ Res 95:e65-71. 2004
    ..The full text of this article is available online at http://circres.ahajournals.org...
  33. pmc Cl-IB-MECA [2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide] reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice by activating the A3 adenosine receptor
    Zhi Dong Ge
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and the Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1200-10. 2006
    ..These data demonstrate that Cl-IB-MECA protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice principally by activating the A(3)AR...
  34. ncbi request reprint Ligand triggers of classical preconditioning and postconditioning
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, United States
    Cardiovasc Res 70:212-21. 2006
    ..Receptor cross-talk between ligands and the common signaling pathways involved for these ligands will also be briefly discussed...
  35. ncbi request reprint Delayed cardioprotection is mediated via a non-peptide delta opioid agonist, SNC-121, independent of opioid receptor stimulation
    Hemal H Patel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 99:38-45. 2004
    ..The mechanism appears to be a non-opioid receptor mediated production of reactive oxygen species that triggers the signaling cascade leading to delayed cardioprotection...
  36. ncbi request reprint Sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel triggers opioid-induced delayed cardioprotection in the rat
    Hemal H Patel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Milwaukee, Wis 53226, USA
    Circ Res 91:186-8. 2002
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Attenuation of heat shock-induced cardioprotection by treatment with the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone
    Hemal H Patel
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 282:H2011-7. 2002
    ..These results suggest there may be a link between the endogenous release of opioids and HS that mediates cardioprotection...
  38. ncbi request reprint K(ATP) opener-induced delayed cardioprotection: involvement of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, free radicals and MEK1/2
    Eric R Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 3548, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:985-92. 2003
  39. ncbi request reprint Exogenous activation of delta- and kappa-opioid receptors affords cardioprotection in isolated murine heart
    Jason N Peart
    Dept Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 99:29-37. 2004
    ..These data suggest that exogenous activation of delta- and kappa-opioid receptors afford protection against myocardial stunning in the isolated murine heart, an effect attenuated by selective receptor antagonists...
  40. ncbi request reprint PKC-delta inhibition does not block preconditioning-induced preservation in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and infarct size reduction in rats
    Ryan M Fryer
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 97:47-54. 2002
    ..These data suggest that PKC-delta does not play an important role in IPC and that differences in isoform importance are evident during pharmacological versus ischemia-induced preconditioning...
  41. ncbi request reprint Chronic exposure to morphine produces a marked cardioprotective phenotype in aged mouse hearts
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Exp Gerontol 39:1021-6. 2004
    ..05 vs. untreated) in both young and senescent hearts. These data demonstrate that aged hearts maintain the ability to be preconditioned by chronic exposure to morphine in the absence of acute protection...
  42. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic receptor targets of ischemic preconditioning
    Ryan M Fryer
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 55:520-5. 2002
    ..This is not meant to completely rule out other receptors since it is clear that IPC is a phenomenon with multiple pathways that appear to be responsible for the cardioprotection observed...
  43. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotection at a distance: mesenteric artery occlusion protects the myocardium via an opioid sensitive mechanism
    Hemal H Patel
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 34:1317-23. 2002
    ..2+/-3, P<0.001). Pretreatment with naloxone significantly attenuated the protective effects of MPC (53.8+/-4, P<0.0002). Therefore, it appears that MPC releases endogenous opioids that protect the myocardium from ischemic injury...
  44. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotection in chronically hypoxic rabbits persists on exposure to normoxia: role of NOS and KATP channels
    Colleen M Fitzpatrick
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H62-8. 2005
    ..We conclude that cardioprotection conferred by adaptation to hypoxia from birth persists on subsequent exposure to normoxia and is associated with enhanced NOS activity and activation of K(ATP) channels...
  45. ncbi request reprint Morphine-tolerant mice exhibit a profound and persistent cardioprotective phenotype
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Circulation 109:1219-22. 2004
    ..Here, we examine the effect of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine on ischemic tolerance in mice after prolonged morphine exposure and withdrawal...
  46. ncbi request reprint Delta-opioid receptor activation mimics ischemic preconditioning in the canine heart
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53222, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 42:78-81. 2003
    ..2+/-4.5). These results suggest that opioid receptors are important in IPC in dogs, and stimulation of delta-opioid receptors with selective agonists can mimic the cardioprotective effects of IPC and may have therapeutic potential...
  47. ncbi request reprint Acute and chronic administration of disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax) produces marked cardioprotection in dog hearts
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 272:221-7. 2005
    ....
  48. pmc Human thrombopoietin reduces myocardial infarct size, apoptosis, and stunning following ischaemia/reperfusion in rats
    John E Baker
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 77:44-53. 2008
    ..Thrombopoietin (Tpo) is known for its ability to stimulate platelet production. However, it is currently unknown whether Tpo plays a physiological function in the heart...
  49. pmc Gadolinium limits myocardial infarction in the rat: dose-response, temporal relations and mechanisms
    Alfred C Nicolosi
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 44:345-51. 2008
    ..The mechanism underlying Gd-induced preconditioning appears to be multi-factorial, involving JAK-2, STAT-3 and p44 MAPK pathways, as well as K(ATP) channels...
  50. ncbi request reprint Roles of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vascular regulation and cardiac preconditioning
    Kathryn M Gauthier
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 50:601-8. 2007
    ..Production and metabolism of EETs as well as their specific cellular signaling mechanisms are discussed...
  51. doi request reprint Isoflurane postconditioning protects against reperfusion injury by preventing mitochondrial permeability transition by an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism
    Zhi Dong Ge
    Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Anesthesiology 112:73-85. 2010
    ..The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in isoflurane postconditioning (IsoPC)-elicited cardioprotection is poorly understood. The authors addressed this issue using eNOS mice...
  52. doi request reprint Review article: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids: novel mediators of cardioprotection
    Kasem Nithipatikom
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 15:112-9. 2010
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion reduce the levels of cyclic ADP-ribose in rat myocardium
    Zhi Dong Ge
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 97:312-9. 2002
    ..These results suggest that myocardial ischemia and reperfusion decrease cADPR in the myocardium by increasing its hydrolysis. Tissue hypoxia may be one of the important mechanisms to activate cADPR hydrolase...
  54. pmc Inhibiting protease-activated receptor 4 limits myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts by unmasking adenosine signaling
    Jennifer L Strande
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324:1045-54. 2008
    ..Thrombin receptor blockade by PAR4 inhibition provides protection against injury from myocardial I/R by unmasking adenosine receptor signaling and supports the hypothesis of a coupling between thrombin receptors and adenosine receptors...
  55. pmc Nitrite confers protection against myocardial infarction: role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels
    John E Baker
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 43:437-44. 2007
    ..Inhibition of NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels abolished nitrite-induced cardioprotection. Nitrite but not nitrate protects against infarction by a mechanism involving xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels...
  56. ncbi request reprint Opioid-induced preconditioning: recent advances and future perspectives
    Jason N Peart
    Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Vascul Pharmacol 42:211-8. 2005
    ..Basic Res Cardiol. 99(1), 29-37]. For the purpose of this review, we will focus primarily on the protective effects of opioids against post-reperfusion myocardial stunning and infarction...
  57. ncbi request reprint A3 adenosine receptor agonist IB-MECA reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in dogs
    John A Auchampach
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:H607-13. 2003
    ..These data also demonstrate in an in vivo model that IB-MECA is effective as a cardioprotective agent when administered at the time of reperfusion...
  58. ncbi request reprint Cross-talk between adenosine and opioid receptors
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Drug News Perspect 18:237-42. 2005
    ..This review aims to highlight some of the research, derived from both the CNS and myocardium, supporting this interesting interaction...
  59. ncbi request reprint Pharmacological preconditioning: Potential new treatment modalities for the ischemic myocardium
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 3548, United States
    Vascul Pharmacol 42:199. 2005
  60. ncbi request reprint Role of opioids in acute and delayed preconditioning
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 3548, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:709-18. 2003
    ..The potential clinical application and evidence to suggest that opioids produce a similar protective effect in man will also be discussed...
  61. ncbi request reprint Adenosine and opioid receptor-mediated cardioprotection in the rat: evidence for cross-talk between receptors
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:H81-9. 2003
    ..Furthermore, these data suggest that there are converging pathways and/or receptor cross-talk between A1AR- and DOR-mediated cardioprotection...
  62. pmc Comparison of three different A1 adenosine receptor antagonists on infarct size and multiple cycle ischemic preconditioning in anesthetized dogs
    John A Auchampach
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:846-56. 2004
    ..We discuss the possibility that the cardioprotective actions of CPX and BG 9928 may be related to antagonism of A(2B)ARs...
  63. ncbi request reprint Darbepoetin alfa protects the rat heart against infarction: dose-response, phase of action, and mechanisms
    John E Baker
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 49:337-45. 2007
    ..Dpa confers immediate and sustained cardioprotection in rats, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of this long-acting erythropoietin analog for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction...
  64. ncbi request reprint Diabetes abolishes morphine-induced cardioprotection via multiple pathways upstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta
    Eric R Gross
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Diabetes 56:127-36. 2007
    ..Hence, acute GSK inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic patients during an acute myocardial infarction, whereas morphine is less effective due to signaling events that adversely affect GSK3beta...
  65. ncbi request reprint Effect of exogenous kappa-opioid receptor activation in rat model of myocardial infarction
    Jason N Peart
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53222, USA
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 43:410-5. 2004
    ..These data demonstrate that KOR activation provides a similar degree of infarct size reduction as DOR activation. KOR agonists also reduced arrhythmogenesis; however, these responses appear to be independent of KOR activation...
  66. ncbi request reprint SCH 79797, a selective PAR1 antagonist, limits myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts
    Jennifer L Strande
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 102:350-8. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotection and myocardial salvage by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative (Cardax)
    Garrett J Gross
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Life Sci 75:215-24. 2004
    ..These results suggest that parenteral Cardax may find utility in those clinical applications where pre-treatment of patients at risk for myocardial infarction is performed...
  68. pmc Multiple antiapoptotic targets of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway are activated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/anoxia
    Anuradha Dhanasekaran
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H724-35. 2008
    ..Understanding the targets of action of EET-mediated protection will promote the development of these fatty acids as therapeutic agents against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion...
  69. ncbi request reprint ARD-353 [4-((2R,5S)-4-(R)-(4-diethylcarbamoylphenyl)(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)-2,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid], a novel nonpeptide delta receptor agonist, reduces myocardial infarct size without central effects
    Michael J Watson
    Enhance Biotech Inc, 631 United Drive, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316:423-30. 2006
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint The disputed role of COX-2 in myocardial infarction, is the jury still out?
    Hemal H Patel
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 34:1-3. 2002
  71. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotective-mimetics reduce myocardial infarct size in animals resistant to ischemic preconditioning
    Richard J Gumina
    Interventional Cardiology Fellow, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 19:315-22. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the mechanisms responsible IPC-resistance are unknown. It is also important to demonstrate therapeutic interventions that will produce cardioprotection during this period of IPC-resistance...
  72. ncbi request reprint Cardioprotective effects of acute and chronic opioid treatment are mediated via different signaling pathways
    Jason N Peart
    Heart Foundation Research Center, Griffith Univ, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Center, Brisbane, QLD, 9726, Australia
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H1746-53. 2006
    ..These data describe novel findings whereby CM preconditioning is mediated by a PKC-independent pathway involving PKA, beta(2)-AR, and G(s) proteins, whereas AM preconditioning is mediated via G(i) proteins and PKC...
  73. pmc Role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in protecting the myocardium following ischemia/reperfusion injury
    John M Seubert
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3126 Dentistry Pharmacy Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2N8
    Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 82:50-9. 2007
    ..A better understanding of these relationships will facilitate identification of novel targets for the prevention and/or treatment of ischemic heart disease, a major worldwide public health problem...
  74. ncbi request reprint Morphine enhances pharmacological preconditioning by isoflurane: role of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and opioid receptors
    Lynda M Ludwig
    Department of Anesthesiology, The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Anesthesiology 98:705-11. 2003
    ..We tested the hypothesis that morphine enhances the protective effect of isoflurane by activating mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-regulated potassium channels and opioid receptors...
  75. ncbi request reprint Selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers: fact or fiction
    Garrett J Gross
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:1005-7. 2003

Research Grants17

  1. Cytochrome P450 Eicosanoids and Myocardial Injury
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Effect of Drugs on Myocardial Hypoxia
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Information gained from these studies will hopefully lead to new therapies to treat patients with ischemic heart disease. ..
  3. EFFECT OF DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This project is particularly exciting since many opioid agonists are already available to physicians and a long period of drug development may not be necessary before implementing this concept in patients. ..
  4. EFFECT OF DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The results of these studies will provide exciting new data on the unique role of KATP channels in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  5. DRUGS UPON MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..They will also determine the role of Ito in cardiac memory. They will use PKC inhibitors, KATP blockers, adenosine antagonists, 4-aminopyridine. ..
  6. Effect of Drugs on Myocardial Hypoxia
    Garrett Gross; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Information gained from these studies will hopefully lead to new therapies to treat patients with ischemic heart disease. ..